General Studies – III

General Studies III (Technology, economic development, bio diversity, environment, security and disaster management)

 

Syllabus – By Heart it !!

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment models.
  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, Nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment Disaster and disaster management.
  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

Reference Books

  • NCERTs 6th to 12th
  • Yojana
  • Kurukshetra
  • Budget and Survey
  • Insightsonindia website
  • www.pib.nic.in
  • India Year Book

IAS junior Notes:

Available only for mentorship program subscribers

Strategy:

  • Memorize Syllabus thoroughly
  • Go through previous year QPs
  • Entire GS 3 paper can be covered by reading newspaper provided you have concept clarity
  • Read all the NCERTs from 6th to 12th to build a basic foundation to start thinking in an objective and subjective matter.
  • Keep an eye on the syllabus topics in the newspaper. Think analytically. Rote memorization doesn’t work here. You need to think on spot.
  • Think of on the spot innovative questions that can be asked and try to answer them of course with reference to current affairs (this attribute and answering such questions shall be practiced well in our mentorship program)
  • Start writing practice after one reading of NCERT. Don’t wait to complete all the books.
  • Revision is key to your success. Do as many revisions as you can
  • Your answers should infer that you are budding bureaucrat having an in depth understanding on a wide range of issues from its scope to its implementation.

Previous Year Question Papers

Yearwise:

 

Topicwise:

Indian Economy:

  • Among several factors for India’s potential growth, savings rate is the most effective one. Do you agree? What are the other factors available for growth potential? 2017
  • Account for the failure of manufacturing sector in achieving the goal of labour-intensive exports rather than capital-intensive exports. Suggest measures for more labour-intensive rather than capital-intensive exports. 2017
  • What are the salient features of ‘inclusive growth’? Has India been experiencing such a growth process? Analyze and suggest measures for inclusive growth. 2017
  • Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) is necessary for bringing unbanked to the institutional finance fold. Do you agree with this for financial inclusion of the poorer section of the Indian society? Give arguments to justify your opinion.        2016
  • Comment on the challenges for inclusive growth which include careless and useless manpower in the Indian context. Suggest measures to be taken for facing these challenges. 2016
  • The nature of economic growth in India in described as jobless growth. Do you agree with this view? Give arguments in favour of your answer. 2015
  • Craze for gold in Indians have led to a surge in import of gold in recent years and put pressure on balance of payments and external value of rupee. In view of this, examine the merits of Gold Monetization Scheme. 2015
  • Capitalism has guided the world economy to unprecedented prosperity. However, it often encourages shortsightedness and contributes to wide disparities between the rich and the poor. In this light, would it be correct to believe and adopt capitalism driving inclusive growth in India? Discuss.  2014
  • With a consideration towards the strategy of inclusive growth, the new companies bill, 2013 has indirectly made CSR a mandatory obligation. Discuss the challenges expected in its implementation in right earnest. Also discuss other provisions in the bill and their implications. 2013
  • “Success of ‘Make in India’ programme depends on the success of ‘Skill India’ programme and radical labour reforms.” Discuss with logical arguments. 2015
  • While we found India’s demographic dividend, we ignore the dropping rates of employability. What are we missing while doing so? Where will the jobs that India desperately needs come from? Explain. 2014

Budget & Economic Survey:

  • One of the intended objectives of Union Budget 2017-18 is to ‘transform, energize and clean India’. Analyse the measures proposed in the Budget 2017-18 to achieve the objective. 2017
  • Women empowerment in India needs gender budgeting. What are the requirements and status of gender budgeting in the Indian context? 2016
  • In what way could replacement of price subsidy with Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) change the scenario of subsidies in India? Discuss. 2015
  • What are the reasons for introduction of Fiscal responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) act, 2003? Discuss critically its salient features and their effectiveness. 2013
  • What is meaning of the term tax-expenditure? Taking housing sector as an example, discuss how it influences budgetary policies of the government. 2013
  • Discussion the rationale for introducing Good and services tax in India. Bring out critically the reasons for delay in roll out for its regime. 2013

Agriculture:

  • What are the major reasons for declining rice and wheat yield in the cropping system? How crop diversification is helpful to stabilize the yield of the crop in the system?      2017
  • What is water-use efficiency? Describe the role of micro-irrigation in increasing the water-use efficiency. 2016
  • What is allelopathy? Discuss its role in major cropping systems of irrigated agriculture. 2016
  • Given the vulnerability of Indian agriculture to vagaries of nature, discuss the need for crop insurance and bring out the salient features of the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) 2016
  • Explain various types of revolutions, took place in Agriculture after Independence in India. How these revolutions have helped in poverty alleviation and food security in India?      2017
  • How can the ‘Digital India’ programme help farmers to improve farm productivity and income? What steps has the Government taken in this regard? 2015
  • What are the reasons for poor acceptance of cost effective small processing unit? How the food processing unit will be helpful to uplift the socio-economic status of poor farmers? 2017
  • Livestock rearing has a big potential for providing non-farm employment and income in rural areas. Discuss suggesting suitable measures to promote this sectors in India 2015
  • In view of the declining average size of land holdings in India which has made agriculture non-viable for a majority of farmers, should contract farming and land leasing be promoted in agriculture? Critically evaluate the pros and cons. 2015
  • What are the impediments in marketing and supply chain management in industry in India? Can e-commerce help in overcoming these bottlenecks? 2015
  • There is also a point of view that agriculture produce market committees (APMCs) set up under the state acts have not only impeded the development of agriculture but also have been the cause of food inflation in India. Critically examine. 2014
  • India needs to strengthen measures to promote the pink revolution in food industry for better nutrition and health. Critically elucidate the statement. 2013
  • Discuss the role of land reforms in agricultural development. Identify the factors that were responsible for the success of land reforms in India. 2016
  • Establish the relationship between land reform, agriculture productivity and elimination of poverty in Indian Economy. Discussion the difficulty in designing and implementation of the agriculture friendly land reforms in India. 2013
  • How do subsidies affect the cropping pattern, crop diversity and economy of farmers? What is the significance of crop insurance, minimum support price and food processing for small and marginal farmers? 2017
  • “In the villages itself no form of credit organisation will be suitable except the cooperative society.” – All Indian rural credit survey. Discuss this statement in the background of agriculture finance in India. What constrain and challenges do financial institutions supplying agricultural finances? How can technology be used to better reach and serve rural clients? 2014
  • Food security bill is expected to eliminate hunger and malnutrition in India. Critically discuss various apprehensions in its effective implementation along with the concerns it has generated in WTO 2013
  • What are the different types of agriculture subsidies given to farmers at the national and state levels? Critically analyze the agriculture subsidy regime with the reference to the distortions created by it. 2013

Infrastructure:

  • Examine the developments of Airports in India through Joint Ventures under Public-Private Partnership(PPP) model. What are the challenges faced by the authorities in this regard. 2017
  • What are ‘Smart Cities? Examine their relevance for urban development in India. Will it increase rural-urban differences? Give arguments for Smart Villages’ in the light of PURA and RURBAN Mission. 2016
  • Justify the need for FDI for the development of the Indian economy. Why there is gap between MOUs signed and actual FDIs? Suggest remedial steps to be taken for increasing actual FDIs in India. 2016
  • There is a clear acknowledgement that Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are a tool of industrial development, manufacturing and exports. Recognizing this potential, the whole instrumentality of SEZs requires augmentation. Discuss the issues plaguing the success of SEZs with respect to taxation, governing laws and administration. 2015
  • The right to fair compensation and transparency land acquisition, rehabilitation and resettlement act, 2013 has come into effect from 1 January 2014. What implication would it have on industrialisation and agriculture in India? 2014
  • National urban transport policy emphasizes on moving people instead of moving vehicles. Discuss critically the success of various strategies of the government in this regard. 2014
  • Explain how private public partnership agreements, in longer gestation infrastructure projects, can transfer unsuitable liabilities to the future. What arrangements need to be put in place to ensure that successive generations’ capacities are not compromised? 2014

Industry:

  • “Industrial growth rate has lagged behind in the overall growth of Gross-Domestic-Product(GDP) in the post-reform period” Give reasons. How far the recent changes in Industrial Policy are capable of increasing the industrial growth rate? 2017
  • How globalization has led to the reduction of employment in the formal sector of the Indian economy? Is increased informalization detrimental to the development of the country?  2016
  • Normally countries shift from agriculture to industry and then later to services, but India shifted directly from agriculture to services. What are the reasons for the huge growth of services vis-a-vis industry in the country? Can India become a developed country without a strong industrial base? 2014
  • Foreign direct investment in the defence sector is now said to be liberalised. What influence this is expected to have on Indian defence and economy in the short and long run? 2014
  • Examine the impact of liberalization on companies owned by Indian. Are the competing with the MNCs satisfactorily? 2013
  • Discuss the impact of FDI entry into multi-trade retail sector on supply chain management in commodity trade pattern of the economy. 2013
  • Though India allowed foreign direct investment (FDI) in what is called multi brand retail through joint venture route in September 2012, the FDI even after a year, has not picket up. Discuss the reasons. 2013
  • Adaptation of PPP model for infrastructure development of the country has not been free from criticism. Critically discuss the pros and cons of the model. 2013

Science and Technology:

  • Stem cell therapy is gaining popularity in India to treat a wide variety of medical conditions including Leukaemia, Thalassemia, damaged cornea and several burns. Describe briefly what stem cell therapy is and what advantages it has over other treatments? 2017
  • India’s Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) which has a database containing formatted information on more than 2 million medicinal formulations is proving a powerful weapon in the country’s fight against erroneous patents. Discuss the pros and cons making this database publicly available under open-source licensing 2015
  • What are the areas of prohibitive labour that can be sustainably managed by robots? Discuss the initiatives that can propel research in premier research institutes for substantive and gainful innovation. 2015
  • In a globalised world, intellectual property rights assume significance and are a source of litigation. Broadly distinguish between the terms – copyrights, patents and trade secrets. 2014
  • What do you understand by Umpire decision review in cricket? Discuss its various components. Explain how silicon tape on the edge of a bat may fool the system? 2013
  • What is an FRP composite material? How are they manufactured? Discuss their applications in aviation and automobile industry 2013
  • Bring out the circumstances in 2005 which forced amendment to section 3(d) in the India n Patent Law, 1970. Discuss how it has been utilized by Supreme court in its judgment rejecting Novartis patent application for “Glivec”. Discuss briefly the pros and cons of the decision. 2013
  • How does the 3D printing technology work? List out the advantages and disadvantages of the technology. 2013
  • What do you understand by fixed dose drug combinations (FDCs)? Discuss their merits and demerits. 2013
  • India has achieved remarkable successes in unmanned space missions including the Chandrayaan and Mars Orbitter Mission, but has not ventured into manned space mission, both in terms of technology and logistics? Explain critically. 2017
  • Give an account of the growth and development of nuclear science and technology in India. What is the advantage of fast breeder reactor programme in India? 2017
  • Discuss India’s achievements in the field of Space Science and Technology. How the application of this technology has helped India in its socio-economic development? 2016
  • Why is nanotechnology one of the key technologies of the 21st century? Describe the salient features of IndianGovernment’s Mission on Nanoscience and Technology and the scope of its application in the development process of the country. 2016
  • What do you understand by ‘Standard Positioning Systems’ and ‘Protection Positioning Systems’ in the GPS era? Discuss the advantages India perceives from its ambitious IRNSS programme employing just seven satellites. 2015
  • Scientific research in Indian universities is declining, because a career in science is not as attractive as our business operations, engineering or administration, and the universities are becoming consumer oriented. Critically comment. 2014
  • Can overuse and the availability of antibiotics without doctor’s prescription, the contributors to the emergence of drug-resistant diseases in India? What are the available mechanisms for monitoring and control? Critically discuss the various issues involved. 2014

Security Issues:

  • Mob violence is emerging as a serious law and order problem in India. By giving suitable examples, analyze the causes and consequences of such violence. 2017
  • The scourge of terrorism is a grave challenge to national security. What solutions do you suggest to curb this growing menace? What are the major sources of terrorist funding? 2017
  • The north-eastern region of India has been infested with insurgency for a very long time. Analyze the major reasons for the survival of armed insurgency in this region. 2017
  • “Terrorism is emerging as a competitive industry over the last few decades.” Analyse the above statement. 2016
  • The persisting drives of the government for development of large industries in backward areas have resulted in isolating the tribal population and the farmers who face multiple displacements with Malkangiri and Naxalbari foci, discuss the corrective strategies needed to win the left wing extremism (LWE) doctrine affected citizens back into the mainstream of social and economic growth. 2015
  • Religious indoctrination via digital media has resulted in Indian youth joining the ISIS. What is ISIS and its mission? How can ISIS be dangerous for the internal security of our country? 2015
  • Article 244 of Indian Constitution relates to Administration of Scheduled areas and tribal areas. Analyze the impact of non-implementation of the provisions of fifth schedule on the growth of Left Wing Extremism. 2013
  • The terms ‘Hot Pursuit’ and ‘Surgical Strikes’ are often used in connection with armed action against terrorist attacks. Discuss the strategic impact of such actions. 2016
  • Border management is a complex task due to difficult terrain and hostile relations with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and strategies for effective border management. 2016
  • International civil aviation laws provide all countries complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above the territory. What do you understand by airspace? What are the implications of these laws on the space above this airspace? Discuss the challenges which this poses and suggests ways to contain the threat. 2014
  • The diverse nature of India as a multireligious and multi-ethnic society is not immune to the impact of radicalism which has been in her neighbourhood. Discuss along with the strategies to be adopted to counter this environment. 2014
  • How illegal transborder migration does pose a threat to India’s security? Discuss the strategies to curb this, bring out the factors which give impetus to such migration. 2014
  • In 2012, the longitudinal marking of the high-risk areas for piracy was moved from 65° East to 78° east in the Arabian Sea by International Maritime organisation. What impact does this have on India’s maritime security concerns? 2014
  • China and Pakistan have entered into an agreement for development of an economic corridor. What thread does it dispose for India’s security? Critically examine. 2014
  • How far are India’s internal security challenges linked with border management, particularly in view of the long porous borders with most countries of South Asia and Myanmar? 2013
  • Discuss the potential threats of Cyber attack and the security framework to prevent it. 2017
  • Use of Internet and social media by non-state actors for subversive activities is a major concern. How have these have misused in the recent past? Suggest effective guidelines to curb the above threat. 2016
  • Discuss the advantage and security implications of cloud hosting of server vis-a-vis in-house machine-based hosting for government businesses. 2015
  • Considering the threats cyberspace poses for the country, India needs a “Digital Armed Force” to prevent crimes. Critically evaluate the National Cyber Security Policy, 2013 outlining the challenges perceived in its effective implementation. 2015
  • What is digital signature? What does its authentication mean? Giver various salient built in features of a digital signature. 2013
  • What are social networking site and what security implications do these sites present? 2013
  • Cyber warfare is considered by some defense analysts to be a larger threat than even Al Qaeda or terrorism. What do you understand by Cyber warfare? Outline the cyber threats which India is vulnerable to and bring out the state of the country’s preparedness to deal with the same. 2013
  • Human rights activists constantly highlight the view that the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 (AFSPA) is a draconian act leading to cases of human rights abuses by the security forces. What sections of AFSPA are opposed by the activists? Critically evaluate the requirement with reference to the view held by the Apex Court. 2015

Ecology and Environment:

  • On December 2004, tsumani brought havoc on 14 countries including India. Discuss the factors responsible for occurrence of Tsunami and its effects on life and economy. In the light of guidelines of NDMA (2010) describe the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events. 2017
  • The frequency of urban floods due to high intensity rainfall is increasing over the years. Discussing the reasons for urban floods. highlight the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events. 2016
  • With reference to National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) guidelines, discuss the measures to be adopted to mitigate the impact of the recent incidents of cloudbursts in many places of Uttarakhand.   2016
  • The frequency of earthquakes appears to have increased in the Indian subcontinent. However, India’s preparedness for mitigating their impact has significant gaps. Discuss various aspects. 2015
  • Drought has been recognised as a disaster in view of its party expense, temporal duration, slow onset and lasting effect on various vulnerable sections. With a focus on the September 2010 guidelines from the National disaster management authority, discuss the mechanism for preparedness to deal with the El Nino and La Nina fallouts in India. 2014
  • How important are vulnerability and risk assessment for pre-disaster management. As an administrator ,what are key areas that you would focus in a disaster management 2013
  • ‘Climate Change’ is a global problem. How India will be affected by climate change? How Himalayan and coastal states of India will be affected by climate change? 2017
  • Rehabilitation of human settlements is one of the important environmental impacts which always attracts controversy while planning major projects. Discuss the measures suggested for mitigation of this impact while proposing major developmental projects. 2016
  • What are the consequences of illegal mining? Discuss the ministry of environment and forests’ concept of “GO AND NO GO” zones for coal mining. 2013
  • Give an account of the current status and the targets to be achieved pertaining to renewable energy sources in the country. Discuss in brief the importance of National Programme on Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). 2016
  • To what factors can the recent dramatic fall in equipment costs and tariff of solar energy be attributed? What implications does the trend have for the thermal power producers and the related industry? 2015
  • Should the pursuit of carbon credit and clean development mechanism set up under UNFCCC be maintained even through there has been a massive slide in the value of carbon credit? Discuss with respect to India’s energy needs for economic growth. 2014
  • Environmental impact assessment studies are increasingly undertaken before project is cleared by the government. Discuss the environmental impacts of coal-fired thermal plants located at Pitheads. 2014
  • Write a note on India’s green energy corridor to alleviate the problems of conventional energy. 2013
  • Not many years ago, river linking was a concept but it is becoming reality in the country. Discuss the advantages of river linking and its possible impact on the environment. 2017
  • What do you understand by run of the river hydroelectricity project? How is it different from any other hydroelectricity project? 2013
  • The Namami Gange and National mission for clean Ganga (NMCG) programmes and causes of mixed results from the previous schemes. What quantum leaps can help preserve the river Ganga better than incremental inputs?   2015
  • Enumerate the National Water Policy of India. Taking river Ganges as an example, discuss the strategies which may be adopted for river water pollution control and management. What are the legal provisions for management and handling of hazardous wastes in India? 2013

Previous Year Questions and Answers:

201320142015201620172018
2013 UPSC GS 3 SOLUTIONS2014 UPSC GS 3 SOLUTIONS2015 UPSC GS 3 SOLUTIONS2016 UPSC GS 3 SOLUTIONS2017 UPSC GS 3 SOLUTIONS2018 UPSC GS 3 SOLUTIONS

Sample Topper Answers:

Anudeep Durishetty – Rank 1, CSE 2017 – GS3

Atul Prakash – Rank 4 , CSE 2017 – GS Sample 3

Sachin Gupta – Rank 3, CSE 2017 – GS3

Artika Shukla – Rank 4, CSE 2016 – General Studies Sample answers 3