UPSC General Studies 2017 Paper III Solutions
1. Among several factors for India’s potential growth, savings rate is the most effective one. Do you agree? What are the other factors available for growth potential?
- Any country to grow they need an investment, investment comes through two routes one in domestic investments other is foreign investments.
- For domestic investments we are again depending on banks and other investment schemes like Mutual funds, stock market, trust funds, ETFs etc. MSME sector constitute 45% industrial production and farmers even big industrial hoses mostly depends on Banking sector.
- Capital to the banks comes from depositors savings, if that saving rate is at low that restrict the lending capacity of banks, which in turn reduce the investment rate finally led to less growth of the economy.
- We can’t blame the only low saving rate to the cause of less growth, because other investment options and foreign investment also play a role in deciding the growth rate.
- Even if we have a sufficient capital that does not automatically transform into production, various structural issues like land acquisition , labour laws, performance of country in some economic parameters(fiscal deficit, inflation, forex, current account deficit), environmental clearances ,approvals from various departments, skill set of local people, infrastructural facilities ,taxation system, domestic and international demand, monsoon, unhealthy competition from competitors like other factors will decide the growth rate of India.
2. Account for the failure of manufacturing sector in achieving the goal of labour-intensive exports rather than capital-intensive exports. Suggest measures for more labour-intensive rather than capital-intensive exports.
- Our development model itself is capital intensive rather labour-intensive, since the globalization started many foreigners are coming and investing huge amount. Even today we talk about how much investment we got instead of how much employment that it has created. In order to create a conducive environment to encourage labour-intensive exports.
1. Govt. must encourage the labour-intensive industries/sectors like, apparel, leather industries.
2. Export promotion schemes for labour intensive sector must be implemented.
3. Labour laws are need to be relaxed
4.Skill development of people
5.Tax relaxations must be provided to such industries.
6.Ensure quality of product by improving the process according to the international standards
7.Create a separate industrial corridors for labour intensive sector industries
8.Govt must reduce the burden on the employer in case of the social security benefit contributions
9.Conclude agreements with foreign countries inorder to promote the exports of these product.
3. Examine the developments of Airports in India through Joint Ventures under Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model. What are the challenges faced by the authorities in this regard
- Reason behind developing the Airports of in India through joint ventures under PPP model is govt. is unable to spend such a vast amount on this sector, and don’t have a proficiency and technical knowhow.
- So it adopted joint venture model in which states along with private partners also included. Once states include land acquisition becomes easy and monitoring of the project is effective, more over burden on union govt. reduce.
- In this model there are some problems we are encountering
1. Land acquisition is that major problem
2. Rehabilitation of the affected people
3. High risk of the capital
4. Rate of returns are low, will take more time to get the full amount
5. Clearances from the govt.
6. Viability of project
7. Location of project (investors don’t prefer to develop the airports tier 2, 3 cities)
8. States are not interested in spend such huge sums , any way they don’t have any operational control them so they don’t want to investment
4. Explain various types of revolutions, took place in Agriculture after Independence in India. How these revolutions have helped in poverty alleviation and food security in India?
- In the agriculture sector in the decade of 1960 India started green revolution, according to this high yielding variety seeds are used in wheat, rice, maize.
- This experiment gave success and extended to most parts of the country. It increased the amount food grains enormously, with this India came out of PL-480 agreements, through which India imports food grains from USA. But this initially benefited only big farmers who can invest huge amount and to the areas have assured irrigation facilities only.
- Next revolution is white revolution in dairy sector came in 1970s, in this using co-operative In model farmers collectively increased the production of milk and India became the net exporter of milk. This has introduced in the new breeding technologies, high quality fodder, vaccination, veterinary facilities improved.
- With this supplementary income to the farmers increased and it improved the food and nutritional security of the people.
- started Seri culture for production of silk, epi culture for production of honey etc. Recently govt. started ever green revolution which focuses all aspects of agriculture pertaining to various products, it is also called as rainbow revolution. It also extend the results of green revolution eastern part of the country, it is a technology driven scheme. Recently govt. is talking about blue revolution which increase the sea food production.
- With this fishermen community get benefited and also provide food and nutritional security. In poverty alleviation these scheme help to some extent but not fully because technologies that were brought by these revolutions are not accessible and affordable by our poor marginal farmers, moreover those are not viable in small land holdings, no marketing facilities and MSP. It improved food security, but still hunger is the major problem not because production problem but problem lies in distribution.
5. What are the reasons for poor acceptance of cost effective small processing unit? How the food processing unit will be helpful to uplift the socio-economic status of poor farmers?
- The reasons for poor acceptance of cost effective small processing unit are:
1. Lack proper cold chain supply system
2.No proper marketing facilities
3.Quality of the products
4.Food habits of people
5.No regular suply of inputs
6.Economically non viable if units are small.
- Food processing industry is growing now a days, the prices of agricultural products mostly fruits, vegetables are uncertain and they are perishable. So if we add value to it by processing them then we can store it, farmers also get a regular demand for their produce and wastage in travelling also reduced , middle men also eliminated.
- Then they were paid remunerative prices. if income of farmer increases then his social status also improves.
- Because of farmers suicide , for not getting remunerative price they are entering into debt trap, the entire family get disturbed ,social relations changed but if we prevent such incidents we eliminate such trauma and they can more assimilate into the main stream society easily.
- This will enhance their social status. If the farmer is women then socially she will become more assertive.
6. Stem cell therapy is gaining popularity in India to treat a wide variety of medical conditions including leukaemia, Thallessemia, damaged sornea and several burns. Describe briefly what stem cell therapy is and what advantages it has over other treatments?
- Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. Bone marrow transplant is the most widely used stem-cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use.
- Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, and to apply stem-cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, and other conditions.
- Advantage of this treatment over the other conventional treatment is instead killing cell it replace the entire cell so that it regenerate further.
- Sometimes it eliminates the problem of organ donation, a single cell translate into any of the multiple cell so a single cell worked as multiple organs.
- It also cures some organs for which replacement of entire part is not possible for example human brain, bone marrow.
- Technically it is challenging task but it is a simple procedure without involving into complex surgeries. It provides the permanent solutions.
7. India has achieved remarkable successes in unmanned space missions including the Chandrayaan and Mars Orbitter Mission, but has not ventured into manned space mission, both in terms of technology and logistics? Explain critically
- India with its indigenous technology successfully launched chandrayan – I mission which revealed existence of water on the surface of the moon.
- Though it was done after sixty years after the first such mission it revealed crucial facts. In similar manner MOM (mars orbitor mission) has successfully launched in its first attempt with low cost (almost one tenth of USA’s cost).
- These two are unmanned missions but India could not launch even a single manned mission. It is really a technical and logistical challenge to the India’s scientific world.
- Though they planning to send human being onto the surface of the moon in chandrayan -III mission but it take lot of time. India got membership in MTCR(missile technology control regime) recently, without which other members of group don’t share their technology pertaining to space science and space missions.
- That was one of the reason why India is unable to get any sort of aid in upgrading their technology. In our country also we have not developed such technologies because of our own problems and resources.
- When it comes to the logistics Indian research laboratories, space related labs, industries not in a position to manufacture the sophisticated equipment. Our industry is now starting manufacturing the pace vehicles so India is facing the problem of both technology and logistics for manned space missions.
- With the recent member ship we will overcome even such problems and if we improve our manufacturing capabilities we can overcome that.
8. Not many years ago, river linking was a concept but it is becoming reality in the country. Discuss the advantages of river linking and its possible impact on the environment.
- River liking project was thought to be considered as an impossible task when it was proposed by Datur,k.l. Rao and even when supreme court has pronounced in 2003. But now it is no more a myth it is becoming the reality. Ken betwa linking is going on UP and MP, Andhra Pradesh has already linked river godavari and river krishna through polavaram project. So advantages with such linking
Efficient utilisation of river water instead of allow it into oceans wastefully
2. Agriculture no more completley depending on monsoon
3. Improve inland water ways
4. Fishing activities improves.
huge displacement, rehabilitation
2. Ecological and environment damage
3. Huge amount of cost involves
4. Need sophisticated technology which we don’t have at present
5. Political will and cooperation among states and political parties.
9.Discuss the potential threats of Cyber-attack and the security framework to prevent it
- Potential threats of cyber-attacks :
Threat in cyber space comes from majorly enemy countries and techies who want to make money out of it. Enemy countries they theft information without any intimation, but in later case they introduce some malwares and ransom wares. The effects of such attack are
- The effects of such attack are:
1. Destroy the data in computer
2. Vital personal information may theft
3. Fraudulent financial transactions, theft of passwords
4. Crucial information pertaining to businesses and other dealings
5. Confidential govt. information
6. Pose threat to security and sovereignty of country
7. Affect the relations with foreign countries
- Security frame work to prevent such attacks include:
1. Create awareness about possible security threats
2. Strong password protection and don’t share passwords
3. Strong fire wall protection
4. Don’t open unnecessary advertisements and pop ups
5. Don’t open unsecured Wi-Fi connections in our Pcs
6. National cyber emergency response team to be set up
7. Install/use authenticated software’s only
8. There should be a dedicated national level policy & act on this cyber world which suits the present future.
9. Train/ skill the techies in cyber science
10. Encourage research and development in this field and promote ethical hacking
10. The north-eastern region of India has been infested with insurgency for a very long time. Analyze the major reasons for the survival of armed insurgency in this region.
- Naga insurgency group announced their independence for separate Naga country one day prior to the day when India got independence, i.e., northeast insurgency started prior to independence only. Since the govt of India facing lot of challenges in dealing with such groups. Stringent acts like AFSPA has brought, sometimes peace talks were also held. Though the situation has improve but did not eliminated the problem of insurgency completely. There are various reasons for the continuation of insurgency.
1.Here multiple insurgent groups are working with multiple agendas
2. If govt. conclude peace agreement with one group, then other group started retaliating
3. Their bases lies in other countries like, bangladesh and myanmar
4. Difficult terrain
5. Guerilla war fare used by insurgents
6. Support from local people to these insurgent groups because of cultural and insecurity reasons
7. Strong economic resources available to them
8. Misuse of international border(free border area with Myanmar , non-fenced border with Bangladesh)
11. One of the intended objectives of Union Budget 2017-18 is to ‘transform, energize and clean India’. Analyse the measures proposed in the Budget 2017-18 to achieve the objective.
- In the union budget 2017 -18, the following measures were proposed :
Transform the quality of governance and quality of the life of people: for that promoting the digital economy, no transaction above 3L would be permitted in cash, exempting duty to POS card reader, government e- market place to procure goods and services for govt. departments. Launch of GST.
- To rationalize the number of tribunals and merge the number of tribunals where ever possible. ,committed double the income of farmers in five years, providing employment and basic infrastructure for rural population effective governance and efficient service delivery through people’s participation. Energizing various sections of society, especially the youth and the vulnerable enable them unleash their true potential through education and skill development and providing jobs.
- wanted to launch two skill development schemes called sankalp and strive vocational training and industrial related training.
- Clean the country from the evils of corruption, black money and non-transparent political funding.
- will bring a stringent law against the wilful defaulters, maximum amount of donation, a political party can receive will be Rs.2000 from each person and introduction of electoral bonds in order to bring the transparency in electoral funding.
12. “Industrial growth rate has lagged behind in the overall growth of Gross-Domestic- Product (GDP) in the post-reform period” Give reasons. How far the recent changes is Industrial Policy are capable of increasing the industrial growth rate?
- Since the commencement of reforms in 1992 the GDP has grown and consistently maintaining the trajectory of growth.
- But the industrial growth is lower than the overall growth rate because of importance give to service sector. Service sector growth contributed major share to the overall growth. In the recent changes made to industrial policy aimed at improving the industrial growth. Under the make in India program manufacturing sector is given importance.
- The aim of those is to increase the percentage of this sector to 25% GDP by 2022. The govt. is so ambitious about creating 10 million jobs, which also part of this policy.
- This is certainly done by attracting the foreign investments and encourage domestic investments. Under the Start-up India scheme innovation is given more importance.
- Once start-ups comes it will generate employment and added revenue. Small and medium sector is also given importance.
- Domestic content requirement in foreign investment, given priority to MSME sector in government departmental procurement, creating manufacturing hubs, NIMZs, coastal economic zones all are aimed at increasing the industrial growth rate.
- Along with necessary structural reforms, ease of doing business, political will bring the desired results.
13. What are the salient features of ‘inclusive growth’? Has India been experiencing such a growth process? Analyse and suggest measures for inclusive growth.
- Inclusive growth means, growth among all sections. Every section must contribute to that growth and benefits of that growth must reach to every section of society.
- If at all section want to contribute to the growth, they must have capacity to involve in economic activities.
- For that govt must provide health, education, skills, employment opportunities, infrastructural facilities.
- Good governance are the features of the inclusive growth. After liberalization India is experiencing high amount of growth consistently, but this growth is contributed some section and some sectors only,
- Though our GDP is rising people are not getting the benefits out of it. That is why govt in its 11th and 12th five year plans emphasized on inclusive growth. In this growth model every section particularly vulnerable section are given more emphasis.
- They are empowered with necessary basic requirements, basic structural, infrastructural facilities. For example education for all, health facility for all, improve the institutional deliveries, reducing the IMR, MMR.
- Creating employment, targeting the agricultural growth, labour issues, problems of unorganized sector workers, women participation in work force, empowerment of specially abled persons, investment attraction, creating basic enmities etc, if we provide them then automatically that growth becomes inclusive growth.
14. What are the major reasons for declining rice and wheat yield in the cropping system? How crop diversification is helpful to stabilize the yield of the crop in the system?
- Major reasons for declining rice and wheat yield in cropping system are:
Practising of monoculture
2. Land is losing fertility
3. Global warming
4. Excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides
5. No proper land preparation prior to sow the seeds
15. How do subsidies affect the cropping pattern, crop diversity and economy of farmers? What is the significance of crop insurance, minimum support price and food processing for small and marginal farmers?
Being agrarian country , India’s around 50% of the workforce is directly and indirectly dependent on agriculture and subsides play and important role in improving condition of marginal farmers .
CROPPING PATTERN –
– Subsidies able to maximise in area of lag crops , unaffordable or important
crops like for pulses, Horticulture .
– Its concentration on few crops , left many important crops .
- CROP DIVERSITY –
– Subsidies increase variance in genetic and phenotypic characteristics of plants
used in agriculture .
– Some crops subsidies increase overall crop diversification while other leads to
less diversification . Ex – Irish potato famine .
- ECONOMY –
– Help farmers to afford high cost machinery ,water pumps , electricity , seeds
etc., and it help in increase overall GDP .
– Farmers don’t realise the cost of subsidies and miss use the high subsidise
things .Ex electricity by farmers in irrigating farm land .
SIGNIFICANCE OF CROP INSURANCE , MSP , FOOD PROCESSING FOR SMALL AND MARGINALISED FARMERS
- CROP INSURANCE – crop damage is a natural part of farming on farm land .
Insurance give them risk management tool and protect against devastating losses .
- MSP – it ensures agricultural producers against any sharp fall in farm prices.
- FOOD PROCESSING -it separates harmful ingredients ,transformed cooked
ingredient by physical or chemical mean into food or of food into other forms
that can be easily prepared and served by consumers .
Without subsidies Indian farmers can’t afford valuable farm products . It’s the need
of hour for farmers . Many schemes like PM Krishi Sechai Yojna , subsidies for
organic farming and production of bio fertilisers , setting up of rural godowns and
storage infra . Are working well.
16. Give an account of the growth and development of nuclear science and technology in India. What is the advantage of fast breeder reactor programme in India?
- Nuclear program in India started after independence with the initiative of Homi jahangeer baba. In the development of nuclear science we started initially with help of Canada for peaceful purpose i.e., producing electricity using nuclear reactors.
- According to the nuclear energy development program there are three stages, in that first stage is already in implementing stage. In that we us natural uranium as fuel heavy water as a moderate and coolant, this is also known as pressurized heavy water reactor.
- In the second stage it is a breeder sector, in this uranium oxide and plutonium oxide used (also known as mixed oxide fuel) as a fuel (recovered from spent fuel of stage-I reactor) and natural uranium as a blanket material.
- When fast moving neutron bombard with this blanket material it convert into fissile material. In this way it breed more fuel than what it consume. In stage -III, it is the thorium based fast breeder reactor, in that blanket material is thorium.
- The significance of this reactor is , thorium is most abundant material in our country, if we develop this fuel is not at all be a problem. Moreover you no need to reprocess the spent fuel. It is a closed system.
- The breeder test reactor is working at kalpakam, tamilnadu. In this reactor blanket material used inside the reactor.
- This blanket material is fertile material. Once the reaction is started when you bombard the MOX fuel with slow moving neutron, along with the production of energy it will generate much more neutrons, and these will in turn bombard with the blanket material and convert that entire fertile material into fissile material.
- Here the amount of fuel produce is more than what it consume, that is why we call this reactor as breeder reactor. Once you reprocess that material we can use that as a fissile material in other reactors.
17.‘Climate Change’ is a global problem. How India will be affected by climate change? How Himalayan and coastal states of India will be affected by climate change?
- Because of climate change global temperature is raising. In India mostly agriculture is depending on monsoon, if this CC affects the pattern of rain fall that affects food security of the country.
- Because of irregular rainfall frequent floods and droughts may occur at regular intervals. Water logging of coastal areas may spread vector borne diseases. The amount of yield of a food crops also get affected with this.
- Global warming will in turn increase the level of CO2 in the atmosphere which aggravate the problem more and more.
- Because of global warming Himalayan glaciers melt and that melted water increases the water level in the rivers which causes the floods along the river , finally it discharge water into ocean. The water level of sea raises, it submerge the coastal areas. Then coastal people migrate from coastal areas to inside areas.
- This mount more pressure on the inside areas. It will burden those places. This impact their socio, economic conditions. If all glaciers started melting then in future we may experience serious drinking water crisis and irrigation, hydro electricity production get also affected adversely.
- According to some analysts serious weather condition in summer, winter are results of this CC, this is creating lot of inconvenience and taking away the valuable lives. As India having glaciers and long coastal area it effected more than other hinterland countries.
18. On December 2004, tsunami brought havoc on 14 countries including India. Discuss the factors responsible for occurrence of Tsunami and its effects on life and economy. In the light of guidelines of NDMA (2010) describe the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events.
- Factors responsible for Tsunami are:
1. Earth quake under oceans
2.Oceanic volcanic eruption
3.Under water nuclear tests
- Once the tsunami occur entire coastal areas will become like a deluge. All communication networks including electricity supply also effected. People lost their shelter, food grains are copperleaf submerged under water, no cloths, all developmental projects, industries, and various strategic instalments get damaged. Economic activities in that area will be stalled, we need to spend lot of amount on reconstruction activities. Meanwhile health related problems also aggravate the severity of the problem. Transportation network also damaged which is life line of economy. Loss of life, mental trauma, social order get disturbed.
- Under the NMDA guidelines prepared ness include
1.Early warning system: By arranging the radars in coastal areas, so that it can detect the shock wave few minutes prior the tides reached the coastal area.
2. Develop a faster communication system (to dissipate the information pertaining to regular alerts)
3. Preparedness of NDRF and other related forces
4. Preparedness of health, food, roads etc. (PWD) departments
5. A mature communication system, which works without power and support of regular communication system, is to be developed
6. Early preparation of the community through mock drills
7. Arrange mental trauma care centres
8. Avoid construction of houses in occupied, low level water body areas.
19. Mob violence is emerging as a serious law and order problem in India. By giving suitable examples, analyse the causes and consequences of such violence.
- Mob violence is now becoming the serious problem in the country, mob violence is with one or other pretext mob (group of people) belongs to a particular section will take law into their hands, punish the culprit/ accused without any prosecution. Sometimes it may lead to rape, damage of property, lynching, killing.
- Recently in the country mainly on the name of gorakshak some anti-social elements are killing the people. For example lynching of akhlaq and his family by a mob in UP in the name of preserving the beef in his premise. Even in Una, a village in Gujarat, where Dalits were attacked by the mob because they were seen along with a cow dead body.
- Causes of such violence:
1. No fear among the people, because our investigative judiciary process are slow more over conviction rate is low
2. Intolerance is raising among some groups
3. Resposible persons at higher level are morally supporting them, this is encouraging them to do futher actions.
4. Strong communal sentiments
5. Lack of awareness about the rights , sentiments of other section.
6. Law and order maintainance and intellegence sysstem failure
- Consequence :
The consequences are very severe, the victims lost their lives, property moreover if they did not get justice they lost faith over this system, which in turn have its own further consequences. Raising insecurity feeling among some sections. Sometimes leads to law and order problem, turned into riots. Reputation of the country in view of world countries will diminish. These divisive forces will divide the society on communal lines which is a threat unity and integrity of the nation. If encourage such incidents a law less society will build. Snatching away the rights of other individuals will threaten the spirit of democracy and individual dignity.
20. The scourge of terrorism is a grave challenge to national security. What solutions do you suggest to curb this growing menace? What are the major sources of terrorist funding?
- Suggestions to curb the menace of terrorism:
1. If a particular section is involving in such activities try to listen their concerns first, try to solve them with in the frame work of constitution
2. Intelligence system must be strengthen
3. Foreign and local bases must be destroyed
4. Identify the economic sources, try to stop them
5. Involving the local people in information gathering
6. Conclude global level agreements for sharing information of terrorist and extradition of terrorists
7. Cooperation among various contries in techniques of comabating terorism
8. De radicalization of youth must be under taken to curb one type of terrorism
9. Create employment opportunities, developing backward areas and along with recognition of their identity, preservation of culture and their traditional rights also must be recognized.
10.Misuse of social media: need a careful observation
11. State level police should also give a rigorous training in terror related incidents
12. Cyber threats also need to be contained
- Major sources of terror funding:
1. Among the different countries there was a lack of concensus on the definition of terrorist, so with one or other reason some countries supporting financially some groups
2. Illegal trade like drugs, opium, arms trade, human trafficking, and illegal trade across the border are some sources.
3. Theft, looting
4. In some foreign countries they are exporting the oil to foreign countries by occupying the oil fields. They are imposing certain taxes on local people, trade of art facts
5. Donations from sympathizers