UPSC MAINS 2019: Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission

Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana - National Rural Livelihoods Mission

Topic: Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission

Topic in Syllabus: GS Paper 3 : Indian Economy – Schemes


Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana - National Rural Livelihoods Mission


Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana- National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM) seeks to reach out to 8-9 crore rural poor households and organize one woman member from each household into affinity-based women SHGs and federations at village level and at higher levels.


About Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana:

  • Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) was launched by the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD), Government of India in June 2011.
  • The Mission aims at creating efficient and effective institutional platforms of the rural poor enabling them to increase household income through sustainable livelihood enhancements and improved access to financial services.
  • NRLM has set out with an agenda to cover 7 Crore rural poor households, across 600 districts, 6000 blocks, 2.5 lakh Gram Panchayats and 6 lakh villages in the country through self-managed Self Help Groups (SHGs) and federated institutions and support them for livelihoods collectives in a period of 8-10 years.
  • In addition, the poor would be facilitated to achieve increased access to their rights, entitlements and public services, diversified risk and better social indicators of empowerment.
  • NRLM believes in harnessing the innate capabilities of the poor and complements them with capacities (information, knowledge, skills, tools, finance and collectivization) to participate in the growing economy of the country.
  • To reduce poverty by enabling the poor households to access gainful self-employment and skilled wage employment opportunities, resulting in appreciable improvement in their livelihoods on a sustainable basis, through building strong grassroots institutions of the poor


DAY – NRLM – Guiding Principles

  • Poor have a strong desire to come out of poverty, and they have innate capabilities
  • Social mobilization and building strong institutions of the poor is critical for unleashing the innate capabilities of the poor.
  • An external dedicated and sensitive support structure is required to induce the social mobilization, institution building and empowerment process.
  • Facilitating knowledge dissemination, skill building, access to credit, access to marketing, and access to other livelihoods services underpins this upward mobility.


DAY – NRLM Values

The core values which guide all the activities under NRLM are as follows:

  • Inclusion of the poorest, and meaningful role to the poorest in all the processes
  • Transparency and accountability of all processes and institutions
  • Ownership and key role of the poor and their institutions in all stages – planning, implementation, and, monitoring
  • Community self-reliance and self-dependence


Key Features:


Universal Social Mobilization:

  • At least one woman member from each identified rural poor household, is to be brought under the Self Help Group (SHG) network in a time bound manner.
  • Special emphasis is particularly on vulnerable communities such as manual scavengers, victims of human trafficking, Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs), Persons with Disabilities (PwDs) and bonded labour.
  • NRLM has devised special strategies to reach out to these communities and help them graduate out of poverty.


Participatory Identification of Poor (PIP): 

  • The inclusion of the target group under NRLM is determined by a well-defined, transparent and equitable process of participatory identification of poor, at the level of the community.
  • All households identified as poor through the PIP process is the NRLM Target Group and is eligible for all the benefits under the programme.
  • Target Group is identified through the Participatory Identification of Poor (PIP) method. The NRLM Target Group (NTG) derived through the PIP is de-linked from the BPL.


Community Funds as Resources in Perpetuity:

  • NRLM provides Revolving Fund (RF) and Community Investment Fund (CIF) as resources in perpetuity to the institutions of the poor, to strengthen their institutional and financial management capacity and build their track record to attract mainstream bank finance.


Financial Inclusion;

  • NRLM works on both demand and supply sides of financial inclusion. On the demand side, it promotes financial literacy among the poor and provides catalytic capital to the SHGs and their federations.
  • On the supply side, the Mission coordinates with the financial sector and encourages use of Information, Communication & Technology (ICT) based financial technologies, business correspondents and community facilitators like ‘Bank Mitras’.
  • It also works towards universal coverage of rural poor against risk of loss of life, health and assets. Further, it works on remittances, especially in areas where migration is endemic.



  • NRLM focuses on stabilizing and promoting existing livelihood portfolio of the poor through its three pillars – ‘vulnerability reduction’ and ‘livelihoods enhancement’ through deepening/enhancing and expanding existing livelihoods options and tapping new opportunities in farm and non-farm sectors; ‘employment’ – building skills for the job market outside; and ‘enterprises’ – nurturing self-employed and entrepreneurs.


Schemes under Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana:


Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana:

The Government of India has introduced a new sub-scheme under Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY – NRLM) entitled “Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana ” (AGEY) from the financial year 2017-18.


  • To provide an alternative source of livelihoods to members of SHGs under DAY – NRLM by facilitating them to operate public transport services in backward rural areas, as identified by the States
  • To provide safe, affordable and community monitored rural transport services to connect remote villages with key services and amenities (including access to markets, education and health) for the overall economic development of the area by making use of the supports available within the framework of DAY – NRLM.


Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP) Objectives

The primary objective of the MKSP is to empower women in agriculture by making systematic investments to enhance their participation and productivity, as also create and sustain agriculture based livelihoods of rural women. Specific objectives of MKSP are as under:

  • To enhance the productive participation of women in agriculture
  • To create sustainable agricultural livelihood opportunities for women in agriculture
  • To improve the skills and capabilities of women in agriculture to support farm and non- farm-based activities
  • To ensure food and nutrition security at the household and the community level
  • To enable women to have better access to inputs and services of the government and other agencies
  • To enhance the managerial capacities of women in agriculture for better management of bio-diversity
  • To improve the capacities of women in agriculture to access the resources of other institutions and schemes within a convergence framework.


Start-up Village Entrepreneurship Progam:

The Start-up Village Entrepreneurship Programme (SVEP) is being implemented as a sub-scheme under National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) to promote start – up enterprises in rural areas.

The SVEP proposes to address following three major problems of rural start-ups

  • A missing knowledge eco-system
  • A missing incubation eco-system
  • A missing financial eco-system


National Rural Livelihoods Project (NRLP):

  • NRLP has been designed as a sub-set of NRLM to create ‘proof of concept’, build capacities of the Centre and States and create an enabling environment to facilitate all States and Union Territories to transit to the NRLM.
  • NRLP would be implemented in 13 high poverty states accounting for about 90 percent of the rural poor in the country.
  • Intensive livelihood investments would be made by the NRLP in 107 districts and 422 blocks of 13 states (Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu).
  • Distribution of project funds among the states would be based on inter-se poverty ratios.


Review of Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission:


Progress so far:

  • During 2018-19 (as on October 2018), 588 additional blocks have been covered under “Intensive” implementation strategy of DAY-NRLM bringing the cumulative total to 5054 blocks.
  • During the year 2018-19 so far, over 73 lakh households have been mobilized into 6.75 lakh SHGs.
  • SHGs have also been extended a capitalization support of Rs. 743.29 crore.
  • A total amount of Rs. 24082 lakh has been disbursed to 1.63 lakh SHGs as Revolving Fund (RF) while Rs. 50247 lakh has been disbursed to 92765 SHGs and their federation as Community Investment Fund (CIF) so far during 2018-19.
  • The SHG-Bank Linkage programme has seen tremendous growth year on year under DAY-NRLM. During this financial year, about 17.57 lakh SHGs have accessed credit of Rs. 27911 crore up to October, 2018.


Farm Livelihoods:

  • DAY-NRLM has taken up promotion of organic farming with women SHG members across the country. Under organic farming initiative, a total of 1646 number of organic village clustersshave been identified by 28 States/UTs.
  • A total of 23,679 village have been identified. During the current year, it has been targeted to initiate organic farming activities in 25% of the organic village clusters.
  • As a first step, a total of 57270 Mahila Kisan have been registered through 5816 Local Groups for taking up organic farming.
  • A total of 14.03 lakhs Mahila Kisan have been identified during the year 2018-19 under SRLM-AAP and the sub program MKSP (Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana).
  • Under the dedicated training and capacity building initiative, a total of 7283 livelihoods CRPs have been trained during the year, making it a cumulative total of 31889 livelihoods CRPs (Krishi Sakhi –17812 and Pashu Sakhi – 14077). This cadre is providing necessary extension services 24×7 at the village level.
  • Ensuring Food & Nutritional Security is one of the stated objectives of all farm livelihoods interventions and in order to make sure that this objective is met, agri-nutri gardens at Mahila Kisanhousehold level are being promoted. During the current year, agri-nutri gardens have been promoted in 10.86 lakhs Mahila Kisan households.
  • With an aim to reduce the drudgery of Mahila Kisan and to ensure timely access to farm equipment, Custom Hiring Centres are being promoted under DAY-NRLM. A total of 806 Custom Hiring Centres have been established during the year 2018-19.
  • As linking small and marginal producers with the market is a critical gap, value chain development through the promotion of producer collectives is a critical component of the implementation strategy under Farm Livelihoods.
  • A total of 1.16 lakh Mahila Kisan have been covered under the value chain interventions for agriculture, NTFP and dairy commodities. In the year 2018-19, three Mahila Milk Producer Companies (MMPCs) have been operationalized in Madhya Pradesh and Bihar. The average daily procurement of the two MMPCs in Madhya Pradesh is between 3000-5000 litres per day. In addition, projects have been sanctioned in Uttar Pradesh for the development of dairy value chain interventions and value chain development of sesame and pulses in the Bundelkhand region.


Non-Farm Livelihoods:

  • Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana (AGEY) is a programme to provide safe, affordable and community monitored transport services to rural areas. The vehicles are owned and operated by members of Self-Help Group (SHG) networks and operate in regions which are not served by regular transport services. 624 routes are currently served by AGEY across the country.
  • Start-up Village Entrepreneurship Programme (SVEP), the sub-scheme under DAY-NRLM develops an eco-system for supporting small businesses in rural areas. The eco-system has components for providing business support services, mentorship, seed capital, training & capacity building on business and technical aspects and marketing support.
  • SVEP saturates a block with these services for supporting small business. Programme is being implemented in 131 blocks across the country. During the year, 9,282 enterprises have been formed under SVEP.


Sample Question:

Critically examine the Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission and evaluate how this scheme will help in covering all the vulnerable rural households in the State within a definite time frame?