UPSC MAINS OPTIONAL SUBJECT: SOCIOLOGY PAPER 1 TOPIC WISE UPSC QUESTIONS

sociology question papers

SOCIOLOGY PAPER 1 TOPIC WISE UPSC QUESTIONS (2010-2018)

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SOCIOLOGY PAPER 1 TOPIC WISE UPSC QUESTIONS

SYLLABUSPREVIOUS YEAR QUESTIONS
Fundamentals Of Sociology

Sociology – The Discipline:

(a)  Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of sociology. (b)  The scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences. (c)  Sociology and common sense.

 

·       2011 : (a) Emergence of Sociology is an outcome of modernity and social change in Europe. 15

·       2012 : Interpretative Sociology 12

·       2013 : Sociology emerged in Europe and flourished to begin with on social 10

·       2014 : How did the emergence of industrial society change the family life in Western Europe?   10

·       2014 : How is sociological approach to human actions different from that of psychological approach?   10

·       2015 : How had Enlightenment contributed to the emergence of sociology?  10

·       2015 : Examine the dialectical relation between tradition and modernity in the study of social change.  20

·       2016 : (c) Is sociology common sense? Give reasons in support of your argument.  10 marks

·       2017 : (a) Discuss the changing equation of discipline of sociology with other social sciences. (20 Marks)

·       2018 : (a) The focal point of sociology rests on interaction. How do you distinguish it from common sense?  10

·       2018 : Q 3. (a) Does collapse of functionalism and bankruptcy of Marxism coincide with the rupture of modernity? Discuss.  20

Sociology as Science:

(a)  Science, scientific method, and critique. (b)  Major theoretical strands of research methodology. (c)   Positivism and its critique. (d) Fact value and objectivity. (e)   Non- positivist methodologies.

 

·       2011 : (b) Fact and Value.  15

·       2012 : Fact Value and Objectivity 12

·       2013 : Critically examine positivistic approach in sociological studies. 10

·       2014 : In what way biographies could be used to study social life?   10

·       2014 : In what way ‘interpretative’ method is different from ‘positivist’ approach in the study of social phenomena?20 marks

·       2015 : Is sociology a science?  Give reasons for your answer.  10

·       2015 : Examine the problems of maintaining objectivity and value neutrality in social science research.  20

·       2015 : “Non-positivistic methodology is essential for understanding human behaviour.” Discuss. 20

·       2016 : What is ‘value-free sociology”? Clarify.  10

·       2016 : (b) Describe the basic postulates of scientific method. How far are these followed in sociological research? 20 marks

·       2017 : (a) Explain how sociology has emerged as a distinct discipline based on rationality and scientific tamper. (10 Marks)

·       2017 : (b) Examine ethnomethodological and phenomenological perspective as critique of positivism. (10 Marks)

·       2017 : (b) Examine the basic postulates of positivism and post-positivism. (20 Marks)

·       2017 : (c) Elaborate the main tenets of interpretative perspective in sociology. (10 Marks)

·       2018 : Q 2. (a) Is non-positivistic methodology scientific? Illustrate.  20

Research Methods and Analysis:

(a)  Qualitative and quantitative methods. (b)  Techniques of data collection. (c) Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.

 

·       2011 : (c) Reliability and Validity. 15

·       2011 : (a) What is subjective method in social research ? Examine Focus group Discussion (FGD) as a technique for data collection, with suitable examples.  30

·       2012 : Comparative Method    12

·       2012 : Differentiate between the qualitative and quantitative methods of research 20

·       2013 : Analyse the limitions of quantitative methods in social research. 20

·       2014 : Which research technique would be most suitable for the study of consumer behaviour and its social correlates? Explain. 20 marks

·       2015 : What are variables? Discuss their role in experimental research.  10

·       2015 : Why is random sampling said to have more reliability and validity in research?   20

·       2016 : Analyze the importance of qualitative method in social research.  10

·       2016 : (c) “Hypothesis is a statement of the relationship between two or more variables.” Elucidate by giving example of poverty and illiteracy. 10 marks

·       2016 : (b) “Participant observation is the most effective tool for collecting facts.” Comment. 20 marks

·       2016 : (c) Illustrate with example the significance of variable in sociology research. (10 Marks)

·       2017 : (c) Examine epistemological foundation of qualitative methods of social research. (10 Marks)

·       2017 : (c) How can one resolve the issue of reliability and validity in the context of sociological research on inequality ? (10 Marks)

·       2018 : (d) Distinguish between qualitative techniques of data collection with suitable examples from Indian society.  10

·       2018 : (c) Explain with examples, the explanatory and exploratory designs of social research.  10

Sociological Thinkers:

(a)  Karl Marx- Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle. (b)  Emile Durkheim- Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society. (c) Max Weber- Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. (d)  Talcolt Parsons- Social system, pattern variables. (e) Robert K. Merton- Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups. (f) Mead – Self and identity.

 

·       2010 : “Sociology without History is rootless and History without Sociology is fruitless.” Elaborate.30

·       2010 : “Work in capitalism is reduced to mere labour in which the individual does not develop freely his physical and mental energy but mortifies his body and ruins his mind.” Critically evaluate the assertion.30

·       2010 : Compare Karl Marx with Emile Durkheim with reference to the framework of ‘division of labour’.30

·       2010 : Critically analyse the contributions of G.H Mead to ‘symbolic interactionism’.30

·       2010 :  Examine Karl Marx’s views on ‘class-in-itself’ and ‘class-for-itself’ with reference to proletarians.30

·       2011 : (d) The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. 15

·       2011 : (b) What is Class? Do you think that Weber’s contribution to social stratification is different from that of Marx? 30

·       2011 : (b) Define Ideal Type and explain Weber’s concept of ‘Verstehen’ for understanding social phenomena. 30

·       2011 : 4. (a) Give conceptual meaning of social system. What is cognitive consonance between ‘pattern’ variables’ and ‘paradigm’? 30

·       2012 : social fact is to be treated as a thing. Discuss 20

·       2013 : Analyse the salient features of historical rationalism. 10

·       2013 : Compare Karl Marx with Emile Durldieim with reference to the framework of ‘division of labour’.  20

·       2013 : Critically analyse the contributions of G.H. Mead to ‘symbolic interactionism’. 20

·       2013 : How do Karl Marx and Weber differ in terms of their analysis of social stratification  20

·       2013 : Examine the relevance of Parsonian Social System in the present society.  10

·       2014 : How is objectivity different from value neutrality? Discuss with reference to Weber’s views on methodology.  10

·       2014 : How can we use reference group theory to understand fashion in society?  10

·       2014 : Identify the similarities and differences between Marx’s theory of ‘alienation’ and Durkheim’s theory of ‘anomie’. 20 marks

·       2014 : How could one use Merton’s concept of deviance to understand the traffic problem in urban India?  10 marks

·       2014 : “According to Max Weber, ‘class’ and ‘status’ are two different dimensions of power.” Discuss.    20 marks

·       2014 : Using Merton’s concepts of ‘manifest’ and ‘latent’ functions, explain the persistence of corruption in Indian society. 10 marks

·       2014 : How does Weber use the notion of ‘ideal types’ in his theory of bureaucracy?  20 marks

·       2014 : Using Mead’s theory of symbolic interactionism, discuss the stages in the formation of gender identity.  10 marks

·       2014 : For Marx, class divisions are outcomes of ‘exploitation’. Discuss.  10

·       2014 : “Power is not a zero-sum game”. Discuss with reference to Weber’s and Parsons’s views.20 marks

·       2014 : According to Marx, capitalism transforms even the personal relationships between men and women. Critically examine with illustrations from the contemporary Indian context.   10 marks

·       2015 : Discuss the relevance of historical method in the study of society.  10

·       2015 : Which concepts did Weber use to analyse the forms of legitimate domination?  10

·       2015 : Discuss the role of Calvinist ethic in the development of Capitalism.  10

·       2015 : “Self and society are twin-born ” Examine the statement of Mead.  10

·       2015 : Differentiate between Maxian and Weberian theories of Social stratification.  20

·       2015 : How is social equilibrium maintained in Parsonian framework?  20

·       2015 : “Anomie is rooted in social structure.” Explain with reference to R.K. Merton’s contribution.   10

·       2015 : Elaborate the views of Durkheim on “The Elementary Forms of Religious Life”.  10

·       2016 : Evaluate Marx’s ideas on mode of production.  10

·       2016 : (b) Describe the functional prerequisites of social system as given by Talcott Parsons. Examine in the context of a university as a social system. 20 marks3.

·       2016 : (a) Analyze the manifest and latent functions of security of the tenure of bureaucrats’ in the light of Merton’s theory. 20 marks

·       2016 : 4.(a) Examine Max Weber’s method of maintaining objectivity in social research. 20 marks

·       2016 : (b) How is Durkheim’s theory of religion different from Max Weber’s theory of religion? 20 marks

·       2017 : (d) Critically analyse Talcott Parsons conception of pattern variable’. (10 Marks)

·       2017 : (a) Discuss distinct sociological method adopted by Emile Durkheim in his study of ‘suicide’. (20 Marks)

·       2017 : (b) Analyse Marxian conception of historical materialism as a critique of Hegelian dialectics. (20 Marks)

·       2017 : (b) Distinguish between fact and value in Weber’s Protestant Ethic ad Spirit of Capitalism.    10

·       2018 : (c) Do you think T and Me are central terms in Mead’s work.     10

·       2018 : (b) Explain Durkheim’s basic arguments on suicide. Can you analyse high suicide rates of contemporary Indian society with Durkheim’s theory?   20

·       2018 : (b) Define patriarchy. How does patriarchy manifest in interpersonal relations?  20

·       2018 : (c) What is the difference between anomie in Merton and Durkheim? Explain.  10

·       2018 : Q 4. (a) According to Marx, how are human beings alienated from their human potential and what does he suggest to change this?  20

·       2018 : (c) Does scientific method make Sociology a Science? Illustrate your answer with Durkheim’s method .  10

·       2018 : Q 7. (a) How can Parsons’ AGIL framework be used to analyse key problems is a society? Discuss.   20

·       2018 : (c) In what way did Durkheim perceive religion as functional to society?   10

 

Stratification and Mobility:

(a) Concepts- equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation. (b) Theories of social stratification- Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory. (c) Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race. (d) Social mobility- open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.

 

·       2010 : Q.1 Write short notes on any four of the following, keeping sociological perspectives in view (each short note in about 200 words) :15×4=60

·       2010: A.Content Analysis .15

·       2010: B.Nomothetic and Idiographic Methods . 15

·       2010: C.Serendipity. 15

·       2010: D.Cybernetic Hierarchy of Control. 15

·       2010: E.Ethnicity and Development. 15

·       2010 : Examine how open and closed systems of stratification are undergoing transformation in the emergence of new hierarchical social order in societies.30

·       2010 :  Examine the social dimensions of displacemenet induced by development.15

·       2011 : (e) The problem of gender. 15

·       2011 : (b) What do you mean by social mobility? Discuss the major sources and causes of mobility. 30

·       2012 : sometimes workers do not feel attachment for their work. Marks formed a theory on the situation, discuss that theory. 20

·       2012 : Stratification of Classes 12

·       2012 : Theory of Cultural Lag-Ogburn and Nimkoff.

·       2012 : In our society Hierarchical relations are influenced by social mobility ?

·       2013 : Discuss. Critically examine the functionalist tradition in Sociology 20

·       2013 : Examine the salient features of Weberian bureaucracy.  10

·       2013 : How open and closed systems of stratification undergoing transformation in the emergence of new hierarchical social order in Societies?  20

·       2013 : Examine the social dimensions of displacement induced by development.  10

·       2013 : Analyse the gender bias in the present society with examples.  10

·       2014 : What do you understand by gender? How does it shape ‘male ‘identity?20 marks

·       2015 : “No society can either be absolutely open or absolutely closed.” comment.  10

·       2015 : Explain the relevance of the idea of ‘cultural lag’ in understanding social change.  10

·       2016 : (e) “Vertical mobility brings structural change even in a closed social system.” Comment.

·       2016 : 2.(a) Elucidate the basic premises of Davis’ structural-functional theory of social stratification. How far is it relevant in understanding contemporary Indian society? 20 marks

·       2016 : (c) Discuss the relationship between poverty and social exclusion. 10 marks

·       2017 : (e) Can we equate ‘poverty’ with ‘poor living’ ? Elaborate your answer. (10 Marks)

·       2017 : (a) What is Weberian critique of Marxist notion of social stratification. (20 Marks)

·       2017 : (b) Examine gender. Ethnicity and race as major dimensions of social stratification. (20 Marks)

·       2018 : (d) What is the difference between natural and social inequality examples from caste and class dimensions.  10

·       2018 : (c) Evaluate if social stratification is functional for society.   10

·       2018 : (b) Schooling does not ensure upward mobility of all members of this society. Discuss with reference in class societies.  20

·       2018 : (a) Is the theory of cultural lag valid in present times? Discuss.  10

·       2018 : (e) In social mobility possible in closed systems of stratification ? Illustrate from research work.    10

Works and Economic Life:

(a) The social organization of work in different types of society- slave society, feudal society, industrial /capitalist society. (b) Formal and informal organization of work. (c) Labour and society.

 

·         2010 : Feminisation of Labour in Informal Sector

·       2010 : Human Relations School of Thought by Elton Mayo as a social organisation of work process in industry. 15

·       2011 : (a) Self-Help Group (SHG) as an informal organization of work. 12

·       2011 : 6. (a) What is formal organization? 12

·         2012 : Industrial Democracy 12

·       2012 : In Marxian classification of Society, feudal and slave societies are very important. How are they different from each other?

·       2012 : How so formal and informal organisation of work influence labour’s mobility ? Exaplain with examples.

·       2013 : Examine the social impact of globalization on labour and society.  20

·       2014 : What are the distinctive features of social organization of work in slave society? How is it different from feudal society?  10

·       2015 : Distinguish between the social organization of work in feudal society and in capitalist society.   10

·       2015 : the increasing importance of the tertiary sector has weakened the formal organization of   work in recent times. Examine the statement .  20

·       2016 : (a) Describe the nature of social organization of work in industrial society.  10

·       2016 : 6.(a) “Globalization has pushed the labour into informal organization of work.” Substantiate your answer with suitable examples. 20 marks

·       2017 : (a) What do you understand by informalisation of labour ‘? Write your answer with special reference to India. (10 Marks)

·       2017 : (a) Trace the changing nature of organisation of work in capitalist society over the years. (20 Marks)

·       2018 : Q 6. (a) Discuss the nature of social organization of work in capitalist society with reference to the Limits of the working day.  20

·       2018 : (b) What is labour commitment? Discuss it with reference to studies of manufacturing industry.  20

Politics and Society:

(a)  Sociological theories of power. (b)  Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups, and political parties. (c)   Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology. (d) Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.

 

·       2010 : Identity Politics. 15

·       2010 : List the sources of power and explain the various indicators based on which power can be measured.30

·       2010 : Evaluate how civil society and democracy mutually reinforce each other.30

·       2011 : (a) What can Sociology show us about our actions? Discuss the practical significance of Sociology. 30

·         2011 : (b) Power Elite. 15

·       2011 : “The growth of bureaucracy has resulted in extreme concentration of power at larger levels of social organization.” Discuss.  20

·       2011 : (b) Highlight prerequisites of social movement bring out the differences between social movement and revolution. 20

·       2011 : (c) “Collective action in politics can bring integration and disintegration in society.” Comment.   20

·       2011 : (c) Explain the concepts of Participatory Democracy What conditions are assumed to be conducive to participation? 20

·       2012 : How did the French revolution and Industrial revolution play an important role in the emergence of Sociology?

·       2012 : ‘Power and authority go together.’ Examine. Explain the various types of authority also. 30

·       2012 : Citizenship and Civil Society 12

·       2012 : Millenarian Movements 12

·       2012 : Are Social movement always influenced by ideologies? Discuss.

·       2012 : What do you understand by nation ? Is the nation same as the state ? Discuss.

·       2012 : ‘Revolutionary change have some specific characteristics.’ Discuss with examples.

·       2012 : reformist orientation in the USA.” — Comment.

·       2013 : Examine the role of pressure groups in parliamentary democracy.  10

·       2013 : Define social movement. Elucidate the role of reformist movements in social change. 10

·       2013 : Evaluate how do civil society and democracy mutually reinforce each other.  20

·       2013 : Critically examine the role of civil society in democracy.  10

·       2014 : Discuss T. H. Marshall’s views on citizenship.  10

·       2014 : Distinguish between Political Parties and Pressure  10

·       2014 : What do you understand by social movement? How has the mobilization by Scheduled Castes helped them in constructing a new identity?  10 marks

·       2015 : “Ideology is crucial for social transformation in a democracy.” Discuss.  10

·       2015 : Explain the conditions under which a collective action transforms into a social movement. 20

·       2015 : Caste ideology appears to have strengthened democracy .Comment.  10

·       2015 : “Globalization involves deterritoriazation .” Examine with reference to the nation-state.”   20

·       2016 : (b) Discuss the importance of power elite’ in democracy,   10

·       2016 : (c) Examine the role of protest movements in changing the status of Dalits in India. 10 marks

·       2016 : (c) To what extent revolution replaces the existing order of society? Discuss. 10 marks

·       2017 : (b) Discuss the changing interface between state and civil society in post-independent India. (10 Marks)

·       2017 : (b) What is new in ‘new social movement ‘? Elaborate your answer with special reference to India. (20 Marks)

·       2017 : (c) Examine the dynamics of pressure group in multi-party political system. (10 Marks)

·       2018 : (b) Are social movements primordial in means and progressive in agenda? Explain.   10

·       2018 : (c) What, according to Pareto, are the basic characteristics of elites? Discuss   10

Religion and Society:

(a)  Sociological theories of religion. (b)  Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults. (c)   Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.

 

·       2010 : Examine the social dimensions of religious revivalism and fundamentalism in the context of globalization.30

·       2010 : Positive Religion. 15

·       2010 :  “Science has empirical means to logical ends and religion has non-empirical means to logical ends.” Comment.15

·       2011 : (c) Cultural Pluralism. 12

·       2011 : 7. (a) Define sect, cult and religion. In what way do Weber’s views on religion differ from those of Durkheim?    20

·       2012 : Universalism vs. Particilarism 12

·       2012 : Sacred and Profane 12

·       2012 : Show how Durkheim through of totemism demonstrates the reality of religion. 30

·       2012 : Examine how Weber’s characterisation of capitalism is different from those of Marx. 30

·       2012 : Discuss the factors leading to growing religious revivalism in the contemporary world.

·       2013 : Compare and contrast Sociology with Anthropology.10

·       2013 : “Science has empirical means to logical ends and religion has non-empirical means to logical ends.” — Comment.

·       2013 : Critically examine the cultural theories of social change with suitable examples.  20

·       2013 : Is religion antithetical to science Comment.  10

·       2014 : “According to Durkheim, the essence of religion in modern society is the same as religion in primitive society.” Comment.  10

·       2014 : How is religious revivalism different from communalism? Elaborate with suitable examples from the Indian context.20 marks

·       2015 : Distinguish between sects and cults with illustrations.  10

·       2015 : Define Secularisation. What are its major dimensions in the modern world?  20

·       2016 : “Sociology is pre-eminently study of modern societies.” Discuss.  10

·       2016 : (c) Is religion playing an important role in increasing fundamentalism? Give reasons for your answer.   10

·       2016 : 7.(a) “Religious pluralism is the order of present-day societies.” Explain by giving suitable examples.  20 marks

·       2017 : (c) Give an assessment of Durkheimian notion of ‘scared’ and ‘profane’ in sociology of religion. (10 Marks)

·       2017 : (c) Problematise the concept if secularism in the present context. (10 Marks)

·       2017 : (c) Elaborate on various types of religious practices prevalent in India society. (10 Marks)

·       2018 : (c) Discuss the challenges thrown by religious revivalism to a secular nation-state.  10

·       2018 : Q 8. (a) “The sociological imagination enables us to grasp history and biography and the relationship between the two in a society.” – C.W.Mills . Explain.   20

·       2018 : (b) What is sects? Discuss their role in multi-religious societies with empirical examples.   20

Systems of Kinship:

(a)  Family, household, marriage. (b)  Types and forms of family. (c) Lineage and descent. (d)  Patriarchy and sexual division of labour. (e) Contemporary trends.

 

·       2010 : Kinship and Social Capital . 15

·       2011 : (d) Lineage and Descent. 12

·       2011 : (b) What you mean by marriage and family? Discuss the structural and functional changes in family in modern society. 20

·       2012 : Describe the important of lineage and descent in kinship and family.

·       2012 : Show how family is distinct from household.

·       2013 : Analyse the contemporary trends in family with examples. 10

·       2013 : Is patriarchy a universal phenomenon? Critically examine how does patriarchy affect sexual division of labour in societies?  20

·       2013 : Examine the emerging trends in marriage and family as a response to the changes in economic and social order.  20

·       2014 : Critically examine the functionalist views on the institution of family. How do those help us in understanding family in the present times?  20 marks

·       2014 : What do you understand by institutionalization of ‘live-in-relationship? 10 marks

·       2015 : Is male authority absent in matrilineal society? Discuss.  10

·       2015 : How do the rules of descent and alliance in kinship differ from each other? Illustrate.   10

·       2016 : (d) To what extent is patriarchy a cause for the problems of women? Discuss.  10

·       2016 : (b) Discuss the contemporary trends in family as a response to social change in modern society. 20 marks

·       2016 : (c) Distinguish between family and household as sociological concepts. 10 marks

·       2017 : (d) Examine ‘patirarchal bargain ‘ as gendered division of work in contemporary India. (10 Marks)

·       2017 : (a) Examine the relationship between the contemporary trends in marriage and changing from of family. (10 Marks)

·       2017 : (b) Discuss the regional variations of kinship system in Indian society. (20 Marks)

·       2018 : (e) What are the new forms of family in developed societies? Discuss.  10

·   2018 : (b) Distinguish between family and household with reference to the concept of development of the household.   20

Social Change in Modern Society:

(a)  Sociological theories of social change. (b)  Development and dependency. (c) Agents of social change. (d)  Education and social change. (e) Science, technology and social change.

 

·       2010 : “There has been a substantial decline in labour class and increase in labour force in non-manual jobs with the advent of new technological revolution.” Critically examine. 30

·       2010 : Distinguish between people being socially excluded and people excluding themselves socially in societies. 15

·       2010 : Analyse the social impact of market economy on traditional societies. 15

·       2011 : (e) Development and Dependency. 12

·       2011 : (a) “ Social support mechanism needs to be strengthened for effective implementation of development programmes.” 20

·       2011 : (b) Discuss World System Theory in the context of modern society.  20

·       2011 : (c) “Science and Technology are major forces accelerating the process of social change.” Comment. 20

·       2013 : Examine science and technolo as agents of social change. 10

·     2013 : Distinguish between people being socially excluded and people excluding themselves socially in societies. 10

·     2013 : Illustrate the conflicts and tensions experienced by societies undergoing social change.  20

·     2014 : Education is often viewed as an agency of social change. However in reality it could also reinforce inequalities and conservatism. Discuss.  20 marks

·     2014 : How is the increasing use of technology changing the status of women in Indian society?  20 marks

·     2014 : Write a short essay on the Latin American perspective on ‘dependency’. 20 marks

·     2015  : “Education helps in perpetuating social and economic inequalities.” Critically examine the statement.  20

·     2016 : (e) “Social conflict is both a cause and a consequence of social change.” Explain,  10

·     2016 : (b) “Social change can be brought about through development.” Illustrate from the contemporary situation of India.  20 marks

·     2016 : 8.(a) “Education is a major source of social mobility in contemporary society.” Explain. 20 marks

·     2017 : (e) Assess the role of mass media as an agent of social change. (10 Marks)

·     2017 : (a) Examine any two theories of social change in detail society. (20 Marks)

·     2017 : (b) Critically analyse the role of science and technology in bringing about social change. (20 Marks)

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