IAS junior sample topic module
Students prepare in different ways for IAS exam. Find out what they and how is our approach to prepare for IAS exam better and why we are the best coaching online.
Comparison – Regular Approach V/S IAS Junior Approach
Sample 1 on Multidimensional Thinking (Beginners don’t panic)
How can you think of all dimensions and answer aptly in exam environment?
Important preparation tips from IAS Junior:
- In Depth understanding of the issue rather than superficial reading
- Reading slowly – grasping the information – interlinking
- Absorb and internalize the knowledge.
- Only then, can your answers automatically get a structure, logical flow and depth.
- With consistent practice, right mentor and smart work – you will be able to present your officer quality.
- Register for our online mentorship program if you wish to be mentored by us.
Sample 2 – Battle of Plassey
Watch this 2 minute video
We refer to above standard books and summarize the content into a single page mindmap ( which can further be reduced to two to three line pneumonic which we will teach at later stages)
Now, your focus should be on possible way qns can be asked on that topic and try answering them.
Take Prelims Test
Sample Mains Questions:
Battle of Plassey, fought in 1757 by Robert Clive and Nawab of Bengal Siraj-ud-daulah is a turning point in British conquest of India.
The Battle is significant because it established British control over Bengal and its vast resources. Exploiting the same, British were able to extend their influence to Northern and Western India with de facto control of Bengal.
The battle of plassey is marked as the onset of political supremacy of British in India. Though it wasn’t a huge battle it had major political and economic implications.
When Siraj, despite British apparent opposition, came to power, the mistrust between the nawab and British widened. Siraj was unhappy by the misuse of ‘dastaks’ by British, fortification of Calcutta and providing asylum to merchants who were charged with fraud. Siraj, under these grudges occupied Calcutta.
However all was not well in Siraj’s court. The Commander in chief, Mir Jafar was not enthusiastic of the young nawab’s anti-British policies. The bankers and the financiers were tied up too closely with British cargo ships to access European markets. Thus this attempt by Siraj to re-balance the power structure in court was resented by all.
Clive though outnumbered by nawab’s military arrived with a plan. He promised to make the unsatisfied Mir jafar, the commander in chief of Siraj’s forces, the nawab of Bengal. The Indian merchants, who were now acting as dadani merchants of British, had their stake in the British too. Clive assured them that their rights will be protected against the assertive nawab. Thus he diverted the capital and military to his side.
Siraj, though aware of a conspiracy failed to understand the cause and extent of discontent. So when the battle finally happened he was out maneuvered easily by Clive.
Betrayal by Mir Jaffar and others led to Clive winning the Battle by the British army which was only one-tenth of Nawab’s army
The Hence, the Battle of Plassey is battle of great betrayal. The british victory in Plassey which established the foundation of their colonial rule in India was intangible as it was a symbol of betrayal and forgery which opened the gate for British to strengthen their military and beginning of rule in India.
The beginnings of British political sway over India may be traced back to the battle of Plassey in 1757, when the English East India Company’s forces defeated Siraj-ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal.
The East India Company had secured valuable privileges in 1717 under royal farman by Mughal Emperor which had granted the company the freedom to export and import their goods in Bengal without paying taxes and the right to issue passes or dastaks for the movement of such goods. The Company’s servants were also permitted to trade but not covered by the farman. They were required to pay the same taxes as Indian merchants. The misuse of farman was a
perpetual source of conflict between the company and the Nawabs of Bengal.
The breaking point came when without taking the Nawab’s permission, the Company began to fortify Calcutta in struggle with French who were stationed in Chandernagore.
The Nawab acted with undue haste and seized the English factory at Kasim bazar and occupied Fort William at Calcutta.The English were allowed to escape in their ships. Company officials waited for aid from Madras near Fulta. From Madras came a strong naval and military force under Admiral Watson and Colonel Clive .
Clive reconquered Calcutta in beginning of 1757 and compelled the Nawab to concede all demands of English. English joined a conspiracy to place Mir Jafar on the throne of Bengal, they
presented Nawab with impossible set of demands.Both realised war has to be fought between them.They met on fields of Plassey on 23 June 1757. The fateful battle was a battle only in name. The major part of Nawab’s army, led by traitors Mir Jafar and Rai Durlabh took no part in fighting.
Financial and Political consequences
- The Company was granted undisputed right to free trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
- It also received the Zamindari of the 24 Parganas near Calcutta.
- The new Nawab, Mir Jaffar, was dependent on the British for the maintenance of his position in Bengal. An English army of 6000 troops was maintained in Bengal.
- The wealth paid to British immediately after Plassey was a sum of £800,000
- Mir Jaffar regretted the deal that he struck with British later when he was reduced to a puppet leader only.
Position of British after the Battle:
- The battle of Plassey was of immense historical importance. It paved way for British Mastery of Bengal and eventually the whole of India. It boosted British prestige and at a single stroke raised them to the status of major contender for the Indian Empire. Before the battle, it was only just another European company trading in Bengal. But after Plassey they monopolized trade of Bengal.
- Plassey had brought about a gradual transformation in the character of the Company. In the context of the then politics, military control was synonymous with political body. Thus, the Company played a role of commercial-cum-military-cum-political body.
- The rich revenues of Bengal enabled them to organize a strong army and meet the cost of conquest of the rest of the country.
- Control over Bengal played a decisive role in the Anglo French struggle where British were finally victorious.
- The victory of Plassey enabled the Company with its servants to amass untold wealth at the cost of helpless people of Bengal.
Bengal was having greater strategic importance for British. Their hidden agenda was to take over the Bengal by Nawabs.
The treaty of Alinagar allowed British to mint their own coins, custom free trade in Bengal etc. Also in 1757 There was an internal struggle in Bengal regarding the accession to throne between Nawab and his relatives. British conspired in this. Apart from this British started misusing the commercial concessions and fortifying their forts. This doesn’t go well with the Nawab and he challenged this through Battle of Plassey. This battle didn’t involve much loss of lives. It was a basically a skirmishes and conspiracies.
Ultimately the British were success full in installing a Puppet –Mir Jafar after winning this war.
But Mir Jafar also found it difficult to cope with British expectations and he started steps to become Independent ruler. British didn’t like it and again they installed another puppet-Mir Qasim. But soon the difference emerged .Mir Qasim shifted his capital from Murshidabad to Munger and fortified Munger. Mir Qasim also captured Patna and ordered Patna massacre. It created the immediate cause for the battle of Buxar.
In this battle company fought against combined forces of Mir Qasim, Shuja-ud-Daula and Shah Lam II. British won this battle.
Post this battle it made the Company as defacto ruler of Bengal. Company got Diwani rights of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. It legalized the Company role in Bengal. Treaty of Allahabad was signed. This treaty turned Mughal emperor into, Awadh as follower and Bengal as the base of the company. It marked the begging of ring of Fence policy.
Thus the battle Buxar completed the task capturing Bengal initiated by the battle of Plassey.
The massive structure of independent state of Bengal was carefully built by Murshid Kuli Khan, but Bengal along with several other states failed to uphold their autonomy after the death of Alivardi Khan. The main reasons of the autonomy failure were:’
- The absence of the rule of any definite succession under the prevailing system provided the full opportunity for a conflict each time. Obviously, it required the support of the nobility and military that could be won over besides encouraging factionalism within court. The support extended by Zamindars, moneylenders and others definitely turned the scale of favour of them, but this seriously threatened the stability of the independent Bengal provisions. The battle of Plassey in 1757 has exhibited that it was than the superior might of the English that decided the fate of battle.
- The imperial control had been loosened to a great extent under the independent states. The Nawab could not retain the effective control over the officers through the system of checks and balances. Nawabs were dependent on the military of the Company. Whereas the company also provided the English ideal circumstance to demand more finances and other privileges whose position definitely did not allow meeting that. The company therefore indulges into a direct confrontation with Nawabs, who had to abdicate his throne.
When the news of the capitulation of Calcutta reached Madras, the authorities there immediately decided to direct an army which had been built up to fight against the French towards Calcutta. The command of the expedition was given to Robert Clive who had recently returned from England.
- Clive was urged to do his work as rapidly as possible for the Madras authorities wanted their troops back in Madras for defence against the impending French attack.
- Manik Chand, the Nawab’s officer in-charge of Calcutta, was bribed and he surrendered Calcutta to the English after making a show of resistance. The Nawab made peace with Clive by the Treaty of Alinagar restoring to the English their former privileges of trade, granting permission to fortify Calcutta and promising compensation for the losses suffered by the English.
- Taking advantage of the disaffection among the Nawab’s officers, Clive arranged a conspiracy in which Mir Jaffar, Rai Durlabh, Jagat Seth and Omi Chand, an intermediary joined. It was planned to make Mir Jaffar the Nawab who in turn was to reward the services of the Company and pay compensation for the losses suffered by them earlier.
- On 23 June 1757 the rival forces faced each other on the battlefield of Plassey. The Nawab’s large army was commanded by the treacherous General Mir Jaffar.
- An advance party of the Nawab’s troops led by Mir Mudan and Mohan Lai got the better of the English troops and forced Clive to withdraw his forces behind the trees. A stray shot from the English side, however, killed Mir Mudan. Siraj-ud-daula summoned his army officers and sought their advice. Mir Jaffar played upon the fears of the Nawab and counseled a withdrawal of the army behind the entrenchment. Further, the Nawab was advised to retire from the battlefield leaving the control of operations to his Generals. The card was well played. The Nawab retired to Murshidabad followed by 2,000 horsemen.
- The little band of Frenchmen who held out were soon overpowered by Clive’s troops. Mir Jaffar merely looked on. Clive won the day and received a message of congratulations from Mir Jaffar. Mir Jaffar reached Murshidabad on 25th and proclaimed himself the Nawab of Bengal. Siraj-ud-daula was captured and put to death.
- The Company was compensated for the losses suffered at Siraj-ud-daula’s capture of Calcutta. All French settlements in Bengal were surrendered to the English. It was also understood that British merchants and officials would no longer be asked to pay duties on their private trade.
Importance of the Battle of Plassey:
- The battle of Plassey is important because of the events that followed it. Plassey put the British yoke on Bengal which could not be put off. The new Nawab, Mir Jaffar, was dependent on British bayonets for the maintenance of his position in Bengal and for protection against foreign invasions.
- An English army of 6,000 troops was maintained in Bengal to help the Nawab maintain his position. Gradually all real power passed into the hands of the Company. How hopeless was the position of Mir Jaffar is clear from the fact that while he wanted to punish Diwan Rai Durlabh and Ram Narayan, the deputy governor of Bihar, for disloyalty, the English held his hand. Mr. Watts, the British Resident at Murshidabad, held considerable influence.
- A great transformation came about in the position of the English Company in Bengal. Before Plassey the English Company was just one of the European Companies trading in Bengal and suffering various exactions at the hands of the Nawab’s officials. After Plassey the English Company virtually monopolised the trade and commerce of Bengal. The French never recovered their lost position in Bengal; the Dutch made a last bid in 1759, but were humbled. From commerce the English proceeded to monopolies political power in Bengal.
- Plassey proved a battle with far-reaching consequences in the fate of India. “There never was a battle.” writes Malleson, “in which the consequences were so vast, so immediate and so permanent.” Col. Malleson certainly overstates the case when he writes that it was Plassey which “made England the great power in the world. Plassey which forced her to become one of the main factors in the settlement of the burning Eastern Question. Nevertheless, the battle of Plassey was an important event in the chain of developments that made the English the masters of India.
The consequences of Plassey shaped the form of British over rule and the modes of cultural contact.
The Battle of Plassey (1757) was fought between the EIC and Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah of Bengal in which the latter was defeated by the former. There were many factors which resulted in the war which gave British complete control of Bengal Province. The Bengal province was one of the richest provinces of those times. The ports of Bengal formed an important lifeline of British trade.
Factors that led to the war between East India Company and Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah
- The EIC had secured a royal farman in 1717 which secured them export and import of goods without paying taxes and the right to issues passes or dastaks. The Nawab was not in favour of the farman.
- The EIC’s traders misused the right to issues passes; they charged heavy taxes from the Indian merchants. The Nawab wanted the Company to do trade on his terms but the latter refused to do so.
- The rivalry for possessions in Bengal between French and English led to a race for fortifications. These invited the wrath of nawab, While French obeyed the orders of nawab, English declined to halt the fortifications owing to its political ambitions.
- The Nawab attacked and seized EIC’s factory at Kasimbazar and marched to Calcutta and occupied Fort William. The Britishers were felt oppressed by this move. The death of English men due to suffocation in a black hole tragedy, made the war inevitable.
- The battle was mostly a one sided affair due to treacherous employees of Nawab-Mir jafar, Amirchand etc.
The Battle of Plassey was of immense historical importance. It paved the way for British mastery of Bengal. It boosted the prestige of British and raised them to a status of major contenders for the Indian empire.
As a result of the war of Plassey, the French were no longer a significant force in Bengal.The Battle of Plassey and the resultant victory of the British East India company led to puppet governments instated by them in various states of India. This led to an unleashing of excesses, malpractices and atrocities by the British East India Company in the name of tax collection.
Importance of Battle of Plassey:The victory of British East India company in the Battle of Plassey is one of the important landmark in India History. The Battle of Plassey revealed the utterly corrupt political situation in Bengal.Watson had himself stated this victory to be of extraordinary importance not only to the company but also to the British nation in general.
Mir Jafar became a mere ‘puppet ruler’ and the power rested with the British. On every matter he depended on the English. The Battle of Plassey paved the way for beginning of their empire.
The British enjoyed the tax benefits, had to compete with no rival foreign merchants and began to use the revenue of Bengal for protecting their military and trade interest.
Mir Jafar gave 24 Parganas and one crore of rupees to the Company and valuable Siraj presents to the English officers including Clive.
It depleted the state exchequer. So much wealth was drained from Bengal that the economy was completely shattered. This is known as the Plassey Plunder. With the wealth of Bengal the British secured their business and political supremacy.
So, How much time did it take assuming you are a Beginner?
Video + mindmap = 10 minutes
Prelims test = 10 minutes
Mains test = 1 hour
Once you understand the concept and essence behind it. All you will be doing is working on good presentation
Tip: You don’t have to answer all the questions at once. Revise topic and answer the questions as per the schedule(which will have ample of time alloted for revision)
Now, you will be able to answer any question upsc can ask on the topic 🙂
If you want to adopt above strategy for your preparation under the guidance of a mentor. Join us. Register HERE
Note: Schedule, notes and practice tests standards are personalised in the mentorship program and vary looking into the students aptitude and speed.