UPSC MAINS 2019: IORA Meet on Disaster Risk Management concludes

IORA Meet on Disaster Risk Management concludes

 

Topic: IORA Meet on Disaster Risk Management concludes

Topic in Syllabus: General Studies Paper 3: Ecology & Environment

IORA Meet on Disaster Risk Management concludes

Context:

The Ministry of Home Affairs in collaboration with the Ministry of External Affairs and National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) is organising a meeting of Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) Cluster Group on Disaster Risk Management (DRM) recently in New Delhi.

 

Highlights of the meet:

  • The two-day workshop was organised by the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) in collaboration with the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) and Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA).
  • Participants at the meet drew a draft work plan for DRM in IORA and deliberated on the need for establishing a DRM Core Group to take forward the agreed objectives under the Work Plan.
  • Discussions on strengthening cooperation in disaster response interventions, including deployment of response teams and mobilization of relief material to affected countries, were held. Besides, information exchange, sharing of best practices, data and early warning technologies were also discussed.
  • A total of 36 delegates from eight Member States, including India, and the IORA Secretariat participated in this meeting. Senior officials of MHA, MEA, NDMA and NDRF were also present.

 

More about on IORA

  • The Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), formerly known as the Indian Ocean Rim Initiative and Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC), is an international organisation consisting of coastal states bordering the Indian Ocean.
  • It is aimed at strengthening regional cooperation and sustainable development within the Indian Ocean region through its 22 Member States and 9 Dialogue Partners.
  • It is a regional forum, tripartite in nature, bringing together representatives of Government, Business and Academia, for promoting co-operation and closer interaction among them.
  • It is based on the principles of Open Regionalism for strengthening Economic Cooperation particularly on Trade Facilitation and Investment, Promotion as well as Social Development of the region.

 

Background:

  • The Indian Ocean Rim Association was established on 7 March 1997.
  • The vision for IORA originated during a visit by late President Nelson Mandela of South Africa to India in 1995.
  • It underpinned the Indian Ocean Rim Initiative in March 1995, and the creation of the Indian Ocean Rim Association (then known as the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Co-operation) two years later, in March 1997.
  • The Coordinating Secretariat of IORA is located at Ebene, Mauritius.

 

More about on National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA):

  • The NDMA is apex statutory body for disaster management in India
  • It is under control of Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).
  • Its provisions are envisaged in Disaster Management Act, 2005
  • It was established in 2009.
  • It is headed by the Prime Minister of India.
  • Its primary purpose is to coordinate response to natural or man-made disasters and for capacity-building in disaster resiliency and crisis response.
  • It is also apex body to lay down policies, plans and guidelines for Disaster Management to ensure timely and effective response to disasters.

 

Functions and Responsibilities of NDMA

  • Approve the National Disaster Plan.
  • Lay down policies on disaster management.
  • Approve plans prepared by Ministries or Departments of Central Government in accordance with National Plan.
  • Lay down guidelines to be followed by State Authorities in drawing up State Plan.
  • Lay down guidelines to be followed by different Ministries or Departments of Central Government for purpose of integrating measures for disaster prevention or mitigation of its effects in their development plans and projects.
  • Coordinate enforcement and implementation of disaster management policy and plan.
  • Recommend provision of funds for the purpose of mitigation.
  • Provide such support to other countries affected by major disasters as determined by Central Government;
  • Take such other measures for prevention of disaster or mitigation or preparedness and capacity building for dealing with threatening disaster situation or disaster as it may consider necessary.
  • Lay down broad policies and guidelines for the functioning of National Institute of Disaster Management.

 

National Disaster Management Plan 2016:

  • National Disaster Management Plan aims to make India disaster resilient and significantly reduce the loss of lives and assets.
  • National Disaster Management Plan based on the four priority themes of the Sendai Framework namely: understanding disaster risk, improving disaster risk governance, investing in disaster risk reduction (through structural and non-structural measures) and disaster preparedness, early warning and building back better in the aftermath of a disaster.
  • NDMP covers all phases of disaster management: prevention, mitigation, response and recovery.
  • NDMP spells out roles and responsibilities of all levels of Government right up to Panchayat and Urban Local Body level in a matrix format.
  • It provides for horizontal and vertical integration among all the agencies and departments of the Government.
  • The plan also spells out the roles and responsibilities of all levels of Government right up to Panchayat and Urban Local Body level in a matrix format.
  • The plan has a regional approach, which will be beneficial not only for disaster management but also for development planning.
  • It is designed in such a way that it can be implemented in a scalable manner in all phases of disaster management.
  • It also identifies major activities such as early warning, information dissemination, medical care, fuel, transportation, search and rescue, evacuation, etc. to serve as a checklist for agencies responding to a disaster. It also provides a generalized framework for recovery and offers flexibility to assess a situation and build back better.
  • To prepare communities to cope with disasters, NDMP emphasizes on a greater need for Information, Education and Communication activities.

 

Sendai Framework on Disaster Risk Reduction:

  • The “Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030” (SFDRR) was adopted during the Third United Nations (UN) World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR) held in Sendai, Japan on 14-18 March, 2015.
  • It is the first major agreement of the post-2015 development agenda, with seven targets and four priorities for action.
  • The Sendai Framework is the successor instrument to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters.
  • The Sendai Framework’s primary focus on risk reduction and resilience is a common element highlighted in all the 2030 development agendas adopted by all member states of the United Nations, such as the Addis Ababa Action Agenda on Financing for Development, the Sustainable Development Goals, the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, the Agenda for Humanity and New Urban Agenda.
  • The Sendai Framework introduces seven global targets to assess global progress toward the expected outcome. The seven global targets represent a means to quantify and qualify the “substantial reduction” indicated in the expected outcome.

 

Global Targets:

  • Substantially reduce global disaster mortality by 2030, aiming to lower average per 100,000 global mortality rate in the decade 2020-2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.
  • Substantially reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030, aiming to lower average global figure per 100,000 in the decade 2020 -2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.
  • Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP) by 2030.
  • Substantially reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, among them health and educational facilities, including through developing their resilience by 2030.
  • Substantially increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020.
  • Substantially enhance international cooperation to developing countries through adequate and sustainable support to complement their national actions for implementation of this Framework by 2030.
  • Substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments to the people by 2030.

 

Sample Question:

Describe various measures taken in India for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) before and after signing ‘Sendai Framework for DRR (2015-2030)’. How is this framework different from ‘Hyogo Framework for Action, 2005?  


IORA Meet - Feb 13th - Infographics