General Studies Paper 1 (Indian Society): Globalization

India Globalization

IAS Junior Mains Answer Writing June-Sep 2019 Schedule (Click Here)


Syllabus: General Studies Paper 1 (Indian Society)


Discuss in detail the Socio-Cultural impact of globalization on Indian Society.



Globalization has a wide role to play worldwide. It has left back its footprints at every sphere of life. Not only in India, but the interchange of world views and ideas has resulted in a major transformation of the lifestyle and living standard of people globally. Indian culture is no bar to this transformation process. Our deep rooted traditions and customs have loosened up their hold with the emergence of globalization. India has a rich cultural background and pride of its culture is famous throughout the world. Globalization has not only inculcated the westernization in India, but conversely the Indian culture has also spread its impact globally.



What is globalization?

Globalization has been defined as the process of rapid integration of countries and happenings through greater foreign trade and foreign investment. It is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture.


The social impact of globalization:

India is a culturally diverse country. Sixteen per cent of the world’s population lives in the country. There are over 826 languages and thousands of dialects spoken. The difference in regions, topography and climate allow for different types of lifestyles and culture. Although about 70 per cent of the populations live in rural areas, India is rapidly urbanizing with more than 225 cities with over 100,000 population, and at least ten cities alone with over a million people.

Family Structure

  • The joint families have become a strange surprise to the Indians especially to those residing in the metropolitan cities in the small flat culture with the nuclear families
  • We have lost the patience to get adjusted into the joint family, imbibing the values of the elders and getting the young ones brought up under the shadow of their grandparents.
  • Children have started treating grandparents like guests or visitors,
  • This change in the family structure is the reasons of increasing old age homes

Marriage Values

  • Marriages have also lost their values.
  • It is very much evident from the increasing number of divorce cases and the extra-marital affairs reported every now and then.
  • Marriage used to be considered as bonding of the souls which will be linked even after the death; but today marriage is like a professional bond or a so-called commitment to share life without compromising their self-interests.
  • The ego factor into the Indian youth is again a product of globalization.

Rural Poor

  • In the villages, farmers are not much aware of global economic system.
  • Most of the food crops are converted into cash crops. Sugar cane farmers are getting advance loan from banks and MNCs.
  • They used to supply hybrid seedlings, fertilizers and highly advanced equipments. This equipment utility reduced the human labour force.
  • Hence the rural people are shifting from place to place for want of labour for their livelihood.
  • Natural manure is replaced by synthetic fertilizers. As there is a shift from food crops to export crops, the prices of food items went on high, and the poor people couldn’t buy from their meagre income.
  • Similar trend continued for clothing, housing, transportation, health etc. So people were forced to consume less of even basic necessities.

Access to education

  • On one hand globalization has aided in the explosion of information on the web that has helped in greater awareness among people.
  • It has also led to greater need for specialisation and promotion of higher education in the country.
  • On the flip side the advent of private education, coaching classes and paid study material has created a gap between the haves and have-nots. It has become increasingly difficult for an individual to obtain higher education.

Growth of cities

  • It has been estimated that by 2050 more than 50% of India’s population will live in cities.
  • The boom of services sector and city centric job creation has led to increasing rural to urban migration.


Impact of globalization on Indian culture:

Indian culture is quite rich with respect to its heritage and resources, and more importantly due to the welcoming approach of its citizens. India is bouquet of flowers varying religion, dialect, edibles, tradition, custom, music, art and architecture etc, bundled into a single unit of patriotism and unity. Globalization has huge impact on Indian culture.

Indian cuisine

  • Indian cuisine is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe.
  • Historically, Indian spices and herbs were one of the most sought after trade commodities.
  • Pizzas, burgers, Chinese foods and other Western foods have become quite popular.


  • Traditional Indian clothes for women are the saris, suits, etc. and for men, traditional clothes are the dhoti, kurta.
  • Hindu married women also adorned the red bindi and sindhur, but now, it is no more a compulsion.
  • Rather, Indo-western clothing, the fusion of Western and Sub continental fashion is in trend. Wearing jeans, t-shirts, miniskirts have become common among Indian girls.

Indian Performing Arts

  • The music of India includes multiples varieties of religious, folk, popular, pop, and classical music.
  • India’s classical music includes two distinct styles: Carnatic and Hindustani music. It remains instrumental to the religious inspiration, cultural expression and pure entertainment.
  • Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms.
  • Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kathakali, Mohiniattam, Kuchipudi, Odissi are popular dance forms in India. Kalarippayattu or Kalari for short is considered one of the world’s oldest martial art. There have been many great practitioners of Indian Martial Arts including Bodhidharma who supposedly brought Indian martial arts to China.
  • The Indian Classical music has gained worldwide recognition but recently, western music is too becoming very popular in our country.
  • Fusing Indian music along with western music is encouraged among musicians. More Indian dance shows are held globally.
  • The number of foreigners who are eager to learn Bharatanatyam is rising. Western dance forms such as Jazz, Hip hop, Salsa, Ballet have become common among Indian youngsters.


  • India, being a multi-cultural and multi-religious society, celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions.
  • Popular religious festivals include the Hindu festivals of Diwali, Durga puja, Holi, Raksha Bandhan, Dussehra, Ramzan etc.
  • American festivals like Valentine’s day, Friendship day etc. are spreading across India.

Social Values

  • We have the incorporated values of treating the guests as God, warm-hearted welcoming, greeting elders with due respect and a celebrating every small festival with great colour of enjoyment and togetherness.
  • Such a wide gathering with full hue and light can hardly be seen today. People have highly restricted themselves in social interaction.
  • The interaction in present generation is highly diplomatic considering the financial status and wealth.
  • We have lost our social values and cheerful blessing of togetherness. The present generations are more happily celebrating Valentine’s Day rather than Holi and Diwali.


  • Both the genders were kept at a distance, with lot many restrictions and limitations to the approach for ages in our culture.
  • With the emergence of globalization and western culture, youth have start mixing up well with each other.
  • The friendly approach and the socializing feature is worth appreciable.
  • But the total breakout of restrictions has adulterated the Indian mindset, playing up with the physical relationship.

Pervasive Media

  • There is greater access to news, music, movies, videos from around the world.
  • Foreign media houses have increased their presence in India.
  • India is part of the global launch of Hollywood movies which is very well received here. It has a psychological, social and cultural influence on our society.


  • A term denoting the increasing rationalization of the routine tasks of everyday life.
  • It becomes manifested when a culture adopts the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant. McDonaldization is a reconceptualization of rationalization, or moving from traditional to rational modes of thought, and scientific management.


  • A term referring to profound transformations in regional and global economies through the sheer size, influence, and power of the big-box department store Walmart.
  • It can be seen with the rise of big businesses which have nearly killed the small traditional businesses in our society.



The process of globalization is not new. The globalization of the economic, social and cultural structures happened in all ages. Earlier the pace of such a process was so slow that we hardly noticed it. However, today with the advent of the information technology, newer means of communication have made the world a very small place. Not only the pace of the globalization process, but the penetration and integration of the changes induced in our day to day life has made the impact of globalization many fold higher.

We cannot say that the impact of globalization has been totally positive or totally negative. It has been both. Each impact mentioned above can be seen as both positive as well as negative. However, it becomes a point of concern when, an overwhelming impact of globalization can be observed on the Indian culture.


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