General Studies Paper 2 (International Affairs): De-globalisation


IAS Junior Mains Answer Writing June-Sep 2019 Schedule (Click Here)


Syllabus: General Studies Paper 2 (International Affairs)


What is de-globalisation? Discuss its impact on India.



 For the Indian markets, first and foremost concern is the ongoing deglobalisation trend all over the world .This stems not only from the US, but even the uncertainties due to the French elections, Brexit, so on and so forth may have a lot of impact on the Indian markets. So, that is a major risk. Deglobalisation is the process of reducing interdependence and integration between nations around the world. It is characterised by decline in economic trade and investment between countries. This decline reflects that economies become less integrated with the rest of the world economies.




  • “De-globalisation” refers to the trend of countries going back to “national interests first” attitude in trade and economic policies.
  • This often takes the form of tariffs or quantitative barriers.
  • They in turn impede free movement of people, products and services among countries.  
  • The idea behind all this protectionism is to shield local manufacturing by making imports costlier.
  • The recent tariff decisions by US, China and later the European Union’s 25% duty on certain US products reflect the trend.

Impact of deglobalisation on India:

  • Economic impact 
    • Deglobalisation will lead to reduction in the rate of economic growth of India.
    • It will lead to protectionism with reduced cooperation among countries that will hurt Indian trade and exports.
    • Deglobalisation will lead to reduction in competition and rise in general prices of the goods and services.
    • It will destroy employment opportunities because as it will prevent outflow of skilled people due to protectionist measures like visa regulations. This will impact their employability and remittance to the nation.
    • It may lead to increased import costs due to lesser choice and options and manufacturers and producers would have to pay more for equipment, commodities, and intermediate products from foreign markets.
  • Social impact
    • It will lead to decrease in standards of living as it will impact exports and economic growth impacting welfare of poor and their standard of lives.
    • It will lead to rise in conflicts economically and politically.
  • Political impact
    • It would affect polity leading to instability in political framework of nations due to rise in prices and cost of living may lead to civil Uprisings.
  • Impact on technology
    • These tendencies limit technological advancement of the world as whole and of developing countries in particular. Limited knowledge sharing, lack of flow of technology to developing countries limit advancement in science.
  • Impact on Environmental conversation
    •  Due to non-cooperation among nations it will impact environment conservation efforts in India. It will reduce required funding and would jeopardise efforts to conserve environment and tackle environment change.
    •  It would lead to lack of coordination at international organisation like UN where countries may not come at a common point to various problems like environmental change. It destroys the international order. This would impact India’s interest which
  • Impact on women employment
    • Deglobalisation would impact women empowerment efforts as it will impact women movements across the globe. Lack of coordination will reduce opportunities for women across the world.
  • Impact on security
    • Due to lack of coordination among various nations, security around the world along with India would impact. It will not only increase economic risks, but would provide an opportunity for terrorists to carry out violence due to lack of coordination among various law enforcement agencies.
  • Impact on farmers
    •  A less coordinating world means impact in agricultural exports and Indian farmers. Indian farmers would face double whammy of environment change and deglobalisation.



Deglobalisation would hurt India not only economically but socially and politically also. It will impact economic development in India and would hurt welfare of Indian people. A coordinated effort is needed to increase more cohesive global structure.


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