PSYCHOLOGY PAPER 2 TOPIC WISE UPSC QUESTIONS (2011-2018)
|SYLLABUS||PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTIONS|
|Psychology: Issues and Applications|
Psychological Measurement of Individual Differences:
The nature of individual differences; Characteristics and construction of standardized psychological tests; Types of psychological tests; Use, misuse and limitation of psychological tests; ethical issues in the use of psychological tests.
|· 2014 : a) What factors can impede fair assessment of individual differences ? Examine in the light of research evidence.(10m)|
· 2014 : 2. a) What different types of norms will a psychologist need to develop a test of general mental ability for use in India ? 15
· 2014 : c) What is the purpose of item analysis ? How would you carry it out for test of aptitude ?20
· 2015 : a) What are some important ethical principles that psychologists must adhere to while making use of psychological tests? 15
· 2016 : In what ways psychological tests are useful in assessing individual differences ?
· 2016 : b) Analyze the factors determining the efficacy of psychological tests. Discuss the
· 2016 : c) What role can psychologists play in the development and implementation of the ‘Skill India’ scheme of the Government of India? 20
· 2016 : Explain how the concept of individual differences emerged and state its
· 2017 : c) What is the role of item validation in psychometric scaling? Briefly describe the steps involved. 20
· 2018 : 2.(c) Discuss the different steps in the construction and standardization of psychological tests. Illustrate your answer with suitable example. 20 marks
|Psychological well being and Mental Disorders:|
Concept of health-ill health; Positive health, well being; Causal factors in mental disorders (Anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia and delusional disorders; personality disorders, substance abuse disorders); Factors influencing positive health, well being, life style and quality of life; Happiness disposition.
|· 2011 : Explain delusional disorders and highlight their distinguishing features.(20m)|
· 2011 : A) Discuss the various aspects of subjective well-being as propounded by positive psychology movement. 30
· 2011 : a) Explain paranoid and schizoid personality disorders. 30
· 2012 : What do you understand by ‘personality disorders? Distinguish between schizoid personality disorder and schizophrenia. (12 m)
· 2012 : Define ‘learned helplessness’. How can this concept be used to explain depressive disorders?(20 m)
· 2012 : (b) Explain the psychosocial factors and myths that demotivate people from following small family norms. Suggest relevant motivational strategies in this context.(20 m)
· 2014 : b) What is meant by unconditional positive regard?(10 m)
· 2014 : 3. a) Discuss how happiness may influence psychological well-being and health. 15
· 2014 : a) How will you distinguish between anxiety and mood disorders ? 10
· 2015 : d) What role can psychologists play in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention programmes in relation to terminal illness such as coronary heart disease and cancer?(10 m)
· 2015 : b) Critically evaluate the relationship between economic growth and human wellbeing in the light of contemporary research on happiness. 15
· 2015 : b) Psychologists have recently identified. a disorder which they term ‘intemetaddiction\ What are its presenting features? How can those suffering from this addiction be helped? 15
· 2016 : How can psychological well-being of service professionals be promoted ? Discuss.(10 m)
· 2016 : b) How do lifestyle variables influence quality of life of an individual in different life domains? 15
· 2016 : b) What biological factors explain mental disorders? Discuss.(10 m)
· 2017 : Explain psychopathic personality and state how it is related to deviant
· 2017 : b) Explain how hallucinations and delusional contents differ in paranoid and non-paranoid schizophrenia. 15
· 2018 : 5.(d) Explain the psycho-social factors demotivating people from small family norms. 10 marks
· 2018 : 2.(a)Discuss the efficacy of systematic desensitization in reducing clients’ phobic reactions. Illustrate your answer with suitable example 15 marks
Psychodynamic therapies; Behaviour therapies; Client-centered therapy; Cognitive therapies; Indigenous therapies (Yoga, Meditation); Bio-feedback therapy; Prevention and rehabilitation of the mentally ill; Fostering mental health.
|· 2011 : B) Critically evaluate the effectiveness of Beck’s cognitive behaviour therapy in treatment of different types of depressions. 30|
· 2011 : A) Explain Person-centred therapy and state its limitations with suitable examples. 30
· 2011 : b) Discuss the efficacy of biofeedback therapy in the management of mental health.30 m
· 2012: C)Critically evaluate the strengths and limitations of psychodynamic therapies in the treatment of mental disorders. (12 m)
· 2012 : (a) Explain the assumptions underlying cognitive therapy. Critically comment on its utility in the treatment of mental disorders.(30 m)
· 2014 : 6. a)What therapy will be most efficacious in case of someone who is
· 2014 : 8. a) Discuss the theoretical bases of behavioristic approaches of psychotherapy. 15
· 2015 : a) Do you think that efficacy of personnel selection can be improved by using multiple methods? 15
· 2015 : How can ‘Ashtanga Yoga’ help in fostering holistic health? Support your answer with research evidence. (10m)
· 2016 : c) Discuss the salient features of psychodynamic therapies and evaluate their role in prevention of mental illnesses. 20
· 2016 : a) Discuss the efficacy of behaviour therapies in the prevention of mental illnesses,(10 m)
· 2017 : Explain the concept of incongruence in person-centred therapy.(10 m)
· 2017 : C) Explain reciprocal inhibition in behaviour therapy and point out its
· 2018 : 2.(b) Explain the etiology of manic-depressive disorder. Evaluate the suitability of therapeutic methods for the treatment of manic-depressive disorder. 15 marks
· 2018 : 3.(b) Discuss the distinctive aspects of modern psycho dynamic therapy. How can it be helpful in the treatment of diverse array of disorders ? 15 marks
|Work Psychology and Organisational Behaviour:|
Personnel selection and training; Use of psychological tests in the industry; Training and human resource development; Theories of work motivation – Herzberg, Maslow, Adam Equity theory, Porter and Lawler, Vroom; Leadership and participatory management; Advertising and marketing; Stress and its management; Ergonomics; consumer psychology; Managerial effectiveness; Transformational leadership; Sensitivity training; Power and politics in organizations.
|· 2011 : B) Differentiate between managerial effectiveness and efficiency, and discuss the factors influencing them. 30|
· 2011 : a) Provide comparison between transformational and transactional leadership for their relevance to Indian organizations. 30
· 2012 : Explain the models of sensitivity training. Relate them to organizational development.(20m)
· 2012 : C) Explain Vroom’s expectancy theory of work motivation and link this theory with variable-pay programs.(20m)
· 2012 : (e) Discuss the components of gender sensitivity training. Indicate its importance in the context of management of workforce diversity.
· 2012 : 6. (a) What are the psycho-social components of advertising and marketing? Identify and discuss the relevant ethical Considerations. 30
· 2014 : c) Can leaders be trained 7 What will be the essential components of a
· 2014 : b) To what extent, do you think that the principles of management derived
· 2015 : To what extent would you agree that human resource development is more about inculcation of human values and less about development of competencies? (10m)
· 2015 : c) How will you go about constructing a test for assessing aptitude for Civil Services? Discuss the details. 20
· 2016: Is Herzberg’s theory relevant for understanding work motivation in Indian
· 2016: b) How is competency mapping made use of for human
· 2016: 4. a) Critically evaluate whether the principles of participatory management are equally effective in bureaucratic organizations as in industrial organizations. 15
· 2016: . a)How can psychological theories be put to use to inoculate people against their Impulsive buying behavior? 15
· 2017: a) Distinguish between content and process theories of work motivation.
· 2017: 4. a)In the light of various theories of leadership, what kind of leaders will be effective in bringing about social change? 15
· 2017: a) Discuss the challenges and opportunities offered by multiculturalism and
· 2018: 5.(e) With some examples show how can indigenous knowledge systems be used in management of biodiversity and cultural diversity ? 10 marks
· 2018: 1.(a) Bring out the similarities and differences between intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests. 10 marks
· 2018: 1.(b) How does stress contribute to the causation of physical illness ? Discuss the role of optimism as factor moderating the impact of stress.10 marks
· 2018: 4.(a) Explain the nature of sensitivity training. Comment on its utility as an organizational development technique.15 marks
· 2018: 4.(c) Explain Herzberg’s theory of work-motivation. Critically comment on its relevance in Indian context.. 20 marks
|Application of Psychology to Educational Field:|
Psychological principles underlying effective teaching-learning process; Learning styles; Gifted, retarded, learning disabled and their training; Training for improving memory and better academic achievement; Personality development and value education, Educational, vocational guidance and career counseling; Use of psychological tests in educational institutions; Effective strategies in guidance programmes.
|· 2011 : Discuss the process of selection of ‘gifted children’ on the basis of|
psychological tests. Make recommend- dations for their proper schooling.(20m)
· 2011 : c) Bring out the need of value education in personality development of students during schooling. 30
· 2011 : 6. a) What‘ are the techniques and devices used in improving memory to’ ensure better academic achievements? Discuss. 30
· 2011 : (b) Comment on the present practices related to educational guidance and counseling programs in Indian schools
· and colleges. Highlight the problems in implementing and strengthening these programs in Indian context. (12m)
· 2012 : b) Discuss different learning disabilities and their educational and psychological consequences. Suggest relevant remedial measures in this context. 30
· 2014 : c) Enumerate the factors that can impact upon the teaching-learning
· 2014 : 7. a) How can teachers help in meeting the educational needs of a child
· 2015 : c) Discuss some strategies for dealing with academic underachievement in Indian schools (10m)
· 2015 : c) Why do teaching-learning processes in Indian classrooms tend to be teacher-centred? If knowledge is viewed as a constructive process, what kind of classroom would be suitable for rural Indian schools? 20
· 2015 : c) Tribal children in India are disadvantaged partly because of the neglect of their language and culture in education. How can education for tribal children be reformed to deal with such disadvantage? 20
· 2016 : Examine some important psychological principles underlying effective teaching- learning process.
· 2016 : c) Illustrate the significance of value education in schools and comment on its relevance for personality development of children, 15
· 2017 : b) Discuss the importance and requirements of orthogenic schools in the
· 2017 : 3. a) Elaborate the process of spotting and nurturing gifted children in the
· 2018: 6.(c) Discuss some major factors of educational failure among tribal communities in India. Why must education of the disadvantaged emphasise development of self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation ? 20 marks
· 2018: 3.(a) How is giftedness identified and what are the issues in such identification in Indian context ? How is giftedness related to IQ and creativity ? 15 marks
· 2018: 3.(c) Can effective teaching-learning be viewed as a process of collaborative construction of knowledge? What are the implications of such a view on classroom structure and management in Indian conditions ? 20 marks
Definition and concept of community psychology; Use of small groups in social action; Arousing community consciousness and action for handling social problems; Group decision making and leadership for social change; Effective strategies for social change.
|· 2012 : (e) Discuss the merits of the role of small groups in social actions and community handling of social problems. (12m)|
· 2012 : (b) Justify with examples how the insights derived from studies on ‘intergroup contact hypothesis’ would be useful in promoting harmonious relations among different castes and in maintaining social order.
· 2014 : b) Discuss the implications of employing group decision-making in issues involving development in the Indian cultural context. 15
· 2014 : b) What psychological knowledge will you put to use for social inclusion of
· 2014 : b) How can the adverse consequences of social disadvantage be alleviated ? 15
· 2015 : a) What is the phenomenon of ‘group think’? How can it influence the quality of group decision making? (10m)
· 2015 : b) Elucidate the learning principles underlying behaviour therapies. Examine the relative efficacy of cognitive therapy and behaviour therapy in helping students overcome social anxiety. 15
· 2015 : c) According to Social Identity Theory, social categorization and differentiation processes are implicated in intergroup conflict. Evaluate the theory against available research evidence 20
· 2015 : How can psychological knowledge be put to use in changing the behaviour of children inclined to consume ‘junk food’? (10m)
· 2016 : Discuss the usefulness of small groups in community interventions for social
· 2016 : c) Discuss how the process of group decision making can be used effectively in bringing about social change. 20
· 2016 : 7b) Discuss the role of cognitive and behaviour therapies in improving the performance of sports persons. 15
· 2017 : Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of group decision-making over decisions made by individuals. (10m)
· 2017 : b) Explain the behavioural cognitive therapy by Ellis with the steps involved in it. 15
· 2017: c) What is the role of the community in handling social problems? Prepare a plan for involving the community to handle crime against women. 20
· 2017: c) What do you understand by intergroup attitudes? Why are such attitudes
· 2018: 6.(b) Discuss the relevance of frustration – aggression hypothesis in the context of caste prejudice in India. 15 marks
· 2018: 1.(c) In the context of positive social change differentiate between first-order and second-order change. Why is the second-order change often the focus of community psychology?10 marks
· 2018: 1.(e) In what specific ways can psychologists work for empowering the communities that have been marginalized by the society? 10 marks
Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention programmes-role of psychologists; Organising of services for rehabilitation of physically, mentally and socially challenged persons including old persons, Rehabilitation of persons suffering from substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal behaviour; Rehabilitation of victims of violence, Rehabilitation of HIV/AIDS victims, the role of social agencies.
|· 2012 : (d) Discuss how the major role of rehabilitation psychologists is primarily as a ‘facilitator of adjustive behavior’ rather than as a ‘symptom eradicator’.(12m)|
· 2012 : (b) Identify the physical and psychosocial consequences of being a victim of violence. Explain the nature of
· counseling and rehabilitation services a psychologist can render to the victims of violence.
· 2012 : (c) What are the causes of domestic violence? How is ‘belief in a just world’ used to rationalize this violence?
· 2014: c) Which rehabilitative strategies can be employed by the organizations to handle the workplace violence ?(10m)
· 2014 : b) State the challenges the psychologists are likely to face in the
· 2015 : b) What specific role can psychologists play in the management and rehabilitation of persons suffering from HIV/AIDS? 15
· 2015 : Substance abuse is a growing phenomenon among Indian youths. Discuss the psychological causes of and intervention measures for substance abuse .(10m)
· 2016 : a) Examine the role of situational factors in criminal behaviour. , 15
· 2016 : . a) Evaluate the role of social agencies in rehabilitation of mentally and socially challenged persons.15
· 2016 : d) Discuss the role of psychologists in organizing tertiary level rehabilitation programmers,(10m)
· 2017 : e) A large number of people all over the world are forced to leave then-
· 2018: 1.(d) What role do cultural factors play in rehabilitation of senior citizens with possible memory and cognitive decline ? Comment on the significance of family and social support in such rehabilitation in India. 10 marks
· 2018: 4.(b) Discuss the role of social and environmental intervention in rehabilitation of the mentally challenged. Why are such interventions crucial in Indian settings? 15 marks
|Application of Psychology to disadvantaged groups:|
The concepts of disadvantaged, deprivation; Social, physical, cultural and economic consequences of disadvantaged and deprived groups; Educating and motivating the disadvantaged towards development; Relative and prolonged deprivation.
|· 2011 : 7. b) Can deprivation be a source of motivation? Discuss the psychological|
measures relevant to deal with the negative consequences of prolonged
· 2012 : (a) Explain the psychosocial consequences of being a part of socially disadvantaged groups especially with reference to self-concept, identity, motivation and achievement. Give examples from Indian context.
· 2014 : b) What psychological conditions keep the poor in a socially disadvantaged state? 15
· 2015 : e) Socioeconomic and educational disadvantages have been viewed from ‘deficit* as well as ‘difference’ perspectives. Citing examples of each approach, discuss the difference between the two and their implications.(10m)
· 2015 : c) It has been found that cultural factors can be used to facilitate social change. What cultural factors can be made use of, and how, in making a success of the governmental programme called ‘Swacch Bharat Abhiyan’? 20
· 2016 : 6. a) Does need for affiliation come in the way of economic development of the tribal people ? Discuss. 15
· 2017 : c) Explain the psychological, socio-cultural and economic consequences of belonging to a disadvantaged group. Suggest the steps to educate and motivate disadvantaged groups towards development. 20
|Psychological problems of social integration:|
The concept of social integration; The problem of caste, class, religion and language conflicts and prejudice; Nature and manifestation of prejudice between the in-group and out-group; Causal factors of social conflicts and prejudices; Psychological strategies for handling the conflicts and prejudices; Measures to achieve social integration.
|· 2011 : b) Clarify the relationship between stereotypes and prejudices, and examine their impact on social integration. 30|
· 2012 : (b) Distinguish between prejudice and Discrimination. Explain the variables moderating the manifestation of prejudice into overt behavior.(20m)
· 2014 : d) Explain how the creation of superordinate goals can help in resolving
· 2015 : a) Religious violence in India has shown only a marginal decline over the years. What social and psychological factors explain it the most? 15
· 2016 : c) What psychological factors will explain lack of social integration involving religious
· 2016 : c) Discuss the process of prejudice formation. State the psychological strategies that
· 2017 : . a) Discuss how social integration can be promoted in India in the light of intergroup contact hypothesis and crossed categorization research. 15
· 2018 : 6.(a) How is disadvantage related to a social structure of hierarchy and discrimination ? What is its relationship with capability deprivation and poverty ? 15 marks
· 2018 : 7.(c) Critically describe the role of cultural assimilation in facilitating/hindering social integration in India. Illustrate with suitable example. 20 marks
|Application of Psychology in Information Technology and Mass Media:|
The present scenario of information technology and the mass media boom and the role of psychologists; Selection and training of psychology professionals to work in the field of IT and mass media; Distance learning through IT and mass media; Entrepreneurship through e-commerce; Multilevel marketing; Impact of TV and fostering value through IT and mass media; Psychological consequences of recent developments in Information Technology.
|· 2011 : a) Detail out the relationship between information technology, mass media and their psychological consequences with suitable examples. 30|
· 2012 : a) Discuss critically the utility of IT and mass media in the context of distance learning. Throw light on the strengths and limitations of distance learning.(20m)
· 2014: c) What are the psychological disadvantages of learning in the distant
· 2015 : Discuss the psychological mechanisms by which television viewing affects aggression and consumer behaviour in children. (10m)
· 2016 : e) What role can media play in the promotion of small family none in the Indian culture?
· 2016 : b) Evaluate the psychological consequences of social media in interpersonal relationships. 15
· 2017 : c) What are the psychological consequences of the fast development in information technology on adolescents?(10m)
· 2017 : 6. a) What is relative deprivation? Explain its consequences on adolescent 15
· 2017 : b) Which psychological and cultural factors will facilitate the success of ‘Beti Bachao Beti Padhao’ programme? How can this programme be promoted through information technology and mass media? 15
· 2017 : b) Explain the role of mass media in value development. How can the mass
· 2018 : 5.(a) Explain, using psychological framework, the impact of IT and mass media on the work-life in India. 10 marks
· 2018 : 7.(a) Explain how mass media contribute to acquisition and learning of aggressive and violent behaviour. Examine the relationship between exposure to erotica and aggressiveness. 15 marks
|Psychology and Economic development:|
Achievement motivation and economic development; Characteristics of entrepreneurial behaviour; Motivating and training people for entrepreneurship and economic development; Consumer rights and consumer awareness, Government policies for promotion of entrepreneurship among youth including women entrepreneurs.
|· 2011 : b) Compare procedural and distributive justice, and present their effect on employees’ motivation. 30|
· 2012 : (a) Can achievement motivation be included as a base of training for economic growth and development of a country? Discuss the contribution of McClelland and his team in this context.(12m)
· 2014 : c) Explain psychological characteristics of a successful entrepreneur. 20
· 2014 : c ) What psychological motives have retarded economic development in India, according to some psychologists ?Discuss. 20
· 2014 : c) What psychological knowledge can be used to develop a programme for women entrepreneurs ? 20
· 2015 : c) What is the relationship that has been found, between need for achievement, need for affiliation and need for power with economic development? Discuss the relevance of these findings in the context of Indian society. 20
· 2017 : c) Explain the characteristics of entrepreneurial behaviour. Discuss critically as to how entrepreneuricd behaviour can be cultivated through training. Cite evidence in the Indian context. 20
· 2018 : 5.(b) What psychological factors act as barriers in the context of women’s entrepreneurship? How can they be overcome ? 10 marks
· 2018 : 8.(c) Explain the interrelationship among achievement motivation, entreprenurial behaviour and economic development. Discuss critically as to whether achievement motivation can be enhanced through training. Cite relevant Indian studies. 20 marks
|Application of psychology to the environment and related fields:|
Environmental psychology- effects of noise, pollution and crowding; Population psychology: psychological consequences of population explosion and high population density; Motivating for small family norm; Impact of rapid scientific and technological growth on degradation of environment.
|· 2011 : c) Define the notion of environmental pollution. How would you explain the impact of scientific and technological innovation on environmental degradation from a psychological perspective?(30m)|
· 2012 : (b) Explain the consequences of short-term and long-term exposure to noise. How does noise affect our social behavior? Cite the impact of crowding in this context. 30
· 2014 : e) What social and psychological factors come in the way of population
· 2012 : d) As a psychologist, develop a programme to bring about attitudinal
· 2015 : b) How are indigenous knowledge systems related to environmental degradation?
· Mention some psychological processes underlying environmental attitudes and values.(10m)
· 2015 : a) Indian soldiers defend the country in extreme and, at times, hostile physical environments. What kinds of psychological problems are they likely to experience? 15
· 2015 : b) How is population growth in India affected by psychological processes of attribution, beliefs and values? Discuss possible implications of these processes for population education in India. 15
· 2016 : ) Analyze the impact of crowding on mental health. Discuss the psychological measures that can be adopted to reduce the stress resulting from crowding. 20
· 2017 : b) Explain the effects of short-term and chronic exposure to noise on the
· 2017 : 7. a)Explain the effects of rapid scientific and technological growth on environmental degradation. Discuss the role of psychologists in reducing. 15
· 2018: 7.(b) Explain the psychosocial consequences of crowding and high population density. Suggest appropriate policies to deal with the related problems in Indian context. 15 marks
|Application of psychology in other fields:|
(a) Military Psychology Devising psychological tests for defence personnel for use in selection, Training, counseling; training psychologists to work with defence personnel in promoting positive health; Human engineering in defence.
(b) Sports Psychology Psychological interventions in improving the performance of athletes and sports. Persons participating in Individual and Team Games.
(c) Media influences on pro and antisocial behavior.
(d) Psychology of terrorism.
|· 2011 : 8. a)Examine the role of ‘mental-plus- muscle’ practices in training of athletes 30|
· 2012 : 2. a) Explain the characteristics of standardized psychological tests. Discuss the major steps in developing self-report personality inventory. Illustrate you answer with a suitable example. 30
· 2012 : (d) Explain the concept of ‘team cohesiveness’ in the context of sports. How can teamwork be improved through the application of sports psychology?(12m)
· 2012 : (c) What is man-machine system in the context of human engineering? Highlight the applications of human engineering in defence with reference to equipment design.(20m)
· 2014 : 4. a) What psychological factors keep the group of terrorists cohesive ? 15
· 2014 : e) What role can mental imagery play in enhancing the performance of
· 2015 : a) Indian defense personnel tend to experience depression, sometimes leading to Suicides. What type of psychological interventions can foster positive mental Health in them? 15
· 2016 : b) How can human engineering be put to use in devising instruments that are used by the defence personnel posted in the border areas? Discuss. 15
· 2017 : Critically evaluate the role of self-report personality inventories in
· 2017 : d) Explain how cohesiveness can be promoted in sport teams by using
· 2017 : b) What is man-machine system? In this context, explain the applications of human engineering in designing the display systems of the aircrafts. 15
· 2018 : 5.(c) Discuss the most commonly used techniques or skills psychologists teach to athletes for improving their performance. 10 marks
· 2018 : 8.(b) What role can psychologist play in promoting psychological well being of defence personnel in the context of prolonged deprivational and stressful condition? 15 marks
|Psychology of Gender:|
Issues of discrimination, Management of diversity; Glass ceiling effect, Self-fulfilling prophesy, Women and Indian society.
|· 2011 : b)Discuss the challenges of managing gender biases in Indian society, 30|
· 2012 : (c) What is glass-ceiling effect? Explain the causal factors underlying it. What remedial steps can be taken by the employing organizations to minimize the glass-ceiling effect?(20m)
· 2014 : b) What are gender stereotypes in India? How do they feed into gender discrimination? 15
· 2015 : a)Does the notion of self-fulfilling prophecy relating to achievement satisfactorily explain gender differences in achievement? 15
· 2015 : b) Glass ceiling effects in organizations are rooted in socialization and family.” Discuss with reference to the psychological bases of gender role development . 15
· 2016 : 8.a) What factors account for gender differences in India ? Suggest some psychological measures to reduce gender differences. 15
· 2018 : 8.(a) Discuss the relationship between sex-role stereotyping, self-fulfilling prophesy and glass ceiling effect in Indian society: 15 marks