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Syllabus: General Studies Essay Paper: Ecology & Environment




An environment is the natural world that surrounds us. It is very important to keep it clean in order to live healthy and peaceful life. However, the environmental pollution has become one of the biggest threats for Earth. It can affect our future one day. People suffer from their own mistakes. Pollution endangers our existence and destroys our living environment. The future will either be green or not at all.

Environmental pollution has existed for centuries but only started to be significant following the industrial revolution in the 19th century. Pollution occurs when the natural environment cannot destroy an element without creating harm or damage to itself. The elements involved are not produced by nature, and the destroying process can vary from a few days to thousands of years (that is, for instance, the case for radioactive pollutants). In other words, pollution takes place when nature does not know how to decompose an element that has been brought to it in an unnatural way.

People are considered to be the most intelligent creatures on Earth who are able to learn new things in the universe which can lead them to the technological advancement. We develop technologies and science to make our life better but we do not fall to thinking that it can ruin everything that surround us in the near future. The destructive human activity cause several adverse effects on environment. The effects of pollution are devastative. It is very important to explore the various types of pollution and all possible ways of their prevention in order to make our planet a safe place for the growth and development of all living things.

Water pollution is one of the pivotal problems nowadays. A lot of garbage is thrown directly into the water. Moreover, a lot of factories, mills, and plants discharge the untreated industrial wastes and other unsafe substances into the water bodies. Water is also polluted by fertilizations and pesticides which are widely used in agriculture. The contamination of the living environment leads to the deaths of the entire natural ecosystems.

Government took many initiatives to reduce water pollution. Some of them are like, sewage treatment plant, clean Ganga mission, swacchh bharat, and spent crores together amount for these project, but the condition is still the same. apart from government it is each and every citizens responsibility to prevent water pollution.

Air pollution is another humanity`s challenge. we have polluted the air so much that we are unable move free in capital Delhi.The air we breathe has contaminated because of uncontrolled release of harmful vehicular and industrial smokes. Burning fuels, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and chemical vapors are the major pollutants of the air. Sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide cause a situation called Global warming when the radiation is absorbed while the heat is prevented from escaping.

For instance: NO2 AND SO2 cause acid rain, various pollutants pm25, pm 10 cause smog. As an example we can see recent delhi smog, which made many schools and offices to shut down for some period of time. even a great monuments like Tajmahal are getting affected by the release of so2 from industry.

Government took many steps in concern of this, some of them are air quality index, odd and even number scheme, banning of burning paddy straw, switching to Bharat stage IV but only with the effort of government we cannot prevent this, each and everyone should be involved in preventing a spreading of air pollution. At the construction site we should take corrective measures so there is less air pollution. A proper check on the industry that they are implementing the government rule and regulations. Farmer has given the alternative so that they do not burn the paralli of the crop can prevent air polluting further.

Soil is the medium for fauna growth, but human activities polluted this also. most dangerous enemy of soil is plastics and then other chemicals. After green revolution we can see the drastic increase in the usage of pesticides and fertilizers which destroy the fertility of the soil. Polluted soil effects not only productivity, but also human health in the form of bio magnification.

To prevent soil pollution government had taken many steps like, initiating soil health card, banning usage of plastics and subsidies for neem coated urea, and also promoting organic farming to improve soil health.

Radioactive pollution is caused when radioactive matter is allowed to contaminate the environment. A key cause of radioactive pollution is breaches at nuclear power plants, which can result in leakages of radioactive matter into the environment. As nuclear energy becomes a big alternative to fossil fuels, this risk increases.

Government has taken many steps to ensure safe drinking water, and access technologies to treat waste from nuclear reactors, but still organisms which make use of groundwater may find effect on their health. Hence till now what ever happened cannot be cured, but in future we can prevent radioactive elements entering into environment.

Our environment also suffers from noise pollution which has negative effects on people and wild species.


Environment plays a significant role in making our existence on the planet possible. Everything we use to live a full life comes under the environment. We just can`t live without air, water, land, sunlight, animals, and other natural things. Environmental pollution is affecting our lives physically, emotionally, socially, economically, and intellectually. It has become a major worldwide issue which cannot be solved by the effort of one. We should do our best in order not to put the end to the existence of all living things on earth. Every person on our planet should take a little step to save our environment and maintain its originality.

We should reduce water wastage, save energy, use rechargeable batteries, reuse our old things in new ways, and throw wastes properly to its place only. People use the components of the environment to fulfil their basic needs of living. We should stop polluting and challenging our national resources to ensure sustainable living conditions for our future generations. The usage of non-conventional sources of energy should be encouraged. Restriction on the use of fossil fuels and pollution control laws should be imposed strictly. We have to control the emission of greenhouse gases strictly to save our environment from the threat of Global warming.

 – Aditi Garg ( CSE Rank 292)


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