ANTHROPOLOGY PAPER 2 TOPIC WISE UPSC QUESTIONS (1985-2018)

ANTHROPOLOGY UPSC OPTIONAL SUBJECT

 

ANTHROPOLOGY PAPER 2 TOPIC WISE UPSC QUESTIONS (1985-2018)

 

DOWNLOAD PDFUPSC MAINS QUESTIONS – ANTHROPOLOGY PAPER II TOPICWISE

 

SYLLABUS

PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTIONS

1.1 Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization — Prehistoric (Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Neolithic – Chalcolithic).

Protohistoric (Indus Civilization): Pre- Harappan, Harappan and post- Harappan cultures.Contributions of tribal cultures to Indian civilization.

 

  • Examine the regional variations of Mesolithic cultures of India. 20 marks (2018)
  •  Explain the contribution of tribal cultures to Indian civilization 20 marks(2018)
  • Neolithic cultures of south india .10m (2017)
  • Describe the salient features of chalcolithic cultures of the decan. 15m (2017)
  • Describe various aspects of trade and religion of harappan civilization.15m (2017)
  • Give the detail appraisal of  skeletal remains from chalcolithic culture of  undivided Punjab.(2016)20M
  • Short notes on Mesolithic findings from balen valley.(2016)
  • South Indian paleoliths (10Marks 2015)
  •  Prehistoric Rock art of central India. (10Marks 2015)
  • Discuss the significance of Harappan civilization sites from India. (15Marks 2015)
  • Neolithic cultures of NE India (10Marks 2014)
  • Describe what is known of Harappan Religion. Have some of its elements continued into later Hinduism? Discuss. (20Marks 2014)
  • Discuss salient features of Mesolithic culture in India with special reference to western India.(10Marks – 2013)
  • Indian Paleolithic culture can neither be conceived chronologically homogenous nor as a uniform cultural phase. Discuss.(15Marks – 2013)
  • Discuss the significance of study of religious centres to the understanding of Indian civilization. (20Marks – 2013)
  •  Soan culture. (12Marks – 2012) (30Marks – 2011)
  • Paleolithic Art. (12Marks – 2012)
  • Compare the salient features and distribution of the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic cultures in India. Add a note on the tool traditions of the Upper Paleolithic period. (30Marks – 2012)
  • Iron age in Gangetic region (15Marks – 2011)
  • Describe the characteristic feature of Mesolithic cultures in India? (30Marks – 2011)
  • Neolithic Culture in India (15 Marks – 2010) (. – 2007) (. – 1992)  Proto Neolithic (. – 1999)
  •  Urban Planning in Harappan Culture (15 Marks – 2010)
  • Comment in detail on the socio-cultural life of the people of the Indus Valley Civilization (30 Marks- 2010)
  •  Examine Gorden Childe’s statement ‘Neolithic_Culture is a Revolution (15 Marks -2010)
  • Examine the contribution of Mesolithic culture to the rise of Neolithic culture (10 Marks — 2009)
  • ‘Langhnaj’ (.-2008)
  •  Burzahom (. – 2006)
  •  Mesolithic culture is India (. – 2005)
  • Discuss the economic basis of Indus Valley Civilization. What were the factors of its decline? (– 2005) (. – 2000) (. – 1994)
  • Typo-technology of Indian Paleolithic culture (. – 2004)
  • Critically examine the contributions of tribal cultures to the development of Vedic Culture.   (. -2003)
  • Name a few Chalcolithic sites in India and describe their most salient features. (– 2002)
  •  Ecological adaptation during Mesolithic. (. – 2001)
  •  Traditional culture as concept (. -2001)
  • Critically examine evidence of Upper Paleolithic in India, Discuss its characteristics. (. – 2001)
  • Critically examine various sources of India’s Culture & Civilization; also distinguish between primary and secondary civilizations (. 1999)
  • Sohanian Tradition (. – 1998)
  • Describe the socio Cultural characteristics of the Neolithic period in India with suitable examples (. – 1998)
  • Components of culture and its link with civilization (. -1997)
  •  Neolithic tool typology and technology of fabrication (. – 1996)
  •  Discuss the Cultural characteristics of upper Paleolithic period. Indicate its genesis and development in Indian context pointing to Distribution and chronology (.-1996)
  • Genesis of Urbanization in India (. – 1995)
  •  Point out the salient features of middle Paleolithic industries and their markers. Illustrate your answer with examples from India.(..1994)
  • To what extent could the Mesolithic culture be attributed to a phase of transition between Paleolithic and Neolithic cultures? Illustrate the answer with apt examples. (.. 1993)
  • What are the important features of Indus valley civilization? Examine the conditions that may have led to urbanization in the lndus Region. (. – 1990)
  • Indus Valley Civilization is regarded as the beginning of urban life in India. Discuss (. – 1989)

 

Palaeo – anthropological evidences from India with special reference to Siwaliks and Narmada basin (Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus and Narmada Man).·       Describe the salient features of Sivapithecus. 15 marks(2018)

·       Discuss the salient features of  Ramapithecus .15m (2017)

·       Delineate the sailent characteristics of ‘ Narmada man’ and examine its phylogentic significance.(2016)

1.3 Ethno-archaeology in India:

a)The concept of ethno-archaeology;

b)Survivals and Parallels among the hunting, foraging, fishing, pastoral and peasant communities

c)Including arts and crafts producing communities.

·        Ethno-archaeology as a research strategy(2018)

·       Write short notes on Ethno-archaeology. 10m (2017)

·       Discuss the relevance of art and craft traditions in the understanding of Indian archaeology.15m (2017)

·       Ethno archaeological evidencesfor the survival of hunting-gathering traditions.(2016)

·       Discuss the importance of the ethno archaeological approach to the study of indigenous craft in India. (15Marks 2014)

·       Colonial Ethnography. (12Marks – 2012)

·       Future of Hunting and Gathering Tribes (15Marks – 2011)

·       New Archaeology (20 Marks — 2009)

·       Concept Ethno Archeology (. – 2008)

2. Demographic profile of India —

a)Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian population and their distribution.

b)Indian population – factors influencing its structure and growth.

 

  • What are the various factors influencing population growth in India? Discuss. 15 marks(2018)
  • Write short notes on austro-asiatic linguistic groups in india. 10m (2017)
  • Give your assement of the reason for the imbalance in the sex-ratio in india.20m (2017)
  • Short notes on linguistic elements in Indian population.(2016)
  •  Briefly describe the classical model of ethnic and linguistic classifications of Indian population. Discuss its relevance today. (15Marks 2015)
  • Outline the distribution of Dravidian languages in India and describe their cultural significance. (15Marks 2014) (. – 1990)
  • Major linguistic divisions of India (10Marks 2014)
  •  Contribution of H. H. Risley to the ‘Aryan’ debate (10Marks 2014)
  •  Describe the linguistic elements in Indian population? (15Marks – 2011)
  •  Critically examine the factors responsible for the high population growth in India and suggest suitable measures for population Control. (30 + 15 Marks —2010)
  •  Discuss the relevance of Guha’s racial classification in the context of India’s ethnic groups. (15 Marks — 2010) (. – 1991)
  •  Mediterranean element in Indian Population (. – 2008)
  • The distribution of Indo-Aryan Languages (. – 2008)
  •  Is Risley’s Racial Classification of Indian Population valied? Critically discuss with the help of suitable examples. (.2008)
  • Describe Ethnic elements in the Indian Population focusing either on Risley’s or Guha’s classification. (. – 2007)
  • Write in brief about the population growth of India, indicating its causes and measures of its control. (. – 2006)
  •  Demographic transition in India (– 2004)
  •  Bring out the inter relationship between population growth and development in the Indian context. (. – 2004)
  • Age specific and sex specific mortality rates and dependant factors. (. 2002)
  • Discuss the major linguistic divisions in the India population. Also point out the role of language in ethno political movements (. – 1996)
  • Social implications of sex ratio in Indian population ( 1995)
  • What are the major linguistic families in India? Identify such families showing the geographical distribution and the population Groups under different families. (. – 1993)
  •  Distribution of Austric family of languages in India. (. -1989)

 

3.1 The structure and nature of traditional Indian social system — Varnashram, Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth.

 

 

·       Write notes on the following in about 150 words each:      10X5=50

Philosophy behind Purusharthas(2018)

·       Write short notes on varnashram and concept of rina.10m (2018)

  • Youth Dormitory. (12Marks – 2012)
  • Philosophy behind Purushartha (15Marks – 2011)
  • Purusharthas (. 2007) Significance of Purushartha (2003)
  • Karma (. – 2006) Concept of Karma in relation to caste (. -2000)
  • Importance of Karma in Hindu Social System (. – 1996)
  • Varnashrama (. – 2005)
  • Concept of Rina and Rebirth (. – 2002) (. – 1997)
  • Explain the concept of ‘Rina’ according to the Hindu scriptures. What were the mechanisms Suggested by the scholars to repay the ‘Rina’? (.-1995)
  • Social significance of Grihasta ashram. (. – 1994)
  • Describe the major purusharthas according to Hindu Scriptures and discuss the social significance of harmonious management of ‘Trivarga’ (. 1994)
  • Describe salient features of traditional joint family system in India. Trace causes for its disintegration in recent decades. (. – 1999)
  • Discuss the basis of Indian Social System. Do you find any change today? (1998)
  • Structure and functions of joint family (. – 1989) (. – 1992)
  • Examine joint family role in Hindu Social System & its impact on caste system. (. – 1997)

 

3.2 Caste system in India-

·        structure and characteristics,

·        Varna and caste,

·        Theories of origin of caste system,

·        Dominant caste,

·        Caste mobility,

·        Future of caste system, Jajmani system, Tribe- caste continuum.

 

 

  • Explain the significance of tribe-caste continuum in the present context. 15 marks(2018)
  •  Discuss the view that caste is not social stratification, but a system of hierarchy. 15 marks(2018)
  •  Based on historical and contemporary evidences discuss the future of caste system in India. 15 marks(2018)
  • Discuss the impact of market economy on the Jajmani system. 20m (2017)
  • Examine the structural and cultural cultural theories of caste system in india.(2016)20M
  • Relevance of caste in contemporary india.(2016)
  • What do you understand by the dynamics of Caste mobility? How did the concept of Sanskritization contribute to its functionality? (20Marks 2015)
  • Critically examine the concept of Tribe – Caste continuum and its relevance in contemporary India. (15Marks 2015)
  • Define the concept ‘Dominant Caste’ and examine its relevance in the contemporary Indian village with suitable examples. (20Marks 2014) (15Marks – 2011) (. – 1999)
  • Do you think caste persists in contemporary India? Critically discuss. (15Marks 2014)
  • Tribe Caste continuum (10Marks 2014)
  • Discuss how Louis Dumont explained caste system.(10Marks – 2013)
  • What is Jajmani system? Examine the views on Jajmani system as an egalitarian as well as exploitative system. Give reasons for its decline.(25Marks – 2013)
  • Examine the criticisms on the concept of dominant caste.(15Marks – 2013)
  • Critically examine the prevalence of caste ideology among religious minorities in the Indian context. (30Marks – 2012)
  • Gender and Customary Law. (10Marks – 2012)
  • Gender and Caste. (10Marks – 2012)
  • Critically examine the theories of Origin of Castes. (15Marks – 2011)
  • Examine the role of the caste system in the present political context. (15 Marks — 2010)
  • Is the present political System strengthening the caste system? Discuss. (15 Marks — 2010)
  • Discuss the salient features of the prevalent hypotheses on the future of the caste system in India (30 Marks — 2009)
  • Bring out the various features and the importance of the “Dominant Caste” Concept (20 Marks — 2009)
  • Is Tribe-Caste Continuum a reality or myth? Discuss.(2008)
  • Tribe Caste continuum. (. – 2004)
  • Jajmani System (. – 2007) (. – 1998)
  • Caste as a pattern of social stratification (. – 2003) (.. 1989)
  • Define the Jajmani system. Analyze the changes in the relationship between caste and occupation in contemporary Rural Society ( 2000)
  • Significance of Varna and Caste (. – 1997)  Distinguish between Varna and Caste (. 1995)
  • Caste bound occupations Vis-a-Vis Urban professions (. – 1993)
  • Concept of caste as a hierarchical system based on the opposition between “pure and impure”. (. – 1991)
  • Discuss the essential features of the caste system in India. Critically examine its role in the changing social context in contemporary times. ( – 1990)
  • Concept of purity and caste system ( – 1989)

 

3.3 Sacred Complex and Nature- Man- Spirit Complex.

 

  • Critically examine the contributions of Makhan Jha and B. N. Saraswati to the study of sacred complexes in India. 20 marks(2018)
  • Write short notes on Nature- Man- Spirit Complex.10m (2017)
  • Sacred complex as a dimension of Indian civilization (10Marks 2015)
  • Describe the concept of ‘Sacred Complex’ with an ethnographic example. (15Marks 2014)
  • Examine Nature-man-spirit complex as an ecological concept.(15Marks – 2013)
  • Sacred Geography. (12Marks – 2012)
  • Nature-Man-Spirit Complex (20 Marks — 2009)
  • Sacred Complex (. – 2005)

Trace the broad unifying features of traditional Hindu Society in the anthropological perspective (. – 2004)

3.4 Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity on Indian society.

 

  •  Explain the impact of Buddhism and Jainism on Indian society. 20 marks(2018)
  • Discuss the social ,political and economic  status of muslims in india.15m (2017)
  • Explain how Bhuddism influenced the economic and cultural transformations of Indian society.20m (2017)
  • Impact of Jainism on Indian society.(2016)
  • Islam and Matriliny. (10Marks 2015)
  • Discuss the contribution of Islam to the composite culture of India. (15Marks 2014)
  • Describe what is known of Harappan Religion. Have some of its elements continued into later Hinduism? Discuss. (20Marks 2014)
  • Sufi tradition of Islam.(10Marks – 2013)
  • Impact of Islam on Indian Society. (. – 2005)
  • Evaluate the impact of Buddhism Jainism, Islam and Christianity on Indian Society and culture in anthropological terms. (. – 2003)

·       Account for the emergence of new religions in India in the 6th century B.C. ( – 1998)

4. Emergence and growth of anthropology in India-

·        Contributions of the 18th, 19th and early 20th Century scholar-administrators.

·        Contributions of Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies.

 

  •  Discuss the contribution of S. C Roy in the study of tribal cultures in India. 15 marks(2018)
  • Compare and contrast the economic typology of tribes given by different anthropologists. 20 marks(2018)
  • Discuss the contribution of Nirmal Kumar bose to the understanding of Indian society. 20m (2017)
  • Discuss the contribution of L.P Vidyarthi and  D.N.Majumdar to the study of Indian tribes.
  • Discuss the contribution of MN Srinivas to the study of Indian society. Examine the influence of British social anthropologists on his ideas. (15Marks 2015)
  •  Discuss the contributions of S. C. Roy to understanding the tribes of India. (20Marks 2014)
  • Examine the anthropological contributions dealing with tribes and Indian civilization.(25Marks – 2013)
  • Discuss the contributions of H. D. Sankalia to prehistoric anthropology in India.(20Marks – 2013)
  • Assess the contributions of early 20th century ethnographic tradition to Indian anthropology.(15Marks – 2013)
  • Trace the trajectory of encyclopedic works on tribes and castes of South India with special Reference to Ananthakrishna Iyer’s contribution. (20Marks – 2012)
  • Compare the contributions of S.C. Roy and Verrier Elwin to tribal ethnographies in India. (20Marks – 2012)
  • Evaluate the contribution of American anthropologists to Indian anthropology. (30Marks – 2011)
  • Assess the contribution of Varrier Elwin to Indian anthropology. (15Marks – 2011)
  • Assess the contributions of M.N. Srinivas towards Indian Anthropology in general. Add a note on his understanding in the context of studying social mobility in India, (20+10 Marks — 2010)
  • Write a brief note on the contributions of Prof., LP. Vidyarthi in the field of anthropology. (20 Marks — 2009)
  • Highlight the Contributions of Indian Anthropologists in the understanding of tribal life. (. – 2007)
  • N.K.Bose’s contributions to Indian Anthropology (. – 2006)
  • Initial period of tribal studies in India (. – 2006)
  • Briefly discuss the contributions of Indian Anthropologists during 20th Century to Anthropology. (. – 2006)
  • Give an account of the contributions of Indian scholars in the growth and development of Anthropology in India in early 20th century.(. – 2005)
  • Tribe and peasant similarities and differences ( 2003)
  • Critically examine the contributions of some of the British Scholar administrators to Indian Anthropology.(LQ-2002)
  • Action Anthropology (. -2001)
  • V.EIwin and his contributions (. – 1998)
  • Assess the growth and development of Anthropology in India. Illustrate the contribution of early 20th century Anthropologists in Tribal Caste studies. (. – 1997)
  • Estimate the contributions of S.C. Roy in the field of Ethnography and his influence on the growth of Anthropology in India. (. – 1996)
  • *Maler’s perception of the habitat. (. -1996)

Discuss the major contributions of Von.Furer Haimendorf to Indian Anthropology. (. – 1995)

5.1 Indian Village:

·        Significance of village study in India;

·        Indian village as a social system;

·        Traditional and changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations;

·        Agrarian relations in Indian villages;

·        Impact of globalization on Indian villages.

 

  •  Discuss the impact of market economy on rural villages. 15 marks(2018)
  • Give a critical evaluation of any one anthropological village study in india.15m (2017)
  • Examine nature of interplay of little and great traditions in the context of globalization(2016)15m
  • Explain Indian village as a social system with example.(2016)20m
  • Describe the traditional patterns of  settlement of Indian villages(2016)20M
  • Examine the contribution of village studies towards the understanding of Indian social system. (20Marks 2015)
  • Discuss the impact of Globalization on Village economy in India. (15Marks 2015)
  • Examine the impacts of green revolution on rural poor.(15Marks – 2013)
  • How has globalization impacted agrarian relations in the last two decades? (20Marks – 2012)
  • Indegenous knowledge. (12Marks – 2012)
  • Discuss contributions of S.C. Dube towards understanding of the Indian village. (15 Marks — 2010)
  • Describe the significant contributions of village studies in India to the understanding of social transformations. (60 Marks — 2009)
  • Globalization and Indian Peasantry (. – 2004)
  • Analyze how the village Studies contributed in understanding the Indian social system. (. 2004)
  • Green Revolution and its economic and ecological dimensions? (. – 2002)
  • Village Studies in India. (. – 2002)
  • Explain criteria for dominant caste. How far is this concept still crucial to our understanding of India’s villages after implementation of Reservation in democratic institutions? Discuss. (. -2001)
  • Village Studies are crucial to the understanding of Indian life and culture. Who were the pioneer anthropologists to undertake such Studies? Give a comprehensive Picture of any one of them. (. – 1998)
  • Child mortality in rural areas (. – 1996)
  • Forms of labour bondage in Indian Agriculture (. – 1991)
  • What is the notion of folk urban continuum in the study of peasant society? Is it applicable to Indian conditions? ( 1991)
  • Discuss the major concepts and approaches employed by the anthropologists in the study of peasant society in India. (1990)
  • *Peasant Society (. – 1985)
5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities and their social, political and economic status.

 

  • Discuss the problems faced by religious minorities in India. (15Marks 2015)
  • Critically examine the ‘book view’ and the ‘field view’ of social reality. (20Marks – 2012)
  • What are the issues and socio-economic problems arising out of being a religious minority? Discuss. (. – 2007)
  • Linguistic distribution of Indian population. (.. 2006)
  • “Linguistic and religious minorities are particularly vulnerable to political manipulation”. Comment. (. – 2005)
  • Discuss the socio economic status of religious minorities in India. Identify their role in politics. (. – 2003)
  • Distinguish between characteristics and problems of linguistic and religious minorities in India. Give examples of conflicts generated by such considerations and steps to resolve them. (. – 2000)
  • Special provisions for minorities (. – 1993)

·       State should protect the personal laws of religious minorities. Discuss with reference to the problem of national integration. (. 1991)

5.3 Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural change in Indian society:

·        Sanskritization, Westernization, Modernization;

·        Inter-play of little and great traditions;

·        Panchayati raj and social change;

·        Media and social change.

 

  • Write a shrort notes on Endangered Languages(2018)
  • Describe the media as an instrument for social change.15m (2017)
  • Discuss the impact of panchayati raj institution on the empowerment of rural women in india. 15m (2017)
  • How is process of tribe caste continuum different from sanskritization.(2016)15M
  • What do you understand by the dynamics of Caste mobility? How did the concept of Sanskritization contribute to its functionality? (20Marks 2015)
  • Panchayatiraj institutions and social change (10Marks 2015)
  • Examine the Social implications of media & communication technology (20Marks 2015)
  • Great tradition and little tradition (10Marks 2014) (. – 1996) (. – 1987)
  • Indian farmers are not slow to react to economic opportunities. Discuss this statement.(15Marks – 2013)
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal. (12Marks – 2012)
  • Critique of the concept of Great and Little Tradition. (15Marks – 2011)
  • *“Modernity has entered Indian character and society, but it has done so through assimilation, not replacement.” Discuss. (30Marks – 2011)
  • Universalization and Parochialization (15 Marks 2010) (. 1997) (. – 1985)
  • *Sanskritization as a mode of social change (20 Marks — 2009) (. – 1992)
  • What are the various exogenous processes of socio-cultural changes in Indian Society? (20 Marks — 2009)
  • Critically examine concepts of little & Great Traditions for understanding Indian Villages.(. 2008)
  • Critically review the process of social changes the contemporary Indian society is undergoing. (. – 2006)
  • Sanskritization and westernization. (. – 2002)
  • Great Traditions (. – 1999)
  • Distinguish between Sanskritization and de – sanskritization. Critically examine the impact of Sanskritization on Social Mobility in India (-1999)
  • Do you think that the process of Sanskritization leads to any structural changes in the society? Discuss with reference to the Modern Indian Society. (. – 1994)
  • Discuss in what way the study of great tradition and little tradition is essential for understanding the cultural processes of Indian Civilization. (. -1992).
  • Relationship between Sanskritizatjon and Westernization as process of socio cultural change. (.- 1991)
  • Sanskritization as a factor o social change among the scheduled castes of India. (. – 1990)
  • ‘Tradition is a single unbroken chain’. Discuss this statement throwing light on the relevance of the use of the terms great tradition And little tradition in India in the fields of (a) religion (b) kinship and (C) Agriculture. (. – 1987)
  • Discuss how the concepts of sanskritization & westernization explain the process of change in Indian Society &Culture.  (1986)
6.1 Tribal situation in India –

·        Bio-genetic variability,

·        linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of tribal populations and their distribution.

 

  • Bio-genetic variability of Indian tribes(2016)10m
  • Elwin – Ghurye debate on Tribes. (10Marks 2015)
  • Socioeconomic characteristics of Shifting cultivators. (10Marks 2015)
  • Biogenetic variations of Indian tribes (10Marks 2014)
  • Social and economic marginalization of tribal people (10Marks 2014)
  • Threat to tribal languages in India.(10Marks – 2013)
  • Linguistic classification of Indian tribes.(10Marks – 2013)
  • Discuss the concept of ‘indigenous people’ as per the relevant UN convention. Are tribals of India indigenous people? Comment. (20Marks – 2012)
  • Discuss the linkages between language, territoriality and kinship among the tribes of North-East India. (30Marks – 2012)
  • Discuss the distinctive features of tribes in North east India. (30Marks – 2011)
  • “Tribes in India are not homogeneous group.” Discuss. (30Marks – 2011)
  • Discuss the relevance of traditional wisdom and knowledge of the tribes with reference to health in the present day context. (20 Marks — 2010)
  • Do you think that Indian tribes have rich biogenetic variability? Discuss. (.-2007)
  • Key characteristics of STs in India (. – 2006)
  • Discuss the biomorphic variations of Tribes of North Eastern India (. – 2006)
  • Genetic diversity among Indian Tribes (. – 2005)
  • Biogenetic variability in tribal populations. (. – 2003)
  • Linguistic diversity among the tribes of Chota Nagpur ( 2002)
  • Discuss the anthropological approach to the understanding of the tribal ethos and comment on the major socio economic problem of Indian Tribes. (. – 1990)
  • Describe the racial, linguistic and socio economic characteristics of a tribe of Central India or of South India.
  • (. – 1985)
  • Briefly describe the linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of the tribal peoples either (a) Of central India including the Chota Nagpur plateau or (b) of North East India. (. – 1987)
  • Languages spoken by the scheduled tribes (. – 1986)
  • Hunting and food gathering tribes of India (. – 1986)
6.2 Problems of the tribal Communities — land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, underemployment, health and nutrition.

 

  • Write a short notes on indebtedness among tribal communities.10m(2017)
  • Describe the  impact of displacement on the health and nutritional status of the tribal communities. 20m (2017)
  • Discuss how constitutional provisions in India have built in mechanisms for dealing with the problem of land alienation in tribal areas. (20Marks 2015)
  • Discuss the Sociocultural, Economic and Psychological constraints responsible for low literacy in Tribal areas. (15Marks 2015)
  • Discuss the impact of land alienation on the tribes of Central India. (15Marks 2014)
  • Left-wing extremism and Tribals in India. (15Marks – 2011)
  • Discuss alternatives for shifting cultivators in the context of ecological costs and humanistic concerns. (20Marks – 2013)
  • Education and health among tribal Women. (15 Marks — 2010)
  • The problem of bonded Labour among Indian tribes. (15 Marks — 2010)
  • Land and forest are the twin problems of the tribes. Explain. (40 Marks — 2010)
  • Critically examine the various structural constraints in the education development of Scheduled Tribes. (30 Marks-2010)
  • Write a brief note on the linguistic diversity among Indian tribes. (20 Marks — 2009)
  • Indebtedness in Tribal Communities (20 Marks — 2009)
  • Land Alienation (. – 2007)
  • Discuss the factors related to low literacy rate among the tribal’s of India. Write in brief the measures taken by the government in different five years plans to eradicate it. (. – 2005)
  • Land alienation among the tribal’s (. – 2003)
  • *Constraints of educational development among the tribal’s. (. -2003)
  • Do you think that exploitation emanates from clash of self-interest between groups? Discuss in the context of tribal’s and non tribals. (. – 2002)
  • The problems of de-notified groups (. – 2000)
  • Tribal education in the context of development (. – 2000)
  • Land Alienation in Tribal India (. – 1999)
  • Bring out with suitable examples the constraints of educational development of tribal communities in India. Suggest remedial Measures in this context. (. – 1999)
  • Discuss the health and nutritional status of tribal and rural children in India. How far has the government policy been effective?(. – 1998)
  • Shifting cultivation, its merits and demerits ( – 1997) (.– 1991)
  • Describe the Socio cultural factors related to the poor health Conditions of the Indian tribal population. Suggest measures for improving these conditions. (. – 1995)
  • Factors responsible for tribal migration and its consequences.(. -1994)
  • Shifting cultivation in the context of land use pattern (. 1993)
  • Tribal education (. – 1993)
  • Indebtedness and land alienation among Indian tribes (. – 1992) (. – 1986)
  • Land and forest are basic needs of tribal’s (. – 1992)
  • What are the major problems of the tribals in India? Evaluate the measures adopted by the central and state governments in India to solve these problems. (. – 1992)
  • Discuss some major problems of the tribes of India. Make a critical evaluation of the measures adopted by the central and state Governments in India to solve these problems and account for their limited Success. ( – 1989)
6.3 Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation.

·        Development of forest policy and tribals.

·        Impact of urbanization and industrialization on tribal populations.

 

  •  Discuss the significance and implementation of ‘Recognition of Forest Right’s Act 2006’. 15 marks(2018)
  • Examine the advancement made in the land acquisition and rehabilitation Act of 2013 over the land acquisition Act of 1894. 15 marks(2018)
  • Impact of industrialization on schedule tribe population of  Jharkhand.(2016)10m
  • Discuss the impact of Globalization on the livelihood of the tribal populations. (20Marks 2014)
  • Forest policy and tribes (10Marks 2014)
  • Impacts of sanctuaries and national parks on tribal populations.(10Marks – 2013)
  • Commodification of Tribal Art. (12Marks – 2012)
  • *Critically examine the National Policy on Rehabilitation and Resettlement substantiating it with experiences from different parts of India. (30Marks – 2012)
  • Forest Rights Act—2006. (15Marks – 2011)
  • Discuss the problem of displaced tribal communities with the help of recent examples. (30Marks – 2011)
  • The impact of Urbanization and Industrialization on tribal women. (15Marks – 2011)
  • Tribal displacement. (15 Marks — 2010)
  • Critically examine the evaluation of Forest Policy in India since the British period. Discuss its impact on tribaIs. (60 Marks -2009)
  • Discuss the health problems faced by tribal populations in India. Suggest some corrective measures. (. – 2008)
  • Impact of Industrialization on Tribes. (. – 2007)
  • Joint Forest Management (. – 2006)
  • Examine the impact of urbanization and industrialization on tribal economy in India. (. – 2005)
  • Sustainable Development of Tribes (. – 2004)
  • Discuss the context, process and consequences of involuntary displacement among tribal communities in India and analyze the Problems of rehabilitation.(. – 2004)
  • Discuss how forest is related to the tribal life. Critically examine how a change in forest policy and forest degradation has affected Tribal economy. (. – 2003)
  • Indicate the main thrust of anthropological studies on development induced displacement and rehabilitation. Suggest a worthwhile rehabilitation package for displaced tribal’s to retain their sense of community belonging. (. -2001)
  • Sustainable development (. – 1999)
  • Critically examine the forest policy in India right since the British period. Discuss its impact on tribal people. (. – 1999)
  • Discuss the problem of tribal displacement in India. To what extent are development policies responsible for such displacement? Also explain the role of NGOs in providing the remedial measures to the affected people. (– 1999)
  • Social forestry (. – 1998)
  • Point out the favorable and detrimental impacts of industrialization on rural population living in the vicinity areas. What are your Proposals for achieving a balance without harmful effects? (. – 1993)
  • Effects of governmental policy regarding forests on Indian tribes (.-1991)
  • Large scale development and distress in tribal regions (. 1988)
  • The impact of industrialization on the tribes of India created for them many problems. Discuss with suitable examples. (. – 1986)

 

7.1 Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes.

 

Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.

·       Write notes on the following in about 150 words each:  10X5=50

             OBCs among non-Hindu communities(2018)

·       Discuss the constitutional safeguards for the schedule caste.15m (2017)

·       Write short notes on other backward class.10 m (2017)

·       Give a critical appraisal of any one tribal development programme during XIIth five year plan. Give suggestion for any improvement in the programme.15m(2017)

  • Write in detail various provisions provided by the constitution of india for the schedule tribes under V and VI  schedules.(2016)20m
  • Examine the factors responsible for exploitation of schedule caste in india.(2016)20m
  • Explain the difficulties experienced by schedule tribes with regard to implementation of ’recognition of forcat rights act 2006’.(2016)15m
  • Critically compare ‘Affirmative Action’ of USA and ‘Protective discrimination’ for scheduled tribes in India. (15Marks 2015)
  • Critically examine the constitutional provisions for safeguarding the interests of Scheduled Tribes in India. (20Marks 2014)
  • Role of Governor in Fifth Schedule areas. (10Marks 2015)
  • Discuss the Social disabilities suffered by scheduled castes.(15Marks – 2013)
  • *Using suitable examples bring out the historical processes of the social exclusion of denotified tribes. (20Marks – 2012)
  • Panchayati Raj and the tribes (15 Marks — 2010)
  • Fifth Schedule of the Constitution. (20 Marks — 2009)
  • Constitutional safeguards for SCs. (. – 2007) (. – 1996)
  • National Commission for SCs and STs (. – 2004)
  • Critically examine the merits and demerits of reservation policy for the STs, SCs and Other Backward Castes. (. – 2002)
  • Do you think that exploitation emanates from clash of self-interest between groups? Discuss in the context of tribal’s and non-tribals. (. – 2002)
  • Scheduled Area (.-2001)
  • Distinguish between exploitation and deprivation of SCs (. – 1995)
  • Constitutional safeguards for STs (. – 1994) (. – 1987)
  • Describe the efficiency of the Legislative measures adopted by the government to tackle the socio economic problems of SCs. What Other measures would you suggest to tackle these problems? (. – 1994)
  • What are the major socio economic problems faced by the SCs? Point out the criteria for diagnosis and suggest the remedial Measures (. – 1993)
  • Evaluate the extent to which existing reservation for SCs and STs have led to social mobility among them. What suggestions would you make for implementing the policy of adding economic criteria in extending reservation to the so called forward castes? (. –1991)
  • Discuss the provisions and significance of the protective discrimination policy towards scheduled castes. Assess its impact on their Social mobility. (. – 1990)
  • Assertion of ethnic identity and ethnic solidarity has been a pervasive process in India after independence. Analyze this in relation to Constitutional safeguards and emerging national integration. ( – 1988)
  • Define untouchability and point out whether the problem of its removal should be treated as a matter of social reform rather than as a part of administrative and legal measures. (. – 1986)
  • Identify the main problems of the SCs and discuss the measures adopted to solve them. (. -1985)

 

7.2 Social change and contemporary tribal societies:

·        Impact of modern democratic institutions,

·        development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections.

 

·       Write notes on the following in about 150 words each:   10X5=50(2018)

(a) Youth dormitory as an institution

(b) Tribe and scheduled tribe

(c) Agrarian social structure

(d) The impact of Panchayati Raj institutions in rural areas

(e) Modernization

·       Discuss the nature of Social change in Tribal India under the impact of Developmental programmes. (15Marks 2015)

·       Critically compare ‘Affirmative Action’ of USA and ‘Protective discrimination’ for scheduled tribes in India. (15Marks 2015)

·       Tribes as Indigenous Culture (. – 2008)

·       How have modern democratic institutions influenced the Indian tribal societies? Assess. (. – 2008)

·       Tribal Sub plan (. – 2005)

·       Panchayati Raj (. – 2005)

·       Implications of recent presidential orders relating to schedule tribes and schedule castes(2003)

·       What do you understand by the integrated tribal and rural developmental programmes? How would you evaluate the success or Failure of these programmes? (. – 2002)

·       Mention various developmental programmes implemented for the socio economic wellbeing of SCs? Do these programmes fulfill their aspirations? Discuss. (. -2001)

·       Tribal subplan (1999)

·       ITDA (. – 1998)

·       Discuss the impact of modernization on trial and rural people in India. (. -1998)

·        * Estimate the role of democratic institutions / Organizations for the development of weaker sections and the welfare measures Adopted by them. (. – 1997)

·       Involvement of local communities in Forest Management (. – 1996)

·       Peoples participation in Tribal development (. – 1995)

·       Positive and Negative responses of the tribals to governmental measures (. 1994)

·       Direction of Tribal change (. – 1993)

·       Discuss the socio economic and political characteristics of revitalization movements in Tribal India. How are they affected by culture? Contact with outsiders? (. – 1991)

·       Impact of urbanization on tribal societies (. – 1990)

·       Discuss the peoples’ response and participation in developmental programmes in tribal areas. (. – 1988)

·       Rapid industrialization may lead to Psychological frustrations. Discuss. (. – 1987)

·       Advantages of Ashram Schools in tribal areas (. -1986)

·       Analyze the programmes for tribal welfare undertaken by the governments in terms of relevant Constitutional and statutory Provisions. (. -1986)

·       What are the various policies that have been suggested for bringing the tribals into the mainstream of national life? In the interest of the tribals which of these policies do you consider suitable? (. – 1985)

 

7.3 The concept of ethnicity;

·        Ethnic conflicts and political developments;

·        Unrest among tribal communities;

·        Regionalism and demand for autonomy;

·        Pseudo-tribalism;

·        Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.

 

  • Discuss the various factors resulting in tribal unrest in various parts of India. 15 marks(2018)
  • Examine the colonial administrators’ view that Indian villages can be considered as ‘little republics’. 15 marks(2018)
  • Write short notes on ethnicity and regionalism.10m (2017)
  • Tribe as a colonial construct(2016)10m
  • Short notes on The role of regionalism plays in demand for autonomy among Indian tribes.(2016)10m
  • Rights over resources and Tribal unrest (10Marks 2015)
  • Discuss the rise of ethno nationalism among Indian tribes with specific example. (15Marks 2014)
  • What are the significant factors responsible for tribal unrest? (15Marks 2014)
  • Ethnic movements in India. (10Marks – 2013)
  • Examine the impact of non-tribal contact on socio-cultural institutions of tribal people with suitable examples. (15Marks – 2013)
  • Compare the approach adopted towards tribal communities during Colonial and post- independence periods. (30Marks – 2011)
  • Discuss and compare the approaches towards the tribes during colonial and post independent India. (30 Marks — 2010)
  • Do you find any significant change in the approaches towards the tribes during colonial and post independent India? Assess. (15 Marks — 2010)
  • Tribal unrest in Central India (20 Marks — 2009)
  • Concept of Ethnicity (. – 2008)
  • Critically review Tana Bhagat Movement) its causes and effects. (. – 2006)
  • Discuss the features affecting ethnic boundaries”, giving Indian examples. (. – 2006)
  • Discuss the relationship of ethnicity and nation-state. (. 2005)
  • Detribalization (. – 2004) (. – 2001)
  • Evaluate Fredrick Barth’s concept of ethnic boundaries. Explain its distinction from cultural content. (. – 2004)
  • Ethnic conflict (. – 2004)
  • Classify the tribal movements in contemporary India in a regional perspective and analyze the contributive factors. ( 2004)
  • Identify the causes and consequences of major tribal movements in India. (. – 2003)
  • What is ethnicity? Does ethnicity add to conflicts and tensions in the society? Illustrate. (. – 2002)
  • Birsa movement (. – 2001)
  • Ethnic Boundaries (. – 2000)
  • Assess the political and economic role of tribal and rural movements in the creation of the new states of Uttaranchal, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. (. – 2000)
  • To what extent ethnicity is responsible for the tribal movements in India? Elaborate with Suitable examples. (. – 1995)
  • Tribal movements – pros and cons (. – 1994)
  • Ethnicity (. – 1993)
  • Discuss the role of socio political movements in the emergence of tribal identity in the Indian context. (. – 1990)
  • Define the concept of ‘ethnic identity’. Discuss how it is emerging in the context of tribal unrest in some regions of the country (. – 1989)
  • Racial elements among STs in India (. – 1988)
  • Assertion of ethnic identity and ethnic solidarity has been a pervasive process in India after independence. Analyze this in relation to Constitutional safeguards and emerging national integration. (– 1988)

 

8.1 Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on tribal societies.

 

  • Impact of Christianity on Indian tribes.10 m (2017)
  • Discuss the impact of islam on schedule tribes of india.(2016)15m
  • Islam and Matriliny. (10Marks 2015)
  • Discuss the impact of Hinduism on the status of Tribal women in Central India (15Marks 2015)
  • Impact of Christianity on tribes (10Marks 2014)
  • Using ethnographic examples highlight the processes of religious conversions in Tribal India. (20Marks – 2012)
  • Discus the impact of Hindu Society on tribal population in India. (30Marks – 2011)
  • Analyze the impact of Christianity on tribal communities with special reference to North-East India (60 Marks — 2009)
  • Buddhism, Christianity and Scheduled Castes (. – 2004)
  • Bases of tribal religion (. – 2002)
  • Impact of Christianity on tribal societies (. – 2000)
  • Define religion in anthropological perspective. Bring out the impact of Christianity on the converted and non-converted tribal group of India. (. -1996)

 

8.2 Tribe and nation state – a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries.

 

  • Write notes on the following in about 150 words each: 

Distinctive cultural features of tribes of Andaman Islands(2018)

·       Critically evaluate  the term tribe, as compared to term indigenous in some other countries. 20m (2017)

  • Critically examine the relationship between tribal communities and the Nation-State on issues of governance. (20Marks – 2012)
  • Discuss the Anthropological understanding of rising ethnicity among Indian Tribes in the context of Nation Building. (. – 2007)
  • Nation State (. – 2002)
  • What do you know by tribe and nations? How do states carved for tribals in India differ from tribal-nation states in Africa? Discuss (. – 2001)
  • Discuss the divisive factors which disrupt national integration in India. What would you Suggest to Counteract the divisive forces?(. – 1992)
  • Cultural pluralism and national integration (. – 1990)
  • What are the major issues of National Integration in India? Discuss how it has been corded in the recent years. What remedial Measures would you suggest for National Integration? (. – 1989)
  • Regional disparity and National Integration (. – 1988)
  • What suggestions would you like to make as an anthropologist for bringing the tribal peoples in the national mainstream? Without obliterating their separate identity?

 ( 1987)

  • Examine the advantages and disadvantages of linguistic states in India in the context of national integration. (. – 1987)
  • Issues relating to National integration. (. – 1986)
9.1 History of administration of tribal areas:

·        Tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal

·        development and their implementation.

·        The concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal Groups), their distribution, specialprogrammes for their development.

·        Role of N.G.O.s in tribal development

  • Discuss the salient features of PESA Act of 1996 and attempt a comparison with the features of the VI Schedule15 marks(2018)
  • Write short notes on particularly vulnerable tribal groups(PTG) 10M (2017)
  • Discuss the emergence ,salient features and limitations of tribal sub-plan 15m (2017)
  • Critically examine the role of NGOs and missionaries in transformation of schedule tribes in central india.(2016)15m
  • Discuss the various tribal development programs an plans have impacted the process of social transformation among tribes.(2016)15m
  • Relevance of tribal Panchsheel today.(10Marks 2015)
  • Recently NGO’s have been critiqued for interfering with developmental process inn Tribal heartland. Critically comment. (20Marks 2015)
  • Critically examine the role of NGOs in promoting health & Education in tribal areas.(15Marks 2014)
  • Describe the history administration in the colonial period. (15Marks 2014)
  • Critically evaluate the National Tribal Policy. (15Marks 2014)
  • The concept of PTG (10Marks 2014)
  • Government Action towards Left Wing Extremism.(10Marks – 2013)
  • Role of Gramasabha under PESA.(10Marks – 2013)
  • Fifth Schedule and Sixth Schedule of the constitution are built on the foundations laid by the colonial Government. Discuss.(20Marks – 2013)
  • Discuss the Significance of cultural and administrative factors in tribal development.(15Marks – 2013)
  • Discuss the criticism leveled against anthropology in the context of ‘Isolation, and assimilation debate’ on tribal populations.(20Marks – 2013)
  • Discuss how British policies dispossessed tribal’s of their communal properties and agricultural lands.(15Marks – 2013)
  • Examine the relevance of Tribal Panchsheel by Jawaharlal Nehru in the light of emerging Development practices. (20Marks – 2012)
  • Tribal Panchsheel. (15Marks – 2011)
  • NGOs and tribal development (20 Marks – 2009) (. – 2007) (. – 2002)
  • What are the special problems of the Primitive Tribal Groups? How far have the developmental programmes of the government able to address these? (. – 2008)
  • Programmes of Tribal Development (. – 2006)
  • Elucidate the nature of changes in administration of tribal areas from colonial period to post-Independence era in India. (. – 2005)
  • Give an account of Joint Forest Management Programmes. What is the role of NGOs in such programmes? (. – 2000)
  • Outline the historical background of tribal administration during the colonial period. Evaluate post-independence administrative policies with special reference to states under either the fifth schedule or sixth schedule of the Constitution of India. (. – 2000)
  • Plans and programmes of Tribal development (. – 1997)
  • Role of NGQs in literacy programmes (. – 1996)
  • Critically evaluate various approaches to set the tribal’s within the mainstream of Indian civilization. In your opinion which approach is relevant in the modern context. (. – 1995)

 

9.2 Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.

 

·        Examine the strengths and weaknesses of anthropology in the context of its role in tribal and rural development. 20 marks(2018)

·        Discuss the role of anthropology in understanding the loss of livelihood of tribal communities due to economic and ecological factors.15m (2017)

·        Describe how anthropological knowledge and methods are useful in rural development.(2016)15m

·        Write about contribution made by cristoph von furer-haimendrof to tribal anthropology in india.(2016)

·        Examine in detail the role of Anthropology in planning for Tribal development. (15Marks 2015)

  • Critically assess the role of anthropologists in rural development. (20Marks 2014) (. – 1997)
  • Using examples, comment on how anthropology can be utilized in policy making. (20Marks – 2012)
  • Discuss the role of Anthropology’ in Tribal Development.

(. – 2006) (. – 1994) (. – 1992)

  • Role of anthropologists in rural development (. – 2005)
  • Anthropologists are better equipped to play an effective role in rural and tribal development. Discuss (. – 2004)
  • Anthropological approach in Tribal development (.- 1987)

·        Discuss the role of Anthropology in planning and executing development programmes among the tribal communities. (. – 1985)

9.3 Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism, and ethnic and political movements.

 

 

  • Anthropological interpretation of ethnic and political movements.(2016)10m
  • Critically examine the concept of communalism and its relevance for multi-religious and multi-ethnic polity of India. (20Marks 2015)
  • Factors contributing to communalism. (15Marks – 2011)
  • Analyze the factors influencing tribal regionalism, citing Indian examples. (30 Marks — 2010)
  • In what ways has anthropology contributed to the understanding of ethnic and political movements in India? (60 Marks — 2009)
  • Revivalistic Movements. (. – 2008)
  • What IS regionalism? Evaluate how regionalism has stimulated political movements in India. (. 2003)
  • Discuss the significance of the regionalism and communalism in Indian context and its role in ethno political movements in the Present political system. (. – 1997)