Syllabus: General Studies Paper 1 (Indian Society)
Discuss the impact of globalization upon the Indian education system in complex and conflicting ways.
Globalisation refers to integration of world economies through cross country free flow of information, ideas, technologies, goods, services, finance and people. Education is an important investment in building human capital that is a driving force for technological innovation and economic growth. It is only through improving the educational status of a society that the multi-faceted development of its people can be ensured. Education holds the key to India’s growth and socio-economic development. This has assumed greater importance over the last decade with India positioning itself as a knowledge economy in a fast globalizing world.
Globalisation is a process, which has affected many areas of human life, one of those being education. The impact of globalization on India’s education sector has been significant, at all levels of education (primary, secondary and higher). Globalisation has both advantages and disadvantages upon education system of India.
Benefits of globalization for Indian education system
- Internationalization of Education
Implicit in the system of Globalization is the inevitability of internationalization of the educational system, particularly at the higher education stage. This is not peculiar to India but has become a worldwide phenomenon. The entry of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the inclusion of educational services under the general Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) has given a boost to the internationalization of higher education
- Merits of Internationalization
The merits of internationalization of education are:
- Education will improve if it is internationalized and healthycompetition takes place
- It will provide global opportunities and promote international goodwill; and
- It will encourage exchange of scholars. This can be done byinvolvement of reputed scholars in the respective countries incurriculum designing and transaction of knowledge.
- Academic Advantages
- Global education interconnects methods of teaching from worldwide systems to encourage the international development of environmental sustainability, as well as contribution toward fortifying global industries.
- These educational initiatives prioritize global access to school from the primary to the university levels, instigating learning experiences that prepare students for multinational leadership roles.
- Enable Choice-Based Selection:Students and Faculties can now be a part of global education system off their choice without even relocating the country. Thus, enabling them to utilize the best of available opportunities of the world at ease.
- High Cultural Impact:
- Talking about India, where a huge Influence of foreign culture exists. Such cultural exchange adds different flavours to the local culture and enriches it.
- International perspectives initiated through cross-cultural educational collaboration between global institutions may transcend from academic spheres to professional organizations in which the globally educated would retain advantageous skill sets generated through intercultural communication experiences.
- This becomes valuable within multinational corporations that necessitate global transactions to sustain worldwide trading partnerships.
- As education serves as foundational to global stability, the development of multicultural awareness from an early age may integrate ideologies sourced from various societies in order to arrive at well-balanced conclusions regarding issues that surround the world as a whole.
- Distance Learning
- Distance learning is the teaching and learning process which does not happen in a physical classroom, but instead happens in a virtual classroom. T
- the invention of the internet has taken distance learning into a whole new level. Distance education has enabled more people to gain access to education through the many different types of online courses offered by universities and other online course providers.
- One of the benefits of this distance learning is that the learning process can be done in learners’ own time, without any peer pressure from classmates.
- There is an increased emphasis on preparing global citizens who are ready to face the highly competitive world.
- There is a huge upsurge in the demand for learning English language, growing popularity of international schools, need for curriculum restructuring and inclusion of ICTs etc.
- School facilities have also come under the scanner as there is a demand for quality in available infrastructure that can aid in preparing a different class of people who are ready for a global world.
- The biggest advantage of globalization is that it will create an environment of healthy competition with foreign educational institutes resulting in exponential growth of students and teachers across the globe.
- With the advent of globalisation the Indian higher education system has made considerable progress in terms of capacity creation and enrolment especially in the last decade yet it lags significantly in terms of “global relevance and competitiveness”. But soon India will fill these gaps with impact of globalization.
How globalization adversely affects Indian education system :-
- Internationalization of education, it will beharmful for our country to allow an unregulated entry of foreign institutions in India. Quite a few of these institutions are of dubious quality – some of them not even been recognized in their own countries.
- In a Study “Partnership of PrivateSector in Financing and Management of Higher Education” (2002). in consultationwith academics, educational planners and representatives of the industry, some of the guidelines were suggested about the entry of foreign institutions in India
- While the basic aims of education are to enable children develop their potentials, define and pursue a meaningful purpose globalisation has put an extra pressure on the education system to create ‘winners’ who are ready to battle in the race for the survival of the fittest.
Finance Related Issues
In order to be a part of the global configuration, the requirements of funds for social services including education will increase manifold. For this purpose, it will be necessary to augment government funding for these sectors.
- Down Sizing Secondary and Higher Education
- Indian higher education has attracted special attention by the Reformists’, particularly by the international organizations. Based on the ‘Rate of Return’studies, the World Bank came to the conclusion that its lending strategy should emphasize primary education relegating higher education to a relatively minor place in its development agenda.
- Education is a continuum in which the various stages are complementary rather than competitive. Any attempt at compartmentalizing education in order to deny the requisite funding to aparticular sector would be retrogressive and retard the progress of education.
Privatization of Secondary and Higher Education
Commercial institutions offering specialized education have come up everywhere. In view of globalization, many corporate universities, both foreign and Indian, are encroaching upon
Globalization poses challenges like
- Faculty Shortage
- Quality of education
- Incentive structures.
Steps to be taken to tune Indian education system with global standards:-
- Content of Education
- The modern advances in information technology have revolutionised, among others, the content of knowledge and the processes of educationaltransaction. The ever-growing use of electronic media has brought education to the doorsteps of the common man.
- Need for a continuous up-gradation of the curriculum in order to introduce the latest developments relating to various disciplines in the curriculum. Alongside, pruning of the existing curriculum would be a necessary condition in order to remove the obsolete and irrelevant details.
- It also needs to be stressed that education should help to engender a new “humanism that contains an essential ethical component and sets considerable store by knowledge of, and respect for, the culture and spiritual values of different civilizations.
- Productivity Orientation
- The basic objective of globalization is to enhance productivity and to make the educational system an instrument of preparing students, who cancompete in the World markets as productive members of the society.
- skill training should be introduced as an integral part of the curriculum .
- Skill training at secondary stage was launched in 1988 as a centrally sponsored programme.
- The reasons for the slow progress of these programmes are many, butthe most significant is lack of acceptance – by the parents, teachers and students of introducing an element of skill training as a part of the general curriculum.
- Value Education
- In order to ward off the evils of untrammelled competitiveness and use of unethical practices to go up in the socio economic ladder, it is necessary that education should lay stress on value education, which emphasizes cooperation rather than competition.
- Sharing of experience rather than personal aggrandizement and learning to live together rather than living in mutually hostile camps.
Indian professionals, particularly in Information Technology, havesuccessfully competed in the world markets especially in software development and data analysis. This, however, cannot continue for a long time to come especially because competition from the developing countries is likely to be very intense in times to come. This underscores the need for emphasizing
- Research and Development (R & D) particularly in the newly emerging areas in our University institutions.
- As suggested by lyengar (2000): “Our human resource development in the future should be planned such that there are identified areas in which India could compete effectively, and be innovators rather than just followers. These could include areas such as biotechnology, new power sources, education etc.
- The Government should focus on these areas, and offer incentives to researchers for innovative research in these fields”.
- Infrastructure and equity
- To enable more and more promising students to join institutions of higher learning. This would necessitate qualitative up gradation of the academic and physical infrastructure.
- Reforming teacher education and improving the system of student assessment so that no student with potentiality for benefiting from education is denied that opportunity.
- It may also require special coaching facilities for the students belonging to the traditionally deprived sections of the society.
Globalization in the field of education has resulted in the privatization of institutes, foreign direct investment, Cross border supply of educational services/resources by setting up institutes in other countries, Temporary Faculty and student exchange across the countries. But there do exists the other side of globalization such as it will not create a level playing field for all countries and countries having technological superiority may dominate other countries. Also, there are high chances of education getting commercialized with local needs getting undermined.
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