PSYCHOLOGY PAPER 1 TOPIC WISE UPSC QUESTIONS (2010-2018)

Psychology arranged topicwise

PSYCHOLOGY PAPER 1 TOPIC WISE UPSC QUESTIONS (2010-2018)

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SYLLABUSPREVIOUS YEAR QUESTIONS
Foundations of Psychology:

Introduction: Definition of Psychology; Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the 21st century; Psychology and scientific methods; Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences; Application of Psychology to societal problems.

 

·       2011 : a. Describe the key assumptions on which psychology claims to be a science. (10m)

·       2011 : a. What is social constructionism? How does it challenge the mainstream psychology? 20m

·       2011 : Examine the concerns for control, measurement and artifacts, and also indicate the threats they pose to the development of scientific psychology. 30

·       2012 : (a) Elucidate the contributions of Sir Francis Gallon in shaping psychology. (12m)

·       2013 : (a) Critically evaluate the cognitive approach to the study of psychological phenomena. (10m)

·       2013 : The discipline of psychology has grown and developed through debate between those who held that it should be modelled on natural science and those who subscribed to the view that it has to follow the model of social science. What arguments you envision for or against these views ? What position you would like to endorse and why ? (25m)

·       2014 : Explain how the creation of superordinate goals can help in resolving social conflicts. (10m)

·       2014 : What social and psychological factors come in the way of population control in India? (10m)

·       2015 : Why is it important to understand psychological processes for other disciplines of social science ?( 10m)

·       2015 : Keeping in view the strife in current social situation, discuss how a psychologist can contribute towards providing interventions for such problems. (15m)

·       2016 : (a) Explain how the fundamental understanding of psychology is helpful in the resolution of societal problems. 10 marks

·       2016 : (a) Describe how you used psychology to solve a social problem.10 marks

2017 : (e) Psychology is the scientific study of behaviour. Evaluate.

 ·

Methods of Psychology:

Types of research: Descriptive, evaluative, diagnostic and prognostic; Methods of Research: Survey, observation, case-study and experiments; Characteristics of experimental design and non- experimental design, Quasi-experimental designs; Focussed group discussions, brain storming, grounded theory approach.

 

·         2010 : (a) Under what conditions would a researcher prefer to use focused group discussion over interviewing? 100 words :(10 m)

·         2010 :  (b) In what ways does an experimental design differ from a quasi-experimental 10 design? 100 words :(10 m)

·         2011 : b. Suggest a plan of an experimental study to evaluate the effect of compensatory education on academic achievement of school-going students from low income group. (10m)

·         2011: c. How does the brain mediate between the genotype and the phenotype for psychological characteristics? 10

·         2012 : (b) Discuss the criteria of question-writing in a survey research. (12m)

·         2013 : (b) What is ethnocentrism ? How is it reflected in psychological research ? 10

·         2013 : Discuss the importance of early relationship for developmental outcomes in the light of researches by Bowlby and Anisworth.(15m)

·         2014 : What psychological factors keep the group of terrorists cohesive? (15m)

·         2014 : What is meant by unconditional positive regard ?       ( 10m)

 

·         2015 : How far is it correct to state that most of the problems of psychology can be addressed more adequately by adopting quasi-experimental designs ? (10m)

 

·         2015 : It is believed that non-experimental designs are more relevant for explaining the emerging issues like social evils that are seen prominently in India. Discuss. (20m)

 

·         2015 : Discuss the brain mechanisms underlying hunger motive. (10m)

·         2016 : (b) How can confounding variables invalidate the apparent results of an experiment? 10 marks

·         2016 : 2.(a) Discuss, with suitable examples, the key characteristics of within-group and between-groups designs. 15 marks

 

·         2017 : (b) How can you use ‘Focus Group Discussion’ to promote use of toilets in rural areas ?

2018 : 3. (a) Why is the principle of random assignment of participants used in experimental method? How do experimenter effects and demand characteristics influence participants’ behaviour in experimentation? What procedures can be adopted to minimize such pitfalls? 20 marks

Research Methods:

Major steps in Psychological research (problem statement, hypothesis formulation, research designs, sampling, tools of data collection, analysis and interpretation and report writing) Fundamental versus applied research; Methods of data collection (interview, observation, questionnaire); Research designs (ex-post facto and experimental); Application of statistical technique (t – test, two way ANOVA correlation, regression and factor analysis); Item response theory.

 

·       2010 : 3. (a) What are the problems a researcher is likely to face in making causal inferences if the researcher were to use a single-group pre-test-post-test design? (30 m)

·       2012 : (c) Bring out the difference between ‘sampling error’ and ‘error in sampling’. How ‘sampling error’ is reduced ?(12m)

·       2012 : (a) Discuss the three basic conditions for using ‘t’-test of significance. Describe at least five different uses of ‘t’-test with examples.(20m)

·       2012 : (d) Compare LISREL programme with that of SPSS in the analysis of multivariate data.

·       2012 : (c) Enumerate various methods of problem solving. Critically evaluate their advantages and limitations also.

·       2013 : How do novices differ from experts ? (10m)

·       2013 : What are the requirements to be met by psychological assessment tools for offering accurate and useful measure of psychological constructs ? (15m)

·       2014 : What factors can impede. fair assessment of individual differences ? Examine in the light of research evidence. 10

·       2014 : What different types of norms will a psychologist need to develop a test of general mental ability for use in India ? (15m)

·       2015 : Under what kind of research conditions does the use of factor analysis become necessary ? Discuss.( 20m)

·       2015 : With suitable examples, discuss the logic behind following the systematic steps in conducting psychological research. (15m)

 

·       2017: (c) In a study, the number of students intake in a college correlated very highly with violence. Explain the research finding.

·       2017: Q4. (a) Evaluate “interview” as a method of data collection.

·       2018: 4.(a) What are the assumptions underlying ANOVA? Discuss the conditions when two-way ANOVA is applied and how the results are interpreted with a hypothetical example. 20 marks

·       2018: (c) How can different methods of sampling and data collection be useful in impact evaluation of government social schemes? Describe with a suitable example. 15 marks

·

2018: (c) Discuss the significance and correlates of values. Comment on the impact of social media on values. 15 marks

Development of Human Behaviour:

Growth and development; Principles of development, Role of genetic and environmental factors in determining human behaviour; Influence of cultural factors in socialization; Life span development Characteristics, development tasks, promoting psychological well-being across major stages of the life span.

 

·       2010 : 2 (b) You are the head of an office in which employees habitually come late and leave early. Suggest a behaviour modification plan for such employees. (20m)

 

·       2010 : (c) Briefly suggest how well-being of the elderly can be promoted. (10 m)

 

·       2010 : (b) How can biological aging be modified with the help of environmental factors? 30

·       2010 : (f) What is likely to happen if a person is asked to behave in a manner contrary to the attitude the person holds? Explain on the basis of a theory.(10m)

·       2010 : 4. {a) How do task similarity and modality influence dual-task performance? 30

·       2010 : 5 .(b) Discuss the stages of psychosexual development according to Freud. 10

·       2011 : Compare the Indian and western constructions of ‘Self’ with reference to cross-cultural studies and bring out their implication for well-being. (30m)

·       2011 : Critically evaluate the role of parenting style, peer group and media in identity formation during adolescence. (30m)

·

·       2012 : (d) Describe the role of epigenetic model in determining human behaviour. (12m)

·       2012 : (c) Examine the impact of cultural factors on socialization process among children.(20m)

·       2013 : How do genes affect development ? (10m)

·       2014 :    Bring out the key developmental challenges fac ed by adolescents in the cognitive and social domaips. (25m)

·       2014 : ”Every function in the child’s development appears twice : first on social level and later, on the individual level. “-Vygotsky Discuss the above statement and indicate your own position on this proposition.( 10m)

·       2014 : Discuss how happiness may influence psychological well-being and health. (15m)

·       2014 : What psychological conditions keep the poor in a socially disadvantaged state? (15m)

·       2014 : How can the adverse consequences of social disadvantage be alleviated ? (15m)

·       2014 : What are gender stereotypes in India ? How do they feed into gender discrimination ?(15m)

·       2015 :    Discuss the role of socio-cultural factors in promotion of well-being across major stages of life-span. (10m)

·       2015 : “Children are not bom with stereotypes; they learn them from their family, peers, media and society.”—Discuss. (20m)

·       2016: (c) “Cognitive psychologists often use computer as an analogy to explain the relation between cognition and brain.” Discuss. 10 marks

·       2016: (d) Identify the most important changes that occur during adolescence. 10 marks

·       2016: (c) Critically evaluate Erikson’s stages of Psychosocial development. 15 marks

·       2016: 4.(a) Describe the parenting styles that are used in raising a normal child. 15 marks

·       2017: (d) Do you think subliminal messages can actually lead to significant changes in attitudes or behaviour ? Cite research evidence.

2017: Q3.(a) Whatever we are, it is because of Genes. Discuss.

Sensation, Attention, and Perception:

Sensation: concepts of threshold, absolute and difference thresholds, signal-detection and vigilance; Factors influencing attention including set and characteristics of stimulus; Definition and concept of perception, biological factors in perception; Perceptual organization-influence of past experiences, perceptual defence-factors influencing space and depth perception, size estimation and perceptual readiness; The plasticity of perception; Extrasensory perception; Culture and perception, Subliminal perception.

 

·       2010 : 2. (a) Discuss the role of monocular and binocular cues in depth perception. (20 m)

 

·       2011 : f. What do illusions tell about the nature of perception?(10m)

·       2011 : Contrast bottom-up and top-down theories of perception. 10

·       2011 : a. How does signal-detection theory envisage the decision process? In what other areas of psychology can it be applied? 30

·       2012 : (e) Discuss the ‘pay-off matrix’ in relation to the signal detection theory.(12m)

·       2012 : (a) Discuss various, dimensions of thought processes in relation to concept. (12m)

·       2012 : (a) What is the essence of a projective technique ? Critically evaluate perceptive, apperceptive and productive projective tests in the measurement of personality. (30m)

·       2013 :    What do you understand by ‘effect size’ and ‘statistical power’ ? Explain their significance.(15m)

·       2013 : Compare template matching and feature detection accounts of pattern recognition.( 15m)

·       2015 : Describe the basic elements of observation and bring out the implications of the dimension of participation in observational research. (15m)

·       2015 : Demonstrate with suitable examples how the signal detection theory has helped in modifying the process of vigilance. (15m)

·       2015 : Do the cultural settings influence the understanding and evaluation of meanings of external stimuli ? Provide suitable justification for your answer. (15m)

·       2016 :    (b) Describe the phenomenon of subliminal perception and explain it with reference to the concepts of backward marking and visual priming. Do you think that the effect of the phenomenon of subliminal perception can be generalized ? 15 marks

·       2017 : (c) How are we able to perceive the world in three dimensions when our eyes are capable of sensing only two-dimensional images ?

·       2017: (b) Can we do justice to measuring personality by projective and objective tests? Discuss.

·       2018: (d) Explain and critically evaluate the phenomenon of perceptual defence.

·       2018: (b) Discuss signal detection theory and explain its applications. 15 marks

 

Learning:

Concept and theories of learning (Behaviourists, Gestaltalist and Information processing models); The Processes of extinction, discrimination and generalization; Programmed learning, probability learning, self- instructional learning, concepts; Types and the schedules of reinforcement, escape, avoidance and punishment, modeling and social learning.

 

·       2010 : (d) Comment on the impact of immediate 10 and delayed reinforcement on learning. (10 m)

 

·       2011 : e. Distinguish between negative reinforcement and punishment. Indicate the limitations of punishment in the context of learning. (10m)

 

·       2011 : How is the information we hold about ourselves organized and interpreted? (10m)

·       2011 : Discuss the consequences of learned helplessness as demonstrated in classic experiment on dogs. Find out its parallels in real life. (20m)

·       2012 : (c) With suitable examples, critically evaluate both primary and secondary reinforcements and bring out their role in establishing conditioning.(20m)

·       2013 : Describe different reinforcement schedules and indicate their effects on the strength of learning. (10m)

·       2014 :    Enumerate· the factors that can impact upon the teaching-learning process in rural India. (10m)

·       2014 : What are the psychological disadvantages of learning in the distant mode through IT compared to classroom learning ? (20m)

·       2015 : Evaluate the notion of programmed learning and describe its relevance for modem day education with suitable examples* (10m)

·       2015 : Review Bandura’s social learning theory and evaluate its impact on understanding aggression as a result of media generated violence. (15m)

·       2016 :    (b) How far do you agree with the contention that a more preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less preferred activity ? Also describe the types of reinforcement. 15 marks

·       2017 : (b) Distinguish between negative reinforcement and punishment. Do you think punishment is an effective way to modify behaviour ?

·       2017: (c) How would you apply Operant Conditioning technique for toilet training to a 3-year-old boy ?

·       2017: (b) Which research design would you apply to prove that a particular method of teaching yields best results ? Describe.

·       2018: (e) Examine how probability learning is different from other types of learning Give examples.

·       2018: (b) Differentiate between positive and negative types of reinforcement and punishment. Describe how these could be applied to enforce putting on the seat belts while driving.15 marks

·       2018: (b) Do you think being in a good mood reduces your capacity to process incoming information? Examine in the light of research studies.

 

Memory:

Encoding and remembering; Short term memory, Long term memory, Sensory memory, Iconic memory, Echoic memory: The Multistore model, levels of processing; Organization and Mnemonic techniques to improve memory; Theories of forgetting: decay, interference and retrieval failure: Metamemory; Amnesia: Anterograde and retrograde.

 

·      2010 :4  {b) Discuss the levels of processing framework of memory and the relevant supporting research evidence.(30 m)

 

·      2010 : 5 (d) Explain anterograde amnesia with special reference to the classical case of HM. (10 m)

·      2010 : (f) What is sensory adaptation? Explain with examples. 10

·      2011 : c. On what grounds are STM and LTM distinguished? (10m)

·      2011 : d.  How the principles of encoding help enhancing the use of mnemonic devices? (10m)

 

·      2011 : b. How does level of processing model differ from multistore and working memory models? Explain. 30

·

·       2012 : (b) Compare Sperling’s experiments with that of Neisser’s experiments in the study of sensory memory. What did these two experiments prove ? (20m)

·       2013 : What factors contribute to the encoding of information into LTM ? (10m)

·       2013 : Describe and evaluate the modal model of short-term memory. (20m)

·      2014 :    How can teachers help in meeting the educational needs of a child suffering from ADHD? (15m)

·      2015 : Citing studies on amnesia show how the explicit and implicit memory systems are separate, (20m)

·       2015 : How far do you agree with the contention that research findings on infant memory can present novel approaches toward analyzing adult memories ? Corroborate your answer with examples. (15m)

·       2016 : (e) What do you understand by amnesia ? Illustrate the types of amnesia with reference to the case of “H.M.’s brain operation”. | 10 marks

·      2016 :    (b) Describe the processing of sensory input and explain how it is selected, organized and interpreted. 15 marks

·      2016 : 3.(a) Give a critical appraisal of interference theory of forgetting and show how the process of retrieval inhibition influences forgetting. 20 marks

·      2016: (c) Explain the phenomena of implicit and explicit memories. Also critically evaluate Tulving’s model of long-term memory. 15 marks

·       2017: Q2.(a) Why do we forget ? Differentiate between anterograde and retrograde amnesia.

·       2017: (c) Explain the differences in information processing at various levels of memory. In what way is recall affected by initial processing of information ?

·       2018: (b) “Human memory is not like information stored in a tape recorder or compact disc.” Critically evaluate the statement.

·       2018: (c) Demonstrate the importance of the shallow and deep levels of processing in remembering. With the help of daily life examples, explain how retrieval cucs enable us to remember. 15 marks

 

Thinking and Problem Solving:

Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; Concept formation processes; Information processing, Reasoning and problem solving, Facilitating and hindering factors in problem solving, Methods of problem solving: Creative thinking and fostering creativity; Factors influencing decision making and judgment; Recent trends.

 

·  2010 : (d) How would you process information for 10 maintaining it for long-term usage? 10

·  2010 : (e) What are the stages of cognitive development according to Piaget? 100 words (10 m)

 

·  2010 : 5 (e) Discuss the role of heuristics 1n reasoning.(10m)

 

·  2011 : Differentiate between inductive and deductive reasoning, and give reasons for the preference of scientist towards inductive reasoning.(10m)

·   2011  : What are the criteria to identify creativity? How can a teacher promote creativity in the classroom setting? 30

·   2011  : Describe different psychological measures of values and outline a programme for fostering values. Among school-going children. (30m)

·   2014 : Discuss the implications of employing group decision-making in issues involving development in the Indian cultural context. (15m)

·  2014 :    What psychological knowledge can be used to develop a programme for women entrepreneurs ?(20m)

·  2015 : What are the general strategies used in problem solving ? How do these differ from domain-specific procedures ?     (10m)

·  2015 : Describe Piaget’s stages of cognitive development. Critique his theory. (15m)

·  2016 : (c) Show your acquaintance with the cognitive approach to classical conditioning and describe how classical conditioning principles can be used to solve everyday problems. 20 marks

·   2016 : (b) Distinguish between mundane and exceptional creativities and citing suitable research evidences, describe the confluence approach to creativity. 20  marks

·   2016 : 7.(a) Critically examine the metacognitive processes in problem solving. How do functional fixedness and mental set interfere in solving the problems effectively? 15 marks

·  2017 :    (e) Explain different types of reasoning processes used in problem solving with their strengths and limitations.

·  2018 : (a) Discuss how psychology can be applied in solving the problem of global climate change.

·  2018: (c) According to Piaget, the egocentric preschooler is not intentionally ‘inconsiderate’ but rather has difficulty taking another’s viewpoint. Explain.

·   2018: (c) Differentiate between various developmental tasks of young men and women in India. 15 marks

·   2018: (a) Explain the use of availability heuristic and representativeness heuristic in problem solving with the help of research studies.

·   2018: (b) “Creativity refers to novel ideas that address some problems in a useful way.” Critically examine the statement and discuss how creative insight can be explained. 15 marks

 

Motivation and Emotion:

The psychological and physiological basis of motivation and emotion; Measurement of motivation and emotion; Effects of motivation and emotion on behavior; Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation; Factors influencing intrinsic motivation; Emotional competence and the related issues.

 

·   2010 :5  (a) Discuss the constituents of emotional intelligence. 10

 

·   2010 : 6 (b) Khap Panchayats have been in the news  recently because of their opposition to same-‘gotra’ marriages. What psychological constructs would explain their behaviour? (30m)

·   2010: 8 (b) Discuss the role of cognition in experiencing emotion in the light of experimental studies. 30

·   2011: How does arousal theory explain human motivation? (10m)

·   2011 : What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation? Explain with the help of examples. (10m)

·     2011 : What are the functions of emotions?(10m)

·     2012 : (b) Is facial expression of emotion innate or acquired ? Support your answer with suitable evidence.

·     2012 : (e) Evaluate various factors which influence intrinsic motivation.(12m)

·   2012 :      (c) How would you measure emotion of an individual ? Discuss the effect of emotion on behaviour.(20m)

·   2013 : Bring out the role of left and right hemispheres in emotional experience.( 15m)

·   2013 : What is intrinsic motivation ? Why it gets reduced if the person gets external reward for undertaking a task that he or she loves ?(20m)

·   2014 : Explain psychological characteristics of a successful entrepreneur. (20m)

·     2014 : What psychological motives have retarded economic development in India, according to some psychologists ? Discuss. (20m)

 

·     2014 : How will you distinguish between anxiety and mood disorders ?(10m)

·   2014 :    What therapy will be most efficacious in case of someone who is suffering from depression? Give reasons in support of your answer.(15m)

·   2015 : Bring out the disruption in retrieval processes due to anxiety, context and repression. (10m)

·   2015: Distinguish between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Which one is more powerful and why ? (20m)

·     2016: (d) Explain the contribution of Salovey and Mayer with regard to the concept of emotional intelligence. 10 marks

·     2016: (b) Explain motivational concepts with reference to homeostatic models. 15  marks

·     2017: (b) Explain the role of meaningfulness and emotional arousal in encoding. Discuss the implications of encoding specificity principle.

·     2017: (c) Why do some people behave aggressively towards those who defy social norms ? How can such aggressive behaviours be changed ?

2018: (c) Are emotionally competent people internally controlled? Explain. What are the ways to enhance intrinsic motivation of young adults? 15 marks

Intelligence and Aptitude:

Concept of intelligence and aptitude, Nature and theories of intelligence Spearman, Thurstone, Gullford Vernon, Sternberg and J.P; Das; Emotional Intelligence, Social intelligence, measurement of intelligence and aptitudes, concept of IQ, deviation IQ, constancy of IQ; Measurement of multiple intelligence; Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.

 

·       2010 : (c) Distinguish between IQ and deviation  IQ. (10 m)

 

·       2010 :  8 (a) Critically assess Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence.(30m)

·       2010 : 7. {a) Discuss different the concept of N Ach and methods which have been used to measure it. 30

·       2011 : Compare the model of fluid and crystallized intelligence with the two factor theory of Spearman. (10m)

 

·       2011 : Describe and evaluate the model of intelligence proposed by J. P. Das. (30m)

·       2012 : (a) Compare ‘multi-factor’ theory of intelligence with that of theory of ‘multiple intelligences’. (20m)

·       2012 : (b) Critically evaluate the relationship between intelligence and creativity. Cite experimental evidences in support of your answer.(20m)

·       2013 : Explicate Sternberg’s view of intelligence and bring out its implications for schooling. (10m)

·       2014 :    What role can mental imagery play in enhancing the performance of sportspersons ? Discuss.(10m)

·       2014 : What is the purpose of item analysis ? How would you carry it out for a test of aptitude ? (20m)

·       2015 : Evaluate the utility of J.P. Das’ model in understanding the concept of intelligence. (10m)

·       2015 : Discuss briefly the evolution of factor theory of intelligence in the works of Spearman, Thurstone and Guilford.( 15m)

·       2015 : What is an aptitude ? Describe the various tests of aptitudes. 15

·       2016 :    (a) Describe the characteristics of Gardner’s theory of intelligence. 10  marks

·       2016: 8.(a) Give a comparative account of information processing models of intelligence proposed by Sternberg and J.P. Das.  20 marks

·       2017: (a) Creative people usually have high IQ scores but those with highest IQ scores are not necessarily the most creative people. Explain.

·       2017: Q6. (a) According to Gardner’s theory, there is no one kind of general intelligence for ranking individuals. Explain.

·       2017: Q8. (a) Can we determine a person’s academic performance based only on IQ score ? Explain.

2018: 8.(a) Describe how J. P. Das’ theory is distinct from other theories of intelligence. 20 marks

Personality:

Definition and concept of personality; Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, sociocultural, interpersonal, developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches); Measurement of personality (projective tests, pencil-paper test); The Indian approach to personality; Training for personality development; Latest approaches like big 5 factor theory; The notion of self in different traditions.

 

·       2010 : What are the ‘big five’ personality factors? Critically examine their conceptual basis. (30m)

 

·       2012 : (a) In which way IRT is an improvement over classical test theory ? Compare the two approaches and critically evaluate Rasch’s model of IRT. (30m)

·       2012 : (b) Describe Broadbent’s filter theory of attention. Why this elegant theory turned out to be inadequate ? Comment upon the alternate approaches.(30m)

·       2012 : (b) Evaluate °duplicity theory’ of vision. Cite experimental evidences in support of this theory.

·       2013 : What is the situationalist critique of trait psychology ? (10m)

·       2014 :    Describe the Indian approach to personality as reflected in the principle of three Gunas. (15m)

·       2014 : What psychological knowledge will you put to use for social inclusion of the stigmatized?( 15m)

·       2014 : Can leaders be trained ? What will be the essential components of a leadership training programme for the civil servants ? (20m)

·       2014 : To what extent, do you think that the Principle of management derived from the study of industrial organisations can be applied to improve the functioning of bureaucratic organisations in India?(10m)

·       2015 : Discuss the theoretical bases of behaviouristic approaches of psychotherapy. (15m)

·       2015 : Highlight the problems in assessment of personality using the pencil-paper tests.( 10m)

·       2015: Describe the trait and type approaches to personality. Highlight Jung’s typology with its weaknesses. (20m)

·       2015: State the components of Big-5 factor theory of personality. Why is it considered superior to other factor theories of personality ? (15m)

·       2016: (c) Are projective tests really projective in nature ? Describe Rorschach and TAT tests and comment on their reliabilities. 15 marks

·       2016: (b) Discuss the Indian approach to personality as evident in tri-gunas.  15 marks

·       2017: (b) How do we explain self-defeating behaviour of a person from the Humanistic perspective ?

·       2017: (c) People emphasize the personal traits more than the situational factors. Evaluate the statement.

 

Attitudes, Values and Interests:

Definition of attitudes, values, and interests; Components of attitudes; Formation and maintenance of attitudes; Measurement of attitudes, values, and interests; Theories of attitude change; Strategies for fostering values; Formation of stereotypes and prejudices; Changing others behavior; Theories of attribution; Recent trends.

 

·       2012 : (b) Discuss A-B-C components of attitude. Describe the procedure of development of a tool for measurement of attitude.(30m)

·       2013 : What is the role of social categorization in the formation of prejudice ? Suggest some strategies to reduce prejudice. (25m)

·       2014 : Which rehabilitative strategies can be employed by the organisations to handle the workplace violence ? 10

·       2014 : As a psychologist, develop a programme to bring about attitudinal  change in favour of small family norm. (10m)

·       2014 :    State the challenges the psychologists are likely . to face in the rehabilitation of criminals.(15m)

·       2016 : (c) Discuss cognitive dissonance theory of attitude change. 10 marks

·       2016 : (e) What is meant by attribution ? Describe, citing examples, the phenomenon of attributional augmentation, 10 marks

·       2016 : 6.(a) Explain the components of attitude and examine the methods of attitude formation. 15 marks

·       2017 : (b) A young person helped a visually impaired woman to cross the road. He explained his action saying that he has positive attitude towards such persons. Did his attitude determine his behaviour or the behaviour determine his attitude. Explain.

·       2018 : c) According to Bandura, human beings often demonstrate impressive capacity for the self-regulation of their own behaviour. Evaluate.

·       2018 :    (d) In what way can dissonance be an effective means for changing attitudes and behaviour

·       2018 : (b) Explain the concepts of self-serving bias and fundamental attribution error. How do they affect problem solving? 15 marks

 

Language and Communication:

Human language – Properties, structure and linguistic hierarchy, Language acquisition-predisposition, critical period hypothesis; Theories of language development Skinner and Chomsky; Process and types of communication – effective communication training.

 

·       2010 : 7 {b) Compare Chomsky’s innate mechanism view with Skinner’s view of language 30 development. (30m)

 

·       2011 : How does language differ from other forms of communication? Referring to relevant studies, document children’s progress from non verbal communication to the use of language. (30m)

 

·       2012 : (a) What is McCrary-Hunter ‘invariance hypothesis’ ? Discuss the shape and characteristics of serial position error curve in terms of ‘invariance hypothesis’.(20m)

·       2012 : (c) Discuss the modifications of Chornsky’s ‘transformational generative grammar’. (12m)

·       2012 : (a) What is meant by effective communication ? Evaluate various sources of effective communication. (20m)

·       2013 : What are the processes of language production ? (10m)

·       2015 :    Illustrate with suitable examples the non-verbal process of communication.( 10m)

·       2015 : How does Chomsky’s Theory differ from that of Skinner in language development ? Discuss. (15m)

·       2016 : (c) Discuss the components of language acquisition citing the average age at which these are demonstrated by a child. 15 marks

·       2017 : (b) Critically evaluate Noam Chomsky’s theory of transformational grammar.

·       2017 :    (c) Explain the importance of Critical Periods in language development. In what ways are bilingualism and cognitive development related ?

·       2017 : Q7. (a) Which needs should one be high on to be a successful entrepreneur ? Explain on the basis of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.

·       2018: (e) Explain various limitations of verbal communication.

·       2018: 7.(a) Describe the structure and features of language focussing on what makes human language unique in comparison to communication in animals. 20 marks

 

Issues and Perspectives in Modern Contemporary Psychology:

Computer application in the psychological laboratory and psychological testing; Artificial intelligence; Psychocybernetics; Study of consciousness-sleep-wake schedules; dreams, stimulus deprivation, meditation, hypnotic/drug-induced states; Extrasensory perception; Intersensory perception Simulation studies.

 

·       2010 : ( c) What is REM sleep and how is it related to dreaming? 100 words (10 m)

 

·       2011 : Elaborate upon the salient developments in consciousness studies and indicate the effect of ‘meditation’ on psychological functions. (30m)

 

·       2012 : (b) Enumerate different stages of sleep. Discuss the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance. (20m)

·       2013 : Why our representations of the external world are not entirely accurate ? (15m)

·       2013 : How the psychoanalytic view differs from physiological or cognitive view of dream ? (25m)

·       2013 : What makes a persuasive attempt effective ? Discuss. (20m)

·       2015 :    Why are we awake at certain times and asleep at others ? Explain this with help of opponent process model. (15m)

·       2016 : (b) Explain different types of psycho-active drugs and patterns of their use.  10 marks

·       2016 : (c) Describe the physiological changes that are accompanied by shifts in consciousness in the process of sleep. Also discuss major sleep disorders. 20 marks

·       2017 : (c) Drug-addiction is just a maladaptive behaviour. Like other behaviour, it can be easily changed. Discuss.

·       2017 : (d) What is paradoxical in REM sleep? How active is a person during different stages of sleep ?

·       2018 : 2.(a) Perception is plastic. However, it may also be affected by innate tendencies. Critically evaluate. 20 marks

·       2018 :    (b) How have neuroscientists and evolutionary scientists contributed to modern psychology? 15 marks

·       2018 : 6.(a) Compare the trait perspective and humanistic perspective on personality. 20 marks

·       2018: (c) Is sleep a passive process? Justify your answer with proper scientific support. 15 marks

·       2018: (b) Discuss contemporary researches on simulating human intelligence using machines and their implications for understanding human behaviour, 15 marks