UPSC General Studies 2013 Paper III Solutions
- With a consideration towards the strategy of inclusive growth, the new Companies Bill, 2013 has indirectly made CSR a mandatory obligation. Discuss the challenges expected in its implementation in right earnest. Also discuss other provisions in the Bill and their implications. (200 words) (10 marks)
The Companies Bill, 2013 replaces the over half a century old Companies Act.
– Its CSR provision makes it mandatory for companies above a threshold to spend 2% of their average annual profits of last 3 years on CSR activities or else provide explanation. The company has to create a CSR policy and its implementation has to be seen by an independent director.
Challenges in implementation of CSR provision
- The allowed CSR activities will be prescribed in the rules. Many companies like Tata, Wipro have their own CSR programmes. What happens if their activities are not covered under the rules?
- It may lead to arm twisting of companies by the local politicians.
- Companies may simply donate to government funds like prime minister relief fund to avoid compliance costs.
- There is no penalty for non-compliance.
- Minority shareholders
- Electronic voting provision.
- Class action suits provision.
- Related party transactions approval provision.
- Impact: will protect minority shareholders.
- Minimum 1/3rd independent directors. They can have maximum 2 terms of 5 years each.
- Impact: will improve corporate governance and prevent compromising of directors.
- Audit and accounting related provisions
- Auditors have to be changed periodically.
- Auditors have to act as whistle blowers.
- NFRA established to prescribe accounting standards and oversee conduct of auditors.
- Impact: will improve disclosures and corporate governance.
- Small companies
- 1 person companies allowed.
- Small companies have smaller compliance requirements.
- Impact: will encourage small companies.
Briefly wrote one sentence on each provision.
- What were the reasons for the introduction of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act, 2003? Discuss critically its salient features and their effectiveness. (200 words) (10 marks)
Reasons for introduction of FRBMA
- High fiscal deficit of centre and states: central deficit was over 6% and state + central combined over 8%.
- This high fiscal deficit was unsustainable and could have led to Eurozone like sovereign crisis in India.
- Public savings were running negative (-1.7% of GDP).
- Revenue deficit was high. So to keep our public finances sustainable, FRBMA was enacted.
Salient features and effectiveness
- Fiscal deficit to be kept below 3% before 2007-08.
- Effectiveness:It was achieved in 2007-08. But due to global financial crisis, it shot up over 6% in subsequent years and remained above 3%. The deadline has since been repeatedly extended and now it is 2015.
- Revenue deficit to be eliminated. In 2012, the target was changed to effective revenue deficitto be eliminated by 2015.
- Effectiveness:It was achieved but since then has been breached.
- Off balance sheet guarantees of the government for PPP projects to be limited to 0.5% of GDP.
- RBI to not to participate in primary government securities auction. Government borrowing from RBI only to happen via Ways and Means Advance and not adhoc t-bills.
- Effectiveness:Totally effective.
- Even state governments were given incentives by Finance Commissions to enact their FRBMAs and they have complied. Their fiscal deficit is < 3% now.
- But the law requires only a simple majority to be amended and any government in power would have that. Its numerous amendments and deadline postponements have shown that it lacks efficacy.
- There are also no penalties for violation of law.
- Government has merely shifted fiscal deficit off the balance sheet by issuing oil bonds. Similarly power discomfort liabilities too don’t come under fiscal deficit.
- What is the meaning of the term ‘tax expenditure’? Taking housing sector as an example, discuss how it influences the budgetary policies of the government. (200 words) (10 marks)
A tax expenditure program is government. Spending through the tax code. Tax allowing expenditures alter the horizontal and vertical equity of the basic tax system by allowing exemptions, deductions, or credits to select groups or specific activities. For example , two people who earn earn exactly the same income can have different effective owning a home having children , and receiving employer health care and pension insurance. Static scorning perpetuates the assumption that tax expenditures have the same effect on the Bud get deficient as policies in housing sector
- Exception allowed for deduction of HRA (Income tax ) and various other income tax deductions and exemptions (Eg. Medical Premium)
- Exceptions allowed for interest payments and principal repayments for housing loans
- Tax Expenditure in union budget 2013: First home loan from a bank or housing finance corporation up to Rs. 25 Lakhs entitled to additional deduction of interest up to Rs.1 lakh
- It should be noted that due to various policies government , the number of persons who own houses have increased , More over the people can offered to spend on infrastructure as they to give taxes.
- Food Security Bill is expected to eliminate hunger and malnutrition in India. Critically discuss various apprehensions in is effective implementation along with the concerns it has generated in WTO. (200 words) (10 marks)
FSB makes it a statutory right of 67% of population (75% in villages, 50% in urban areas) to get 5 kg of cereals at highly subsidised prices. However, it has given rise to many concerns.
- Concerns in WTO:talked about Amber box subsidies, how they have to be limited to 10% by developing countries. AMS is calculated based on prices in the base year (1986) and on entire eligible output. India risks breaching that due to FSB commitments. So India should press for (a) food security and small and marginal farmers exemption. (b) updation of reference prices to present prices to account for food inflation. (c) peace clause (art 13 of AoA) for a long tenure or until a permanent solution is found. On the other hand, developed countries are only willing to give a peace clause for 4 years.
- Food subsidy costs:Mentioned many estimates put astronomical numbers to the costs. But they include many other large costs such as money to be spent on development of agriculture (eg. Gulati) which would have been spent irrespective of FSB. The government says costs of FSB will be Rs. 125,000 crores as against present subsidies of Rs. 109,000 crores.
- Will increase PDS leakages:Some argue that to push more money through already leaking PDS is a wastage. But empirical data doesn’t support it. Experiences in states such as Chattisgarh, Odisha, TN and even Bihar since 2009-10 suggests more coverage of PDS results in better delivery and less leakages (Khera). The FSB also contains provisions for many PDS reforms.
- Will cause inflation:People will spend money saved on food on other things which may lead to inflation. There is substance to this, but this increased demand can give a positive stimulus to the sluggish economy.
- Increased procurement needs will lead to grain imports / Nationalization of grain trade:Critics argue that more food procurement requirements will lead to imports. But FSB’s procurement needs are around 65-70 million tonnes and government has been procuring more than this for the past few years already. Total food grain production in India is over 250 million tonnes. As seen above, government procurement will still be limited to only a fraction of food grain production.
- Will hurt farmers: Critics also argue that with everybody buying grains at so cheap costs, farmers will not get remunerative prices. But this is wrong. To Need FSB requirements, government will have to increase MSP which will benefit farmers.
- What are the different types of agriculture subsidies given to farmers at the national and at state levels? Critically analyse the agriculture subsidy regime with reference to the distortions created by it. (200 words) (10 marks)
Subsidies in agriculture came after the Green Revolution, both at centre and state levels.
Subsidies at central level
- The urea is covered under retention price scheme while other nutrients (P & K) are under nutrient based subsidy regime.
- Distortions created: soil fertility imbalance, ecological imbalances like eutrophication. Recent spikes in P & K prices have worsened it.
- But needed to sustain HYV seeds and support marginal and small farmers who are heavy users of fertilizers.
- Minimum Support Prices
- But it is effective only for wheat and rice and that too in Punjab, Haryana and West UP.
- This creates distortions that crops not suited to the climate of a place are cultivated. eg. water guzzling rice in arid areas in Punjab and Haryana.
- MSP can be used to promote ecological friendly farming and cropping patterns. So it must be made effective for all regions and all crops.
- They are also highly needed given poor state of our small and marginal farmers.
- Credit / Interest Subvention Schemes / Debt waivers:
- Distortion created is ground water depletion.
Subsidies at state level
- Electricity:Distortion created is ground water depletion and poor supply of electricity in villages.
- Irrigation water:Distortion created is (a) Irrigation systems don’t even recover O&M costs. This leads to poor water supply and management. (b) farmers at canal heads use more water and cultivate water guzzling crops. (c) Ground water depletion. So water must be brought under public trust doctrine and O&M costs recovered, WUAs should be encouraged.
Wrote one sentence each describing each subsidy.
- India needs to strengthen measures to promote the pink revolution in food industry for ensuring better nutrition and health. Critically elucidate the statement. (200 words) (10 marks)
Pink Revolution is a term used to denote the technological revolutions in the meat and poultry processing sector. Afrse ‘green’ and ‘white’ revolutions related to Agricultural and Milk respectively, it 15 for to look into the n pink Revolution” related to meat and poultry sector. India 15 having a huge population of cattle and poultry, so there is wide scope for is sector _if modernized properly. There is a need to look at the potentials of this sector because : The present meat consumption per capita of around 6 grams per day will improve to 50 grams a day m the next decade or so. When such phenomenal increase in meat consumption occurs, the sector will within a tremendous growth. Despite India’s large have stock population, India accounts only around 2 percent of global market. However, even after looking at the potentials of this sector, there seems to be challenges too, which include creating standard policies for meat production and export, standardizing the quality and safety aspects of meat and poultry, and creating infrastructure facilities for modern slaughter houses, meat testing facilities and cold storages for the growth of the meat and poultry processing sector. Further, India needs additional investment in the sector as well.
Government has also taken some policy initiatives to this sector which includes :
- Exemption of income tax or central excise in this
- There are no restrictions on the export of poultry and poultry products.
- 100% FDI is allowed in the sector, so that available resources can be trapped without any investment
- The industry has been growing at an alarming rate of 10-15 per cent annually
thereby showing the potentials of the sector.
- The government has launched a comprehensive scheme for the modern1za_tto of abattoirs across the country in order to address quality standards, contamination and deterioration of produce, and the amount of meat
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) in its report titled the
‘Indian Meat Industry Perspective’, the PAO outlined four steps that should be taken if India’ s food industry is to successfully go pink. These recommended steps were: setting up state of the art meat processing plants; developing technologies to raise male buffalo calves for meat production; increasing the number of farmers rearing buffalo under contractual farming; and establishing disease-free zones for rearing animals. India has already become quite rosy and meat production has been steadily growing over the past decade. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foreign Agricultural Service, India became the largest exporter of buffalo meat in 2012, exporting approximately 1.5 million metric tons of beef. The largest importers of Indian meat are primarily countries in the Middle East and South East Asia.
Q 7. Examine the impact of liberalization on companies owned by Indians. Are they competing with the MNCs satisfactorily? (200 words) (10 marks)
Give theoretical arguments like:
Positive impact of liberalization on Indian owned companies
- Technology transfer.
- Ancilliary development and boost to MSMEs.
Negative impact of liberalization on Indian owned companies
- More competition.
- Better logistics, whole supply chain tends to become more efficient.
How Indian companies are faring
Wrote points. In each point, took some sectors and said Indian companies have outperformed MNCs (eg. telecom, insurance, banking) or Indian companies competing well (eg. automobiles) or Indian companies performing poorly (eg. food processing / beverages).
Q 8. Establish relationship between land reforms, agriculture productivity and elimination of poverty in the Indian economy. Discuss the difficulties in designing and implementation of agriculture friendly land reforms in India. (200 words) (10 marks)
Land reforms are of 4 types:
- Zamindari / Intermediary abolition.
- Land ceiling.
- Tenancy regulation.
- Land consolidation.
(Wrote a line each on what these are).
- Reduced absentee ownership.
- Reduced inequalities in village.
- Checked the feudal system.
- Kept greed of large landlords in check.
- Reduced rent seeking.
- Small farms have higher productivity.
- But due to poor implementation, not all potential benefits have been realized. Tenancy went underground.
Besley and Burgess (2000) in their seminal work have established following relationships between land reforms,
|Land Reform||Impact on Poverty||Impact on Productivity|
|Zamindari abolition||Reduced||No impact|
|Land ceiling||No impact||No impact|
|Tenancy regilation||Reduced||Negative impact|
|Land consolidation||No impact||Positive impact|
Difficulties in design and implementation
- Lack of political and administrative will.
- Laws were kept pending for decades and were full of loopholes.
- Ceilings defined were kept very high by states.
- Tenancy went underground and no protection could be made available for such tenants.
- Legislatures and administration full of land owning powerful elements.
- Absence of land ownership records led to multiple litigations which have been pending for decades.
9.a Discuss the impact of FDI entry into multi trade retail sector on supply chain management in commodity trade pattern of the economy. (100 words) (5 marks)
Retailing in India is one of the pillars of its economy and accounts for 14 to 15 percent of its GDP. The Indian retail market is estimated to be US$ 500 billion and one of the top five retail markets in the world by economic value. India is one of the fastest growing retail markets in the world, with 1.2 billion people.
In November 2011, India’s central government announced retail reforms for both multi-brand stores and single-brand foresees market reforms paved the way for retail innovation and competition with multi-brand retailers such a Walmart, Carrefour and Tesco, as well single brand majors such as IKEA, Nike and Apple. FOI investment into multi-trade retailing may change trade pattern from small shops to big super markets. It may result into big investors contracting with manufacturers for reading and trade pattern of small suppliers giving way t big quantity trading.
9.b Though India allowed FDI in what is called multi-brand retail through the joint venture route in September 2012, the FDI, even after a year, has not picked up. Discuss the reasons. (100 words) (5 marks)
- Sector and policy specific factors:Lack of clarity on some definitions, stringent conditions.
- 30% procurement from MSMEs. These MNCs cultivate their relationships with suppliers and help them grow. What happens if with time these MSMEs grow beyond MSME definition.
- FDI not allowed in cities with < 1 million population.
- Minimum 50% investment in backend logistics. But this requirement is only over total investment, or on each investment tranche?
- has relaxed and clarified some of these conditions lately.
- Global slowdown.
- Policy uncertainty, retrospective taxation.
- General investment turndown in economy.
- Land acquisition, multiple clearances issues both at central and state level.
Q 10. Discuss the rationale for introducing GST in India. Bring out critically the reasons for the delay in roll out for its regime. (200 words) (10 marks)
Gave a one sentence intro on GST.
- Currently there are multiple taxes and restrictions on trade within the country. It should be surprising that EU has lesser trade restrictions across the nations than we have across the states.
- Improve tax compliance and reduce tax avoidance.
- Reduce corruption and black money.
- Will encourage economic efficiency, trade and commerce and further GDP growth.
- To remove cascading effect of many taxes.
Reasons for delay
- States’ compensation:States are asking for Rs. 50,000 crore to be built in the constitutional amendment itself. Centre has only provided Rs. 9000 crore in current budget.
- Inter State GST:Specially problematic for goods/services where the provider is not required to be present in consuming states. eg. broadcasting where viewers can be in Bihar while broadcaster may be in Delhi. How to collect GST in such cases.
- Exemption list:States want to exclude petroleum, alcohol, gas from GST and build in this exemption in constitution itself. Centre wants to include it in GST with flexibility to impose additional taxes.
- Rate structure:States want flexibility to change rates or at least a narrow band where they can charge multiple rates, while centre wants a single rate only.
- Powers of GST Council:States want it to be a recommendatory body only and judiciary to resolve any disputes. Centre wants it to be a decisive body and a special dispute resolution mechanism to decide on disputes.
- Revenue neutral rate:Even if an overall revenue neutral rate is arrived at, it won’t be revenue neutral for many states since different states have different present tax capacities.
Note: I now realize, I completely missed out on “critically analyze” part. 5 more marks gone.
- Write a note on India’s green energy corridor to alleviate the problem of conventional energy. (200 words) (10 marks)
The green energy corridor will facilitate the flow of renewable energy into its grid e1ectncitity·The corridor will be built across seven states over the next five to, six year The project will be implemented with the assistance of Germany which has promised to provide developmental and technical assistance of €1 billion as soft credit.
The grid will also receive support from the World Bank and India’ s National Electricity Fu n d . It aims to connect the southern grid to the national grid by 2014 to rate the single largest transmission grid in the world.
1ndias wind and solar capacity has more than do u bled in the last five years. As of February, India had 19,564 MW of wind. Solar, the second largest source of renewable energy, had 1,208 MW of installed capacity.
A joint study from Greenpeace and market analysts Bridge to India said India could break the 2 GW solar power barrier by 2020 due to plummeting costs, extensive roof space and the rising demand for electricity.
Under this major initiative, the German financial institution kfW has agreed to provide one billion euro loan. .
In addition, under India-US Energy Dialogue, a memorandum of understanding (MoU) has been signed recently for promoting energy access through clean energy (PEAC E). Under this initiative, Export- Import Bank of US intended to mobilize around $250 million EXIM Bank financing for clean energy access.
Similarly, the European Union (EU) is helping Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET), Chennai to estimate off-shore wind power potential and identify most suitable sites for establishment of off-shore wind farms in India.
- Adoption of PPP model for infrastructure development of the country has not been free of criticism. Critically discuss pros and cons of the model. (200 words) (10 marks)
Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) is an effective tool for bringing private sector efficiencies in creation of economic and social infrastructure assets and for delivery of quality public services. The extent of private sector participation in creation of infrastructure, especially through PPP, has shown a promising increase in the recent
Pros of PPP model of infrastructure
- Speedy, efficient and cost effective delivery of projects
- Value for money for the taxpayer through optimal risk transfer and risk management
- Efficiencies from integrating design and construction of public infrastructure
- with financing, operation and maintenance/upgrading
- Creation of added value through synergies between public authorities and private sector companies, in particular, through the integration and cross transfer of public and private sector skills, knowledge and expertise
- Alleviation of capacity constraints and bottlenecks in the economy through higher productivity of labor and capital resources in the delivery of projects
- Competition and grater construction capacity (including the participation of overseas firms, especially in joint ventures and partnering arrangements)
- Accountability for provision and delivery of quality public services through performance incentive management/ regulatory regime
- .Innovation and diversity in the provision of public services
- Effective utilization of state assets to the benefit of all users of public services Cons of PPP model
- PPP contracts are typically much more complicated than conventional procurement contracts.
- Development, bidding and ongoing costs in PPP pro jects are likely to be greater than for traditional government procurement processes – the government should therefore determine whether the greater costs involved are justified.
- License long-term nature of these projects and the complexity associated,
- it 15 difficult to identify all possible contingencies during project development and events and issues may arise that were not anticipated in the documents or by the parties at the time of the contract. It is more likely than not that the parties will need to renegotiate the contract to accommodate these contingencies. It is also possible that some of the projects may fail or may be terminated prior to the projected term of the project
- Profits of the projects can vary depending on the assumed risk, competitive level, complexity and volume of the project being performed
- Government representative must be highly specialized personnel and contracting experts.
- Private sector will do what it is paid to do and no more than that.
- Bringing out the circumstances in 2005 which forced amendment to section 3(d) in Indian Patent Law, 1970, discuss how it has been utilized by the Supreme Court in its judgement in rejecting Novartis’ patent application for Glivec. Discuss briefly the pros and cons of the decision. (200 words) (10 marks)
Note: I didn’t know circumstances specific to the amendment to 3(d), but knew the circumstances leading to amendment of patent law itself.
Section 3(d) of the Patent law allows for patents in drugs only if the molecule displays a novel and significant improvement in efficiency. A patent cannot be given for minor / frivolous changes. The Supreme Court interpreted ‘efficiency’ to mean therapeutic efficiency and not just bio availability. This is needed to prevent frivolous patenting or patent evergreening where drug makers renew their patents on drugs by making frivolous incremental changes.
Circumstances leading to amendment
- India became a member of WTO and signed TRIPS. This required it to amend its patent laws to bring in product patenting, compulsory licensing etc and make them TRIPS compliant.
- But to protect public health from patent evergreening, Sec 3(d) was amended to say that patent be given only for significant increase in efficiency of drugs.
Pros and Cons of the decisions are very standard, and I wrote 3-4 pros and cons each.
- What do you understand by Fixed Dose Drug Combinations (FDCs)? Discuss their merits and demerits. (200 words) (10 marks)
Combination products, also known as fixed dose drug combinations (FDCs), are combinations of two or more active drugs in a single dosage form.
It is widely accepted that most drugs should be formulated as single compounds. Filed ratio combination products are acceptable only when the dosage of each ingredient meets the requirement of a defined population group and when the con1bination has a proven advantage over single compounds administered separately in therapeutic effect, safety or compliance.
FOCs are highly popular in the Indian pharmaceutical market and have been particularly flourishing in the last few years. The rationality of FOCs should be based on certain aspects such as:
The drugs in the combination should act by different mechanisms.
The pharmacokinetics must not be widely different.
The combination should not have supra-additive toxicity of the ingredients. Most FDCs have the following demerits:
Dosage alteration of one drug is not possible without alteration of the other drug.
Differing pharmacokinetics of constituent drugs pose the problem of frequency of administration of the formulation.
By simple logic there are increased chances of adverse drug effects and drug interactions compared with both drugs given individually.
The most pressing concern with irrational FDCs is that they expose patients to
unnecessary risk of adverse drug reactions. In India, a variety of NSAID combinations
are available, often as over the counter products. These combinations are an easy
way to sell two drugs when one (or even none) may be needed for the patient
There is no synergism when two drugs acting in the same enzyme are combined Thus combination of two NSAIDs does not and cannot improve the efficiency of treatment. Combinations of NSAIDs / analgesics with antispasmodic agents are also available in India. They are not only irrational but also could be dangerous , Irrational FDCs also impose unnecessary financial burden on consumers
- What do you understand by Umpire Decision Review System in Cricket? Discuss its various components. Explain how silicone tape on the edge of bat may fool the system? (200 words) (10 marks)
UDRS is the system whereby the players can challenge the on field umpires’ decisions – 2 unsuccessful reviews each test innings and 1 unsuccessful review each ODI innings. Various technologies are used by the 3rd umpire to review the on field umpires’ decisions. These include:
- Hot spot:This uses infrared imaging to capture the thin edges. A white spot appears on the grey image of the bat on the spot where the ball has touched the bat.
- Snickometer:This uses the stumps microphone to capture the thin edges by detecting faint sounds of ball hitting the bat. This is used to review faint edges.
- Hawkeye:This predicts the ball’s line and length which it would have followed had it not hit the pads. This is used to review lbw decisions.
Silicone tape on the edge of the bat
- This fools the hot spot as it interferes with the heat signatures and the white spot doesn’t appear even if the ball hits the bat’s edge.
16.a What is a digital signature? What does its authentication mean? Give various salient built in features of a digital signature. (100 words) (5 marks)
Digital signature is used for verifying authenticity of the sender in electronic documents.
Explained the public key private key mechanism i.e. in a digital signature, the private key of the sender is used to encode a message and the recipient uses the public key of the sender to decode it. If message is decoded successfully by the public key of the sender, then it means that it could have been encoded only by the private key of the sender and hence the sender himself. This is called authentication.
Built in features
- Safety, reliability.
- Conclusively establishes that only the sender’s key could have sent the message and hence functions as signature.
- Only the public key is shared which doesn’t compromise on the safety of the mechanism.
16.b How does the 3D printing technology work? List out the advantages and disadvantages of he technology. (100 words) (5 marks)
3D technology uses Computer Aided Designing (CAD) to prepare the models of the object to be ‘printed’ and then uses layers of a special plastic in an ‘additive’ process to build the whole object. It has recently been used in the International Space Station.
- No need for ISS to carry all objects they would ever need from earth. Can help in other space missions as well.
- Mass customization is possible.
- Objects of virtually any shape and size can be printed like this easily.
- Reduces logistics costs substantially.
- It is expensive and not widely available yet.
17.a What is an FRP composite material? How are they manufactured? Discuss their applications in aviation and automobile industries. (100 words) (5 marks)
- Fibre-reinforced plastic/polymer (FRP) is a composite material mad e of a polymer
matrix reinforced with fibres.
The fibres are usually glass, carbon, basalt or aramid, although other fibres such as paper or wood or asbestos have been sometimes used.
FRP involves two distinct processes, the first is the process where by the fibrous material is manufactured and formed, the second is the process where by fibrous materials are bonded with the matrix during moulding.
Reinforcing Fibre is manufactured in both two-dimensional and three dimensional orientations. Fibre preforms are how the fibres are manufactured before being bonded to the matrix.
Fibre preforms are often manufactured in sheets, continuous mats, or as continuous filaments for spray applications. The four major ways to ·manufacture the fibre preform is through the textile processing techniques of Weaving, knitting, braiding and stitching. Applications in Aviation and Automobile industry : These are important to the aviation and automobile industry because they provides structural strength comparable to metallic alloys, but at a lighter weight. This leads to improved fuel efficiency and performance.
17.b What do you understand by run of the river hydroelectricity project? How is it different from any other hydroelectricity project? (100 words) (5 marks)
- Run-of-river hydroelectricity (ROR) is a type of hydroelectric generation whereby little or no water storage is provided. Run-of-never power plants may either have no storage at
limited amount .of storage, in which case the storage reservoir is referred to as pond age. A plant without pond age h s no storage and is, therefore, subject to seasonal river flows and may operate as an intermittent energy source while a plant with pondage can regulate water flow and serve either as a peaking power plant or base load power plant
ROR dramatically different in design and appearance from conventional hydroelectric projects Traditional hydro dams store enormous quantities of water in reservoirs necessitating the flooding of large tracks of land In contrast most run of river projects do not require a large impoundment of water , which is a key reason why such projects are often referred to as environmentally friendly, or green power
- As an administrator, what are the key areas that you would focus on in a Disaster Management System. (200 words) (10 marks)
Disasters have adversely affected humans since the dawn of our existence. In response, individuals and societies alike have made many attempts to decrease their exposure to the consequences of these disasters, developing measures to address initial impact, as well as post-disaster response and recovery needs. Regardless of the approach adopted, all of these efforts have the same goal: disaster management.
Disaster Risk Reduction can take place in the following ways:
- Preparedness This protective process embraces measures which enable governments, communities and individuals to respond rapidly to disaster situations to cope with them effectively. Preparedness includes the formulation of viable emergency plans, the development of warning systems, the maintenance of inventories and the training of personnel. It may also embrace search and rescue measures as well as evacuation plans for areas that may be at risk from a recurring disaster. Preparedness therefore encompasses those measures taken before a disaster event which are aimed at minimising loss of life, disruption of critical services, and damage when the disaster occurs.
- Mitigation Mitigation embraces measures taken to reduce both the effect of the hazard and the vulnerable conditions to it in order to reduce the scale of a future disaster. Therefore mitigation activities can be focused on the hazard itself or the elements exposed to the threat. Examples of mitigation measures which are hazard specific include water management in drought prone areas, relocating people away from the hazard prone areas and by strengthening structures to reduce damage when a hazard occurs. In addition to these physical measures, mitigation should also aim at reducing the economic and social vulnerabilities of potential disasters
Comprehensive disaster management is based upon four distinct components: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Although a range of terminology is often used in describing them, effective disaster management utilizes each component in the following manner:
- Mitigation. Involves reducing or eliminating the likelihood or the consequences of a hazard, or both. Mitigation seeks to “treat” the hazard such that it impacts society to a lesser degree.
- Preparedness. Involves equipping people who may be impacted by a disaster or who may be able to help those impacted with the tools to increase their chance of survival and to minimize their financial and other losses.
- Response. Involves taking action to reduce or eliminate the impact of disasters that have occurred or are currently occurring, in order to prevent further suffering, financial loss, or a combination of both. Relief, a term commonly used in international disaster management, is one component of response. See
- Recovery. Involves returning victims’ lives back to a normal state following the impact of disaster consequences. The recovery phase generally begins after the immediate response has ended, and can persist for months or years thereafter.
In practice, all of these factors are intermixed and are performed to some degree before, during, and after disasters. Disasters tend to exist in a continuum, with the recovery from one often leading straight into another. And while response is often pictured as beginning immediately after disaster impact, it is not uncommon for the actual response to begin well before the disaster actually happens.
- What are the consequences of illegal mining? Discuss the Ministry of Environment and Forests’ concept of GO and NO GO zones for coal mining sector. (200 words) (10 marks)
Illegal mining in India has raised many concerns among government as well as public level . Illegal mining does not raise any revenue for government for precious natural resource obtained through such practice , therefore public is deprived of facilities that can be created by government revenue. Secondly, illegal mining is not controlled or regulated by authorities and therefore it encroaches upon forest areas and dangerous environment irreparably. The concept of Environment , go and go on areas is a new strategy formulated by the environment Ministry to categorize coal-bearing areas in the country for miners. It is proposed to replace pose to replace the earlier system of environment and forestry clearance to projects using the existing norms and through the Forest Advisory Committee Under the Forest conservation Act, 1980, all diversion of forest cover for non forest uses – or requires the approval of FAC. There is an overlap Of the regulations by the Coal Ministry and Environment Ministry over the coal mine rights. The Ministry of Coals had earlier (2010) considered keeping 10% of thickly forested areas in the ” no go” zone and open others for mining after allowing the due clearance process. Earlier the environment ministry had carried out a joint exercise with the coal ministry studying nine major coal mining areas fields (Singrauli, IB valley, Manad Raigarh, Sohagpur, Talcher, Vardha valley, Hasdeo-Arand, North karanpura and West bokaro).
The ministry classified these blocks into categories:
- Category A or NO GO areas
- Category B or GO areas
- Enumerate the National Water Policy of India. Taking river Ganges as an example, discuss the strategies which may be adopted for river water pollution control and management. What are the legal provisions of management and handling of hazardous wastes in India? (200 words) (10 marks)
National Water Policy is formulated by the Ministry of Water sources of the Government of India to govern the planning and development of water resources and their optimum utilization. The National Water Policy envisages that each State shall formulate its own State Water Policy backed with an operational Action Plan in a time-bound manner to increase the efficiency and availability of water resources. It seeks to establish a Water Regulatory Authority and support a national water Framework Law.
The policy also ensure access to a minimum quantity of portable water for essential health and hygiene to all citizens. available within easy reach of the. household.
Today, Ganga considered as the sixth most polluted river in the world. A number of initiatives have been undertaken to clean river but failed to deliver desired results .
T he Ganga Action Plan or GAP was a program launched in April 1986 in order to reduce the pollution load on the river.
The Nationl Ganga River Basin Authority has been set up for pollution control and management of river. This new approach is based on basin level and is not town-centric. It takes a comprehensiv multi sectional approach. The programme also invests in strengthening the knowledge base on the sources and nature of pollution.
The Supreme Court has been working on the closure and relocation of many of the industrial plants like tulsi along the ,Ganges and in 2010 the
government declared stretch of river between Gaumukh and uttarakashi an “eco sensitive zone”
- Money laundering poses a serious security threat to a country’s economic sovereignty. What is its significance for India and what steps are required to be taken to control this menace? (200 words) (10 marks)
Money Laundering seriously damages economy by creating a parallel economy which gives a greater say to those who have accumulated wealth by illegal means and thus impedes with decision making by using financial means. Money laundering has been used to finance terrorist and criminal activities.
In India, to control money laundering, it should be ensured that:
- Businesses are required to establish appropriate risk-sensitive policies and procedures in order to prevent activities related to money laundering and terrorist financing including those policies and procedures which should provide for.
- Identification and scrutiny of complex or unusually large transactions unusual patterns of transactions with no apparent economic or lawful purpose and other activities regarded by the regulated person as likely to be of the nature of money laundering or terrorist financing;
- Prevention of use of products favouring anonymity;
- Customer due diligence, i.e. procedures designed to acquire knowledge about the firm’s clients and prospective clients and to verify their identity as well as monitor business relationships and transactions record keeping, including details of customer due diligence and supporting evidence for business relationships, which need to be kept for five years. Internal control risk assessment and management, compliance monitoring, management and communication;
- Businesses are required to take measures to make relevant employees aware of the law relating to money laundering and terrorist finance and to train those employees in how to recognise and deal with transactions which may be related to money laundering or terrorist financing.
In order to ensure compliance is appropriately managed, businesses should ensure sufficient senior management oversight appropriate analysis and assessment of the risk of clients and work /product types systems for monitoring compliance with procedures and methods of communicating and other information to personnel.
- What are social networking sites and what security implications do these sites present? (200 words) (10 marks)
Social networking sites can be defined as a virtual place available on the internet basically on the World Wide Web (www) through social media, where users can create, communicate within their interested social network, they can share ideas, activities, events, watch and listen music, play games send and receive messages and many more other interesting activities. It also gives a platform to the users to create their own virtual social space where they can upload or publish their own information. Even if these sites are running successfully and used everywhere in the world but still these sites presents some security implications to the world . Some of these are
- One of the major demerits of these sites are increment in criminal activities, as there is no hard restrictions on creating account on these sites.
- Another important issue is security of our personal data and information, as its free to everyone, most of the users create fake accounts and misuse the personal information of other users/celebrities.
- Sometime some non . genuine and fake account users attacks to some religious communities and political groups.
- It encourages porno activities, and attacks many children and These sites unnecessarily waste our valuable time, when user spend time on these sites and get addicted. Addictions of these sites can even affect our mental conditions, sometime it became a big reason of depression and tension.
- It also affects our health directly.
- User’s reliability is not sure; it’s very hard to trust on any stranger on these sites. . Many at time it has been seen. that It became the reason of one ‘s death, as it becomes the medium to get in touch with the victim,
- It affects children and youngster’s studies. As they spend their valuable time on these sites and loss their studies and concentration.
- It encourages many scams
Steps should be taken to impose some restriction on these sites by the government and cyber department of that country
- Cyber warfare is considered by some defence analysts to be a larger threat than even Al Qaeda or terrorism. What do you understand by Cyber warfare? Outline the cyber threats which India is vulnerable to and bring out the state of the country’s preparedness to deal with the same. (200 words) (10 marks)
Cyber warfare is politically motivated hacking to conduct sabotage and espionage. It is a form of information warfare sometimes seen as analogous to conventional warfare.
The Department of Information Technology created the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) in 2004 to thwart cyber-attacks in India. That year, there were 23 reported cyber security breaches. In 2011, there were 301. That are, the government created a new subdivision, the National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) to thwart attacks against energy, transport, banking, telecom, defence, space and other sensitive areas. Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL) reported to block up to ten targeted attacks a day. CERT-In .was left to protect less critical sectors.
A high profile cyber attack on 12 July 2012 breached the email accounts of about 12,000 people, including those of officials from the Ministry of External Affairs, Ministry of Home Affairs, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), and the Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP). A government-private sector plan being overseen by National Security Advisor (NSA) Shivshankar Menon began in October 2012, and intends to beef up India’s cyber security capabilities in the light of a group of experts findings that India faces a 470,000 shortfall of such experts despite the country’s reputation of being an IT and software powerhouse.
In February 2013, Information Technology Secretary stated that the NCIIPC was finalizing policies related to national cyber security that would focus on domestic security solutions, reducing exposure through foreign technology. Other steps
include the isolation of various security agencies to ensure that a synchronised attack could not succeed on all fronts and the planned appointment of a National Cyber Security Coordinator. As of then, there had been no significant economic or physical damage to India related to cyber-attacks.
Q 24. Article 244 of the Indian Constitution relates to administration of scheduled areas and tribal areas. Analyse the impact of non-implementation of the provisions of the 5th schedule on growth of Left wing extremism. (200 words) (10 marks)
Fifth Schedule (Article 244(1)) provides for the administration and control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled. tribes (areas and tribes needing special protection due to disadvantageous conditions).
It made Governors the custodians of tribal rights. They were mandated to oversee good governance, development and peace and tranquillity in these areas where customary law would prevail. To this end they were to be assisted by tribal advisory councils and required to make annual reports to the President with such recommendations as they thought fit. Having considered these the President was empowered to sue such directives to the State as might be necessary. It was also provided that minor forest produce and minor minerals would be exploited by the tribal people and their lands would not be alienated to non tribal otherwise acquired without the Governors approval Money-lending would also be regulated ·Furthermore’ no legis1ation, Union or State, would apply to Fifth Schedule Areas un1ess approved by the Governor with such modifications as he or she might prescribe so that triab1 interests were not adversely affected. In a.dd1hon’ Article 275 0f the Constitution provided that Parliament may make specia1 grants-m-aid to States as charged (as opposed to a voted) heads for the development, welfare and better administration of Fifth Schedule Areas . At the same time, the Fifth Schedule was increasingly ignored and almost rendered letter. Governors’ reports were fitful and seldom, if ever, deliberated in
Parliament. Few if any directives were issued to the States. The Tribal advisory council were gradually co-opted into the system. Few Governors seem to be aware of the tribal responsibilities and in any case have no staff to discharge them. Commissioners for Scheduled Tribes have cried out in vain. There has been little screening of legislation and so the tribal people have been enmeshed in complex procedures and litigation.
- How far are India’s internal security challenges linked with border management particularly in view of the long porous borders with most countries of South Asia and Myanmar? (200 words) (10 marks)
India’s internal security problems, arising from varied sources, are influenced by a host of factors among which are its past history, geography, colonial legacy, a burgeoning population, sharp social and economic disparities and complex socio cultural and ethno-religious traditions, hostile and suspicious neighbours which interplay freely in our secular democracy.
Geo-politically, India has become a cauldron of merging insurgent movements which has developed internal networks which can create horrendous logistical repercussions. On the other hand, India’s internal security is inextricably linked with the border management. India shares international borders with 7 countries and has a vast coast line proper management of border is crucial for maintaining peace within the country as a weak and porous border is likely to cause serious ramifications to the country’ security architecture.
India border with Pakistan has always been a troublesome one since the time of independence. Cross border terrorism has become endemic in Kashmir valley and has been the single major challenge to the country’s security frame work. China of late started to be more assertive across the Indian border claiming the entire state of Arunachal Pradesh to be part of its territory This and Chinese plan to enter India through Myanmar can pose serious threat to the main land.
Infiltration ,illegal immigration , trafficking , smuggling etc. along Indo – Bangladeshl of border is another area of concern the illegal migrants threat India maritime border is also vulnerable to infiltration as seen in the case of Mumbai terror attack in 2009 .The vast coastline of the country presents easy inroads for terror elements in absence of proper surveillance
India has open border with Nepal and it is increasingly used by terrorists as it allows easy entry and exit (highlighted by recent arrest of Bhatkal ). Also Nepal is surrender route for transformed militants. Terrorists in the disguise of transformed militants can enter India.
Ethnic clashes in Myanmar also can have a bearing on India’s internal security as noticed from recent Bodh Gaya blasts which is believed to be in response to violence on Muslims in Myanmar by Buddhists.
These are some of the challenges faced by India at its borders, which need to be effectively tackled to secure peace within the country