# OPTIONAL : ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ### Syllabus/Strategy/Reference Books – Paper 1

 SYLLABUS STRATEGY & REFERENCE BOOKS Circuit Theory:Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; circuit analysis methods: nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis: RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits; coupled circuits; balanced 3-phase circuits; Two-port networks. In this topic one should be fast in solving problems. Best way to gain speed is to practice regularly from IES papers of both electrical and electronics. Do questions from single IES paper (there are 3-6 questions every year) within time limit. Signals & Systems:Representation of continuous–time and discrete-time signals & systems; LTI systems; convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, FFT Processing of analog signals through discrete-time systems. Here also speed is important. It is better to make a formula sheet and revise it regularly. For DFT/FFT, refer to Oppenheim’s book on DSP. E.M. Theory:Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection, and refraction of plane waves. Transmission line: traveling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith chart. Read chapter 6(till 6.29), 7 and 8 from K.D. Prasad. For Smith chart and impedance matching refer Jordan & Balmain. Make the list of formulas and practice all the derivations. Analog Electronics:Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET, and MOSFET. Diode circuits: clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror; Amplifiers: single and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency-response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters; sinusoidal oscillators: a criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Linear and switching power supplies. Diode, Transistors and Amplifiers can be done from any book. Topics that are to be covered from JB Gupta are: Oscillators, Op Amp, Wave shaping circuits, Multivibrators, Waveform Generators and Power supplies. Digital Electronics:Boolean algebra; minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, and decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers, multi-vibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA). Mano is sufficient for the part of syllabus which it covers. For topic left like Timer (look at chapter on 555 IC Timer), Comparator, S&H circuit refer to JB Gupta. Energy Conversion:Principles of electromechanical energy conversion: Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC machines: characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors; Transformers: principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers. 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines: characteristics and performance analysis; speed control. Try to cover everything given in the syllabus from Ashfaq Hussain and make good command over all the numerical given in the book. It covers topic from IES point of view. Do all the questions asked in the IES exams thoroughly. Power Electronics and Electric Drives:Semiconductor power devices: diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET–static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters: fully-controlled and half-controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; DC-DC converters; Switch mode inverter; basic concepts of speed control of DC and AC Motor drive applications of variable-speed drives. Topics to be covered are Chapter 2(characteristics of diode, BJT, MOSFET, IGBT), chapter 4-Thyrister(complete), chapter 5 – Thyrister commutation techniques (complete), chapter 6 –Phase controlled rectifiers(Leave dual converters), chapter 7- Choppers(Leave Thyrister Chopper circuits and multiphase choppers) , chapter 8 –Inverters(Leave force-commutated thyrister inverters, current source and series inverters) and chapter 12-electric drives(complete). Cover all the derivations (like deriving expressions for particular type of rectifier or inverter) as well as working of circuits. Analog Communication:Random variables: continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions. Statistical averages; probability models; Random signals and noise: white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; a signal transmission with noise; signal to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation: Amplitude modulation: DSB, DSB-SC, and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation: PM & FM signals; narrowband FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, Deemphasis, Preemphasis. CW modulation system: Superheterodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, phase locked loop, SSB receiver Signal to noise ratio calculation for AM and FM receivers. Cover chapter 4(AM) and Chapter 5(on FM and PM) from BP Lathi. Random process(chapter 1) can be covered from Haykin. And Noise(chapter 4) can be covered from Singh and Sapre. Also cover AM AND FM practical modulation and demodulation circuits from Singh and Sapre.

### Syllabus/Strategy/Reference Books – Paper 2

 SYLLABUS STRATEGY & REF BOOKS Control Systems:Elements of control systems; block-diagram representation; open-loop & closed-loop systems; principles and applications of feed-back. Control system components. LTI systems: time-domain and transform-domain analysis. Stability: Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Bode plots and polar plots, Nyquist’s criterion; Design of lead-lad compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers. State-variable representation and analysis of control systems. Nagrath and Gopal is sufficient for all the topics. Practice from previous year IES and CSE papers. Microprocessors and Microcomputers:PC organization; CPU, instruction set, register set, timing diagram, programming, interrupts memory interfacing, I/O interfacing, programmable peripheral devices. Cover chapters 1 to7 and 9, and parts of chapter 8 and 10(from which questions has been asked in IES exams), In peripherals cover 12, 14, 15, 16 (Focus more on whatever has been asked in IES papers). Measurement and Instrumentation:Error analysis; measurement of current, voltage, power, energy, power factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance, and frequency; bridge measurement. Signal conditioning circuit; Electronic measuring instruments: multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum- analyzer, distortion meter. Transducers: thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-gauge, piezo-electric crystal. Cover all the instruments given in the syllabus thoroughly from the Sawhney. Here also guide will be IES questions. Power Systems: Analysis and Control:Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices; load flow; voltage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components, analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. The concept of system stability: swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC transmission. Practice solved examples of both Wadhwa and Nagrath and Kothari Power System Protection:Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. The concept of solid state relays. Circuit breakers. Computer-aided protection: Introduction; line bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric relays and application of DSP to protection. Chapters of Protective relays and circuit breakers (from Wadhwa) cover large part of the syllabus in much better way. For microprocessor based relays refer to TMH book. Digital Communication:Pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM), Digital modulation and demodulation schemes: amplitude, phase, and frequency keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Error control coding: error detection and correction, linear block codes, convolution codes. Information measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture. For PCM, DPCM, DM refer to chapter 6 of Lathi. ASK, PSK and FSK are covered much better in Haykin. Information theory and codes can be covered from either of them. Chapter 1 and 2 of Forouzan are to be covered for data networks and 7 layered architecture.

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