OPTIONAL: CHEMISTRY

Syllabus

Paper -I

Atomic Structure:

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, Schrodinger wave equation (time independent); Interpretation of wave function, particle in a one-dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions; Shapes of s, p and d orbitals.

Chemical Bonding:

Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle; covalent bond and its general characteristics, polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole moments; Valence bond theory, concept of resonance and resonance energy; Molecular orbital theory (LCAO method); bonding in H2+, H2, He2+ to Ne2, NO, CO, HF, and CN–; Comparison of valence bond and molecular orbital theories, bond order, bond strength and bond length.

Solid State:

Crystal systems; Designation of crystal faces, lattice structures, and unit cell; Bragg’s law; X-ray diffraction by crystals; Close packing, radius ratio rules, calculation of some limiting radius ratio values; Structures of NaCl, ZnS, CsCl and CaF2; Stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric defects, impurity defects, semiconductors.

The Gaseous State and Transport Phenomenon:

The equation of state for real gases, inter-molecular interactions and critical phenomena and liquefaction of gases, Maxwell’s distribution of speeds, intermolecular collisions, collisions on the wall and effusion; Thermal conductivity and viscosity of ideal gases.

Liquid State:

Kelvin equation; Surface tension and surface energy, wetting and contact angle, interfacial tension and capillary action.

Thermodynamics:

Work, heat and internal energy; first law of thermodynamics.

Second law of thermodynamics; entropy as a state function, entropy changes in various processes, entropy– reversibility and irreversibility, Free energy functions; Thermodynamic equation of state; Maxwell relations; Temperature, volume and pressure dependence of U, H, A, G, Cp and Cvá and â; J-T effect and inversion temperature; criteria for equilibrium, relation between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities; Nernst heat theorem, introductory idea of third law of thermodynamics.

Phase Equilibria and Solutions:

Clausius-Clapeyron equation; phase diagram for a pure substance; phase equilibria in binary systems, partially miscible liquids–upper and lower critical solution temperatures; partial molar quantities, their significance and determination; excess thermodynamic functions and their determination.

Electrochemistry:

Debye-Huckel theory of strong electrolytes and Debye-Huckel limiting Law for various equilibrium and transport properties. Galvanic cells, concentration cells; electrochemical series, measurement of e.m.f. of cells and its applications fuel cells and batteries. Processes at electrodes; double layer at the interface; the rate of charge transfer, current density; over-potential; electro-analytical techniques: Polarography, amperometry, ion selective electrodes and their uses.

Chemical Kinetics:

Differential and integral rate equations for zeroth, first, second and fractional order reactions; Rate equations involving reverse, parallel, consecutive and chain reactions; branching chain and explosions; effect of temperature and pressure on rate constant; Study of fast reactions by stop flow and relaxation methods; Collisions and transition state theories.

Photochemistry:

Absorption of light; decay of excited state by different routes; photochemical reactions between hydrogen and halogens and their quantum yields.

Surface Phenomena and Catalysis:

Absorption from gases and solutions on solid adsorbents, Langmuir and B.E.T. adsorption isotherms; determination of surface area, characteristics, and mechanism of reaction on heterogeneous catalysts.

Bio-inorganic Chemistry:

Metal ions in biological systems and their role in ion transport across the membranes (molecular mechanism), oxygen-uptake proteins, cytochromes, and ferredoxins.

Coordination Compounds:

(i) Bonding theories of metal complexes; Valence bond theory, crystal field theory and its modifications; applications of theories in the explanation of magnetism and electronic spectra of metal complexes.

(ii)   Isomerism in coordination compounds; IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds; stereochemistry of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination numbers; chelate effect and polynuclear complexes; trans effect and its theories; kinetics of substitution reactions in square-planar complexes; thermodynamic and kinetic stability of complexes.

(iii)   EAN rule, Synthesis structure and reactivity of metal carbonyls; carboxylate anions, carbonyl hydrides, and metal nitrosyl compounds.

(iv)   Complexes with aromatic systems, synthesis, structure, and bonding in metal olefin complexes, alkyne complexes and cyclopentadienyl complexes; coordinative unsaturation, oxidative addition reactions, insertion reactions, fluxional molecules and their characterization; Compounds with metal-metal bonds and metal atom clusters.

Main Group Chemistry:

Boranes, borazines, phosphazenes and cyclic phosphazene, silicates and silicones, Interhalogen compounds; Sulphur – nitrogen compounds, noble gas compounds.

General Chemistry of ‘f’ Block Elements:

Lanthanides and actinides; separation, oxidation states, magnetic and spectral properties; lanthanide contraction.

Paper II :

  1. Delocalised Covalent Bonding: Aromaticity, anti-aromaticity; annulenes, azulenes, tropolones, fulvenes, sydnones.
  2. (i) Reaction Mechanisms: General methods (both kinetic and non-kinetic) of study of mechanism oforganic reactions: isotopic method, cross-over experiment, intermediate trapping, stereochemistry; energy of activation; thermodynamic control and kinetic control of reactions.

(ii)  Reactive Intermediates: Generation, geometry, stability and reactions of carbonium ions and carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and nitrenes.

 (iii)   Substitution Reactions: SN1, SN2 and SNi mechanisms; neighbouring group participation; electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions of aromatic compounds including heterocyclic compounds–pyrrole, furan, thiophene and indole.

(iv) Elimination Reactions: E1, E2 and E1cb mechanisms; orientation in E2 reactions–Saytzeff andHoffmann; pyrolytic syn elimination – Chugaev and Cope eliminations.  

(v) Addition Reactions: Electrophilic addition to C=C and C=C; nucleophilic addition to C=0, C=N,conjugated olefins and carbonyls.

(vi)   Reactions and Rearrangements:

  1. (a) Pinacol-pinacolone, Hoffmann, Beckmann, Baeyer–Villiger,Favorskii, Fries, Claisen, Cope, Stevens and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements.

(b) Aldol condensation, Claisen condensation, Dieckmann, Perkin, Knoevenagel, Witting, Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, Cannizzaro and von Richter reactions; Stobbe, benzoin and acyloin condensations; Fischer indole synthesis, Skraup synthesis, Bischler-Napieralski, Sandmeyer, Reimer-Tiemann and Reformatsky reactions.

  1. Pericyclic Reactions: Classification and examples; Woodward-Hoffmann rules – electrocyclic reactions, cycloaddition reactions [2+2 and 4+2] and sigmatropic shifts [1, 3; 3, 3 and 1, 5] FMO approach.
  2. (i) Preparation and Properties of Polymers: Organic polymers–polyethy-lene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, teflon, nylon, terylene, synthetic and natural rubber.

(ii) Biopolymers: Structure of proteins, DNA and RNA.

  1. Synthetic Uses of Reagents: OsO4, HIO4, CrO3, Pb(OAc)4, SeO2, NBS, B2H6, Na-Liquid NH3, LiAlH4, NaBH4, n-BuLi and MCPBA.
  2. Photochemistry: Photochemical reactions of simple organic compounds, excited and ground states, singlet and triplet states, Norrish-Type I and Type II reactions.
  3. Spectroscopy: Principle and applications in structure elucidation:

        (i) Rotational: Diatomic molecules; isotopic substitution and rotational constants.

       (ii) Vibrational: Diatomic molecules, linear triatomic molecules, specific frequencies of functional groups in polyatomic molecules.  

     (iii) Electronic: Singlet and triplet states; n π* and π π*  transitions; application to conjugated double bonds and conjugated carbonyls–Woodward-Fieser rules; Charge transfer spectra.  

     (iv) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR): Basic principle; chemical shift and spin-spin interaction and coupling constants.

     (v) Mass Spectrometry: Parent peak, base peak, metastable peak, McLafferty rearrangement.

 

Reference Books:

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

  • Atomic Structure – Principle of physical chemistry – Puri, Sharma & Pathwa
  • Advance Inorganic Chemistry – J.D. Lee
  • Chemical Periodicity, Chemical bonding,Coordination compound- Maden, Malik, Tuli
  • Theoretical principles of inorganic chemistry – G.S. Manku,
  • Extradiction of metals, Principle of inorganic chemistry – Puri, Sharma, Jauhar.
  • Rest all the chapters – An advance inorganic chemistry – J.D. Lee
  • Pollution and its control – A text book of environmental chemistry and pollution – S.S. Dara.

Physical Chemistry

  • Principals of Physical Chemistry (Gaseous state, Thermodynamics, Phase rule, solutions, Colligative properties, Electro Chemistry, Catalysis, Colloids) – Puri,
  • Sharma & Pathawa
  • Chemical kinetics – Advance physical chemistry – Gurdeep Raj
  • Photo chemistry – A text book of physical chemistry (Vol. – IV) – K.L. Kapoor
  • Advance physical chemistry – Gurdeep Raj

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

  • Bonding and shape of organic molecules, Stereo chemistry of carbon compound – Reactions and reagents – O.P. Agarwal
  • A guide to mechanism in organic chemistry – Peter Sykes
  • Rest all the chapters – A text book of organic chemistry – Bahl & Bahl
Optional Notes – Available only for mentorship program

Strategy

Merits :

  • Chemistry is core science so if you studied chemistry in your graduation (UG/PG), you can score good marks.
  • paper I are physical chemistry and inorganic chemistry. Paper II mainly covers organic chemistry. It is scoring because of more numericals, factual questions, and objective questions.

Demerits :

  • Subject is vast and needs to be strong in basics.
  • It can be a negative point if you are preparing in Hindi medium because of study material availability.
  • Those who have Arts  background should not even think of Chemistry as an Optional subject.

How to prepare:

  • Memorise the Syllabus.
  • Stick to limited reference books
  • Before starting preparation, go through previous year qps
  • The major branches in paper I are physical chemistry and inorganic chemistry.
  • The topics atomic structure and chemical bonding are straightforward and should be studied from the basic books.
  • You can expect numerical problems in the sections solid state chemistry and gaseous state. Other topics where you need to practice numerical problems are thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, photochemistry and electrochemistry. It is recommended that you study the section coordination chemistry as lengthy questions can be expected from it.
  • Paper II mainly covers organic chemistry. It is scoring because of more numericals, factual questions, and objective questions.

Previous Year Question Papers:

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