UPSC MAINS OPTIONAL SUBJECT: HISTORY PAPER 1 TOPIC WISE UPSC QUESTIONS

history

 

HISTORY PAPER 1 TOPIC WISE UPSC QUESTIONS

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SYLLABUSPREVIOUS YEAR QUESTIONS
Sources of History Syllabus:

Archaeological sources: Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

 

·       2000 : (b) Amir Khusro was an eminent poet not a historian

·       2001 : (i) Ajmer  (ii) Ahmednagar
(iii) Allahabad  (iv) Badami
(v) Bhubaneswar (vi) Chitrakuta
(vii) Chittor  (viii) Chandigarh
(ix) Dehradun  (x) Dhara
(xi) Elephanta  (xii) Ellora
(xiii) Guwahati  (xiv) Hyderabad
(xv) Harappa  (xvi) Indraprastha 
(xvii) Jagannathpuri  (xviii) Kalyan
(xix) Kaveripattanam  (xx) Lothal

·       2002 : (i) Ajanta (ii) Bodh Gaya
(iii) Dholavira (iv) Dwarka
(v) Girnar (vi) Hastinapur
(vii) Kanchipuram (viii) Kosambi
(ix) Madurai (x) Malkhed
(xi) Mohanjodaro (xii) Nalanda
(xiii) Purushpur (xiv) Ropar
(xv) Sanchi (xvi) Sravanbelgola
(xvii) Sravasti (xviii) Tanjore
(xix) Thaneswar (xx) Varanasi

·       2002 : (b) Babarnama as a source of history 

·       2003 : (i) Kot Digi (ii) Banamali
(iii) Tiruchirapalli  (iv) Tamralipti
(v) Vaisali  (vi) Kundagrama
(vii) Puri  (viii) Ujjain
(ix) Badami  (x) Guggara
(xi) Sarnath  (xii) Amaravati
(xiii) Janguda  (xiv) Kolhapur
(xv) Nagarjunkonda  (xvi) Calicut
(xvii) Haldighati  (xviii) Golconda
(xix) Somnath  (xx) Mathura.

·       2003 : 2. Assess the pattern of settlement, economy, social organisation and religion of India during 2000 to 500 BC from archaeological evidences.

·       2003 : 4. Examine the information of Fahien about the political, religious, social and economic conditions of India. Make a comparative study of his account with that of Yuan Chwang.

·       2006: (i) Konark  (ii) Taxila 
(iii) Talikota  (iv) Somnath 
(v) Kalinjar  (vi) Mandu 
(vii) Murshidabad  (viii) Nalanda 
(ix) Tanjore  (x) Amber 
(xii) Chanderi (xiii) Arikmedu
(xiv) Kalibangan (xv) Nagarjunakonda
(xvi) Eran (xvii) Kausambi
(xviii) Pattadakal (xix) Halebid
(xx) Dvarsamudra (xi) Anegondi

·       2009 : 2. In what ways are the accounts of the Graeco­Romans and the Chinese helpful in reconstructing the social history of India ? How far is their information corroborated by other contemporary sources ?

·       2009 : 8. (a) Give a critical assessment of the contributions of Amir Khusrau and Barani to Indo -Persian literature.

·       2010 : (a) Provide a comparative analysis of the development of Arabic and Persian historiography.

·       2011 : (b) Discuss the type of lands and the science of agriculture mentioned in the literature and epigraphs of ancient India. 20

·       2011: (c) Assess Ellora as a unique art centre of the different culture streams. 20

·       2013 : (b) Evaluate the ownership of land in ancient India on the basis of literacy and epigraphic sources. 15

·       2014 : 2. (a) “While using the accounts of foreign writers, historians must distinguish between statements based on hearsay and those grounded in perceptive observations.” Elaborate with examples.

·       2014 : (c) “India had been for hundreds of years the Lancashire of the Eastern world.” Critically examine this view.

·       2015: 2. a. How far can the ancient Indian Shruti literature be used as historical sources.

·       2017 : (a) Art and culture are reflected to a far greater extent than political history in the epigraphic sources. Comment. (15 Marks)

·       2018 : 2.(b) “Archaeological evidence does not give direct access to the possible social and political dimensions of the decline of the Harappan civilization. What it does indicate very clearly is that the Harappan culture underwent a gradual process of de-urbanisation”? Comment. (15 Marks)

Pre-history and Proto-history:

Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).

 

·       2004 : (i) Achichhatra (ii) Amaravati
(iii) Bhimbaitka (iv) Champa
(v) Kalibangan (vi) Kanauj
(vii) Kapilvastu (viii) Karle
(ix) Mahabalipuram (x) Mathura
(xi) Mehrgarh (xii) Paithan
(xiii) Pataliputra (xiv) Sarnath
(xv) Siddapura (xvi) Somnath
(xvii) Tamralipti (xviii) Taxila
(xix) Tripuri (xx) Udaigiri·       2005 : (i) Mohenjodaro (ii) Burzahom
(iii) Inamgaon  (iv) Sannathi
(v) Kaveripattinam  (vi) Sisupalgarh
(vii) Anuradhapura  (viii) Karnasuvarna
(ix) Chittagong  (x) Chitore
(xi) Pratishthana  (xii) Vidisa
(xiii) Hampi  (xiv) Warangal
(xv) Diu  (xvi) Seringapatam
(xvii) Debal  (xviii) Fatehpur Sikri
(xix) Bijapur  (xx) Sasaram

·       2007 : (i) Kot digi  (ii) Kalibangan
(iii) Ahicchatra  (iv) Bhimbaitka 
(v) Kanauj  (vi) Siddapura 
(vii) Udayagiri  (viii) Kaveripattinam 
(ix) Tiruchirapalli  (x) Sisupalgarh 
(xi) Anuradhapura  (xii) Hampi
(xiii) Srirangapatnam (xiv) Puri
(xv) Kolhapur (xvi) Haldighati
(xvii) Golconda (xviii) Chittagong 
(xix) Chitore (xx) Calicut

·       2008 : (i) Burzahom  (ii) Banawali
(iii) Ahar  (iv) Girnar
(v) Chandraketugarh  (vi) Brahmagiri
(vii) Bayana (viii) Gangai Kondacholapuram (ix) Tamralipti  (x) Muziris (xi) Ambari 
(xii) Modhera (xiii) Devni Mori 
(xiv) Bhadreshwar (xv) Bundi 
(xvi) Gingee (Jinjee) (xvii) Antichak
(xviii) Gaur (xix) Sasaram 
(xx) Mahasthamgarh

·       2009 : (i) Koldihwa  (ii) Kuchai
(iii) Utnur  (iv) Patne
(v) Semthan  (vi) Bagasra
(vii) Balathal  (viii) Hallur
(ix) Kandahar  (x) Ter
(xi) Uchh  (xii) Gyaraspur
(xiii) Uttaramerur  (xiv) Lalkot
(xv) Sittanavasal  (xvi) Mansura
(xvii) Jaunpur  (xviii) Daojali Hading 
(xix) Machilipatnam (xx) Mahisadal

·       2010: (i) Korkai  (ii) Eran
(iii) Birbhanpur  (iv) Rakhigarhi
(v) Sannati  (vi) Isipattan
(vii) Dhanyakataka  (viii) Junnar
(ix) Edakkal  (x) Paithan
(xi) Pandu Rajar Dhibi  (xii) Karle
(xiii) Vatapi (xiv) Porkalam 
(xv) Kalanjar (xvi) Multan
(xvii) Bairat  (xviii) Chanhudaro
(xix) Rajim  (xx) Tripuri

·       2010 : 2. (a) To what extent archaeological materials are useful in understanding the progress of neolithic man in India? 

·       2011 : (i) Chirand  (ii) Kargil
(iii) Basohli  (iv) Lalitgiri
(v) Mandu  (vi) Penukonda
(vii) Samugarh  (viii) Vilinam
(ix) Sigiria  (x) Vikaramasila
(xi) Mukhalingam (xii) Halebid
(xiii) Sanghol (xiv) Kumbharia
(xv) Sirpur (xvi) Pangudaria
(xvii) Amarkantak (xviii) Kibbanhalli
(xix) Jorwe (xx) Badaun

·       2012: (i) A prehistoric state (ii) A chalcolithic site (iii) A religious centre
(iv) A prehistoric site (v) An art centre
(vi) A prehistoric site (vii) An art centre
(viii) A port (ix) A capital town
(x) A prehistoric site (xi) A post Mauryan town (xii) An art centre (xiii) A prehistoric site (xiv) A chalcolithic site
(xv) A chalcolithic site (xvi) A chalcolithic site (xvii) A prehistoric site
(xviii) An art centre (xix) A chalcolithic site (xx) A chalcolithic site

·       2013 : (i) A Paleolithic and Mesolithic site 2.5 (ii) A Mesolithic site 2.5
(iii) An important halting place. 2.5
(iv) A Pre-Harappan site. 2.5
(v) An important Harappan site 2.5
(vi) Site of important fossils 2.5
(vii) A Seat port 2.5
(viii) A Paleolithic site 2.5
(ix) A Neolithic, Megalithic an Chalcolithic site. 2.5
(x) A Harappan site. 2.5
(xi) A Palaeolithic site. 2.5
(xii) A Neolithic Site. 2.5
(xiii) A Chalcolithic site 2.5
(xiv) A Chalcolithic Site 2.5
(xv) A site of Budhist Monastery. 2.5
(xvi) Painted Grey Ware site. 2.5
(xvii) Site related to a famous Indian Philosopher. 2.5
(xviii) Historical Rock cut caves. 2.5
(xix) Famous Fort. 2.5
(xx) Capital of famous Kingdom 2.5

·       2013 : (c) In the absence of a written script Chalcolithic pottery gives us a fascinating insight into the culture and life style of the people of those times. Comment critically 15

·       2014 : (i) An ancient capital
(ii) A Palaeolithic site (iii) A cultural centre (iv) An ancient capital
(v) A Palaeolithic site (vi) A historical site
(vii) A Harappan site (viii) An ancient capital
(ix) A political and cultural centre
(x) A Megalithic site (xi) A Mesolithic site (xii) A Chalcolictic site 
(xiii) A prehistoric site
(xiv) A political and cultural centre
(xv) An ancient (xvi) A lost port
(xvii) Rock-cave art centre
(xviii) An ancient capital
(xix) A political and cultural centre
(xx) An ancient town

·       2015 : i. A Neolithic site
ii. A Neolithic site iii. A Harappan site
iv. A Megalithic site  v. A Harappan site
vi. A painted-Grey-ware site
vii. An inscriptional site
viii. An important ancient city
ix. An ancient port
x. A site of ancient cave-paintings
xi. A Buddhist site xii. An educational centre
xiii. Brahroadeya village
xiv. An ancient capital  xv. An ancient capital
xvi. A temple site  xvii. An ancient capital
xviii. An ancient sea-port
xix. An archaeological temple site
xx. Harappan site

·       2016 : (i) A Mesolithic site
(ii) A Neolithic site
(iii) A Megalithic Chalcolithic site
(iv) A Neolithic site (v) A Neolithic site
(vi) A Megalithic site
(vii)A site known for Buddhist remains
(viii) A Harappan site (ix) A Harappan site (x) A Harappan site (xi) A Neolithic site (xii)A Harappan site (xiv) A capital city (xiv) A rock-cut cave site
(xv) A late Harappan site
(xvi) An educational centre
(xvii) A terra-cotta art centre
(xviii) A seaport (xix) A capital city
(xx) A capital city.

·       2016 : 2.(a) Delineate and account for the regional characteristics of the Neolithic period in India. 15 marks

·       2017 : (i) A Prehistoric cave-paintings’ site (ii) A Neolithic-Chalcolithic site
(iii) An Early Harappan site
(iv) A Harappan site
(v) An ancient capital city
(vi) A Painted grey ware site
(vii) A Neolithic site
(viii) A site of Ashokan inscriptions
(ix) An ancient port and trade centre
(x) A Harappan site
(xi) A Chalcolithic site
(xii) An ancient capital city
(xiii) A Rock-cut cave site
(xiv) A early fortified city
(xv) A Rock-cut temple site
(xvi) An ancient temple site
(xvii) An ancient capital city
(xviii) An ancient temple site
(xix) A Palaeolithic site
(xx) An ancient capital city

·       2017 : (c) The emergence of Non-Harappan Chalcolithic cultures in Central India and the Deccan mark a change not only in the subsistence pattern of people but an overall transition from pre to proto historic period. Critically analyze. (15 Marks)

·       2018: 1. Megalithic burial site
2. Early Agricultural centre
3. Chalcolithic site
4. Early Harappan site
5. Cave Paintings
6. An ancient temple
7. Paleolithic site
8. Political and Cultural centre
9. Political and Cultural centre
10. An ancient sea port
11. Terracotta centre
12. Buddhist centre
13. Harappan site
14. Inscriptional site
15. Vaishnava cultural site
16. An ancient capital
17. Painted Grey Ware site
18. A Jaina centre
19. Chalcolithic site
20. An ancient capital

Indus Valley Civilization:

Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

 

·       2002 : 2. Analyse the elements of urban civilisation in the Harappan Culture. What factors were responsible for its decline ?

·       2012 : 2. (a) Evaluate the significance of scals and sealing in the reconstruction of socio-economic and religious life of the Harappan people. 30

·       2013 : (b) Discuss the water management and its conservation planning in the Harappan (Indus-Saraswati) cities. 20

·       2014 : (b) Do you think the Harappan civilization had a diversity of subsistence base ?

·       2014 : b. The decline of Harappan civilization was caused by ecological degradation rather than external invasion. Discuss

·       2016: (b) Explain why the majority of the known Harappan settlements are located in the semi-arid areas with saline groundwater. 20 marks

Megalithic Cultures:

Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

 

·       2008 : 2. Discuss the distribution and significance of farming cultures outside the Indus system.

·       2011 : 4. (a) Evaluate the introduction of iron technology in the development of human history of ancient India. 20

·       2012 : 3. (a) Discuss the extent, settlement pattern and subsistence economy of the megalithic cultures. 30

·       2013 : 3. (a) On the basis of contemporary sources assess the nature of banking and usuary in ancient India. 15

·       2014 : 3. (a) In what ways can the Megalithic culture be considered a foundational phase of the history of peninsular India ?

·       2016 : 4.(a) Critically evaluate the theory and practice of land revenue system in ancient India. 20 marks

Aryans and Vedic Period:

Expansions of Aryans in India. Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economic life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

 

·       2004 : 2. Describe the social life of the later Vedic people. How was it different from the Rig-Vedic life ?

·       2009: 3. (a) Evaluate the various approaches to the understanding of Vedic religion.

·       2010 : 3. (c) Examine the’ view that the sacrifice was a ritual and a form of social exchange in Vedic India.

·       2011 : 3. (a) Evaluate the conceptual basis of the Vedic deities. 30

·       2013 : 2. (a) Evaluate various views regarding human settlements as gleaned from the Vedic sources. 20

·       2013 : (c) “The varna concept may always have been largely a theoretical model and never an actual description of society.” Comment in the context of Ancient India. 15

·       2013 : 4. (a) Evaluate the contribution of the Puranas is disseminating secular knowledge among masses in ancient India. 15

·       2014 : (b) “The Upanishadic principles embody the epitome of the Vedic thought Discuss.

·       2015 : c. “Archaeology known of no Aryans.only literature knows of Aryans “Examine critically.

·       2015 : 3. a. How far it correct to say that changes in the post Vedic economy gave birth to new religious movement* in India?

·       2016 : (c) In what way was the egalitarian character of the carly Vedic society changed during the later Vedio poriod? 15 marks

·       2017 : (a) Critically examine various views regarding the Vedic-Harappan relationship in light of the latest discoveries. (15 Marks)

·       2018 : 2.(c) Give an account of gana-sanghas (non-monarchical state systems)? Why did they decline? (15 Marks)

Period of Mahajanapadas:

Formation of States (Mahajanapada) : Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.

 

·       2001 : 2. Analyse the causes of the success of the Magadhan imperialism upto the reign of Ashoka the Great.

·       2004 : 3. Explain the social aspects of Buddhism and account for its decline in India.

·       2007 : 3. Write what you know of the rise and spread of Buddhism before the first century A.D.

·       2011 : (b) Assess the importance of Jain tents and their relevance to humanity. 30

·       2015 : c. “Tantrism, if not in practice, at least on conceptual level challenged patriarchy;’ Examine Tantrism specially keeping in mind the above context.

·       2017 : (b) Buddhism and Jainism were social movements under the umbrella of religion. Comment. (15 Marks)

Mauryan Empire:

Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature. Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.

 

·       2000 : 2. How did Ashoka contribute to the moral and administrative welfare of his people ?

·       2002 : 3. Examine the nature of the Mauryan State. Bring out the features of their administrative system.

·       2005 : 2. Determine the extent of the Mauryan empire.

·       2012 : 4. (a) Examine the role of adhyaksa in the Mauryan administration. 30

·       2013 : (b) Social norms for women in the Dharmasastra and Arthasastra tradition were framed in accordance with the Varnashrma tradition. Evaluate critically. 20

·         2014 : (c) Discuss different interpretations of historians about the nature of Ashok’s ‘Dhamma’. Did his principle of ‘Dhamma-vijaya’ render the Mauryan Empire militaristically weak?

·       2016 : (b) The copious references to the preservation of Varnashrama system by the kings eulogized in inscriptions are mere reflection of the Smriti tradition.” Discuss. 15 marks

·       2017 : (b) “The concept of Ashoka’s Dhamma as found through his inscriptions had its roots in Vedic-Upanishadic literature.” Discuss. (15 Marks)

·       2018 : 3.(a) Do you agree with the popular view that Mauryas established a unitary and highly centralized if not monolithic state system?(20 Marks)

Post – Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):

Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

 

·       2008 : 3. How justified are we in characterizing the post­Mauryan five centuries as the “Dark Period” of Indian History ? Give reasons in support of your answer.

·       2010 : (b). Examine the significance of the deities depicted on the coins of the Kushanas.

·       2012 : (b) Justify Pliny’s statement that Rome was being drained out of its gold by India during the first century of the Christian era. 30

·       2015 : b. Delineate the nature and impact of India’s contact with Wentern Ama and the Mediterranean world during the Maury an period

·       2016 : (c) The changes in the field of art from the Kushana period to early medieval period arc incre reflection of changing outlook.” Comment. 20 marks

·       2018 : 4.(a) What was the impact of trans-regional and trans-continental trade in the post Mauryan period on social and cultural life of India? (20 Marks)

Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:

Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

 

·       2007 : 2. “Reconstruction of Early Indian history is hardly possible without the help of inscriptions and coins.” Discuss.

·       2008 : 4. How do recent archaeological findings and Sangam literary texts enlighten us about the early state and society in South India ?

·       2010 : (b). Assess the role of guilds’ and trade organizations in the development of early Indian economy.

·       2011 : 2. Trace the development of urbanization from the third millennium B.C.E. to 6th century B.C.E. 60

·       2013 : (c) Explain as to how the early Budhist Stupa art, while using folk motifs and narratives and common cultural symbols, succeeded in transforming these themes for expounding the Budhist ideals. 20

·       2014 : 4. (a) Buddha’s teachings to a large extent could be helpful in understanding and resolving the problem of today’s society. Analyse critically.

·       2014: (c) What were the privileges granted to the donees in land – grant charters of early  India? How far were these charters responsible for integration or disintegration of socio-political milieu?

·       2015 : 4. a. Trace the role of guilds and trade organisations in the development of early Indian economy.

·       2016: 3.(a) Examine the relationship among economic growth, urbanization and State formation from c. 7th century BCE to 3rd century BCE. 15 marks

·       2016 :  (b) How does the numismatic evidence of the period reflect the political and economic outlook of the Kushanas and the Satavahanas? 15 marks

·       2017 : (c) The accurate picture of the complex socio-cultural milieu of Peninsular Indian is presented in the early Sangam literature. Delineate. (15 Marks)

·       2018: 3.(b) The concept of Shramanic religions, with particular reference to Buddhism, had their roots in Upanisadic ideas. Discuss. (15 Marks)

Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:

Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

 

·       2000 : (i) Aizawl  (ii) Amritsar
 (iii) Arikamedu  (iv) Bangalore(v) Bharukachha (vi) Bhaja
(vii) Gangotri (viii) Itanagar (ix) Jaugada  (x) Jhansi
(xi) Kalsi  (xii) Kanchivaram
(xiii) Kanheri  (xiv) Kumrahar
(xv) Konarak . (xvi) Mathura
(xvii) Madurai (xix) Nasik 
(xx) Palitana  (xxi) Rajagriha
(xxii) Sasan Gir  (xxiii) Shrinagar
(xxiv) Udaygiri­ Khandagiri (xxv) Uchh (xxvi) Ujjain (xxviii) Vidisha
(xxix) Vaishali  (xxx) Vatapi
 (xxvii) Valabhi (xviii) Nalanda·       2000 : 3. Who were the Maukharis ? Discuss their political relations with the Later Guptas of Magadha.

·       2001 : (b) Hemu Vikramaditya

·       2005 : 3. Assess the status of women in India from 4th century BC to AD 6th century.

·       2005 : 4. What are the salient features of the administrative system of the Guptas ?

·       2005 : (a) The Samanta system 

·       2009 : (b) Give an account of the use of gold coins by commoners in the Gupta period.

·       2010 : 4. What light do early inscriptions and literature throw on the status of women in politico-socio-economic spheres ?

·       2011 : 6. Evaluate the soico-economic conditions from the Gupta Period to 1200 C.E. as gleaned from the various types of grants or dana shasana. 60

·       2012 : (b) Assess the education system in early India and identify important educational institutions of the period. 30

·       2012 : 6. (a) (a) What king of change were visualized by historians on Indian feudalism? Examine critically. 30

·       2017 : (b) The second urbanization gave rise to the organized corporate activities that reached their zenith during the Gupta period. Discuss. (20 Marks)

·       2018 : 4.(c) Discuss the experimentations with art and architecture during the Gupta-Vakataka period. (15 Marks)

Regional States during Gupta Era:

The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.

 

·       2000 : 4. Give an account of the struggle for supremacy in South India between the Chalukyas of Badami and the Pallavas.

·       2001 : 3. Did the triangular conflict between the Rashtrakutas, Gurjara Pratiharas and Palas create a political vacuum in northern India which facilitated the invasions of Mahmud of Ghazni ?

·       2001 : (a) The Vedanta of Sankaracharya

·       2003 : 3. “The Sixth century B.C. was a period of religious and economic unrest in India.” Comment.

·       2003 : 6. Attempt a critical essay on the Indian Science and Civilisation in the light of Alberuni’s writings. What merits and drawbacks, do you find in his account ?

·       2004: 4. Give an account of the rise of the Chalukyas of Vatapi and their struggle with other rulers. Write a note on their patronage of arts.

·       2005 : (d) Chaitanyadeva and Vaishnavism

·       2006 : 3. Describe the expansion of the Gupta empire under Samudragupta.

·       2007 : 4. Throw light on the condition of common man in the Gupta period.

·       2007 : 6. Show that the administrative system in India reached a very high level during the Chola period.

·       2009 : 4. Bring out the regional variations in the early South Indian temples’ architectural styles.

·       2010 : (b) How far do you agree with the view that the temples in the early medieval period were catalysts in spreading education?

·       2011: (b) Assess the contribution of the Cholas in the expansion of Indian culture outside India. 30

·       2014 : (b) Discuss the provincial and district administrative units of the Gupta Empire with the designations and functions of the officers.

·       2014 : (b) Evaluate the contribution of Vaishnava saints to the growth of medieval Bhakti literature.

·       2014 : 7. (a) Evaluate the ‘Kitab al-Hind’ of Alberuni as a source of history of India.

·       2015 : b. Kailasa temple built at Ellora marks the cultivation of rock-cut architecture in India. Elucidate.

·       2015 : b. Why is Mamallapuram famous?

·       2016 : (c) How did the temples of South India, as financial institutions, have deep impact on the social institutions of carly mcdicval period? Critically examine. 15 marks

·       2016 : (d) Comment on the veracity of Alberuni’s account of the Indian society. 10 marks

·       2017 : Q4.(a) Trace the origin and development of temple architecture in India with reference to regional styles and variations. (20 Marks)

·       2018 : 3.(c) “Doubtless it was not a free state it was any rate a state” (K.A.N.Sastri), Reflect upon the nature of local self government institutions in the Chola country.” (15 Marks)

·       2018 : 4.(b) “Utpanna dravide bhakthi, Karnate vriddhimagata I Sthita kinchit maharashtre gurjare jirnatam gata II – Padmapurana Account for the emergence of bhakti in Dravida desa. (15 Marks)

Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:

Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

 

·       2001 : (d) Savai Jai Singh, the astronomer

·       2002 : 4. Examine the proficiency of the ancient Indians in various crafts, science and mathematics.

·       2006 : 2. Discuss the changing approaches to the study of early Indian History.

·       2006 : 4. Discuss the major stages in the evolution of architecture during the ancient period.

·       2014 : (c) Review critically the evolution of different schools of art in the Indian subcontinent between the second century BCE and the third century CE, and evaluate the socio-religious factors responsible for it.

·       2017 : (c) The period of Indian History form 3rd century B.C.E. to 5th century C.E. was the period of innovation and interaction. How will you react ? (20 Marks)

Early Medieval India, 750-1200:

Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs – The Cholas: administration, village economy and society –   “Indian Feudalism” – Agrarian economy and urban settlements –     Trade and commerce – Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order –    Condition of women –       Indian science and technology

 

·       2000 : 6. Were the Chola village assemblies democratic in nature ? Give reasons for your answer.

·       2004 : 6. The Cholas are said to have established a strong and well organised administration with an element of self-government at the local level. Do you agree ? Give reasons.

·       2009 : (a) Applicability of the term ‘Indian Feudalism’ to early Medieval society

·       2009 : 6. (a) How far can the village assemblies or communities under the Cholas be really called democratic ?

·       2010 : (d) Critically evaluate various approaches to study medieval Indian town.

·       2010 : (b) To what extent “monetary anaemia” afflicted the erstwhile commercial economy during the early medieval period?

·       2012 : (b) Analyse the vibrant cultural activities in peninsular India during 550-750 CE. Compare and contrast in with the situation in contemporary North India. 30

·       2012 : (b) Medieval Indian towns were merely an extension of villages. Comment. 12

·       2012 : 7. (a) Evaluate the role of nadu and nagaram in the growth of urbanization under the Cholas. 30

·       2012 : 8. (a) State the structure of medieval village society in Northern India. What were the passive forms of resistance of the peasants in the medieval period? 30

·       2013 : (a) Evaluate the Malfuzat texts as sources of medieval history. 10

·       2014 : (a) Critically analyse the agricultural economy from 750 to 1200 CE.

·       2014 : 6. (a) Evaluating various theories regarding the Chola State, throw light on its village assemblies.

·       2015 : c. How could the local self-government under the Cholas adjust with their centralised administrative structure?

·       2015 : 6. a. Do the evidence* of land ownership at our disposal support the theory of the prevalence of feudalism in early medieval India?

·       2016 : (b) Analyze the significance of the Uttaramerur inscriptions of the Chola King Parantaka I. 10 marks

·       2016 : 6.(a) Explain the ingredients of the transitory nature of the early medieval India. 15 marks

·       2018 : 6(a) Critically analyze the changing nature of caste and gender relations during the early medieval period. (15 Marks)

Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:

Philosophy: Shankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa – Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism –   Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India – Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting

 

·       2003 : (a) Kalhan as a historian

·       2007 : (a) Alberuni on science in India 

·       2008: 6. What are the manifestations of Tamil devotional cults ? How do you account for their growth between C. 750 and C. 1200 CE?

·       2009 : (b) Assess Kalhana’s views on history.

·       2012 : (a) Evaluate Rajtarangini as a source of history.  12

·       2012 : (c) Assess the contribution of the Acharyas in the development of the ideological basis of Bhakti.

·       2012 : (d) Discuss the Caurapancashika and Jain styles of paintings. Can the Caurapancashika style truly be called the precursor of pothi format?

·       2013 : (c) Discuss and evaluate critically various trends in the historiography of Bhakti. 15

·       2015 : c. “Not only does ancient Tamil literature furnish an accurate picture of widely disparate classes, it also describes the social condition of Tamil country as it was” Discuss

·       2015 : a. Give a brief account of the early medieval temple architecture of Katnmir.

·       2015 : c. “Sufis and medieval mystic saints failed to modify either the religious ideas and practices or the outward structure of Islamic/Hindu societies to any appreciable extent.

·       2016 : 7.(a) “The Advaita doctrine of Shankara cut at the very root of Bhaktivada.” Do you agree? 15 marks

·       2017 : (a) The 11th – 12th centuries C.E. saw eventful progression in the cultural history of India. Discuss.

·       2017 : (d) Do you consider the Rajatarangini of Kalhana to be a reliable source of the political history of Kashmir ? Why?  10

·       2018 : 2.(a) How did the early Indian historical tradition, as reflected in Itihasa Purana, emerge? What are the distinctive features of this genre? (20 Marks)

·       2018 : 7(a) Do you agree that convergence of political vacuum and impact of Islamicate culture and polity

·       2018 : 7(c) What was the role of Sufi Folk literature in the diffusion of Islam in India in general and in Deccan in particular. (15 Marks)

The Thirteenth Century:

– Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success – Economic, social and cultural consequences – Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans – Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban

 

·       2002 : 6. Discuss Balban’s concept of kingship. How was it modified by Alauddin Khalji ?

·       2004 : (a) The ‘Corps of Forty’ and its relations with the Sultans.

·       2006 : 6. Bring out the main features of the administrative system under Delhi Sultanate during Turko­Afghan period.

·       2008 : (c) The ‘Corps of Forty’ and its relations with the Sultan

·       2009 : 7. (a) Identify the main factors that sustained the expansion of urban economy in the Delhi Sultanate.

·       2011 : (a) Assess the contribution of Iltutmish for the expansion and consolidation of the Delhi Sultanate.

·       2012 : (b) Analyse the racial composition and the role of nobility under the successors of Iltutmish. How did it affect the contemporary polities? 30

·       2012 : (b) How did the Mongol invasions affect the Delhi Sultanate the north-western frontier policy of the Delhi Sultans? 30

·       2013 : (d) Analyze the steps taken by Razia Sultan to strengthen her position as an independent ruler despite the various obstacles. 10

·       2013 : (c) Critically evaluate the educational development during the Sultanate period. 15

·       2014 : (b) Evaluating the theory of kingship of the Sultanate, discuss the deviations seen in the reigns of different Sultans.

·       2015 : d. What measures did Baiban adopt to combat the Mongol menace?

·       2015 : b. Discuss in brief the land-revenue –system and judicial administration of The Delhi Sultanate.

·       2016 : (b) What measures were initiated by the Sultans for the consolidation of the Delhi Sultanate? Discuss. 15 marks

·       2016: (b) Do you think that the economic measures introduced by the Sultanate rulers were beneficial to the common people as well? Illustrate with examples. 20 marks

·       2017 : (c) Critically examine the ‘blood and iron’ policy of Balban.

·       2017 : (a) To what extent was the Caliphate the source and sanction to the legal authority of the Sultans of Delhi ?  (15 Marks)

·       2018 : 5(a) “The battles of Tarian and Chandawar laid the foundations of Turkish rule in India”. Elaborate. (10 Marks)

·       2018 : 5(c) Discuss the advancement made in Textile Technology under the Delhi Sultans.(10 Marks)

The Fourteenth Century:

– “The Khalji Revolution” – Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures – Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq – Firuz Tughluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts, and Ibn Battuta’s account

 

·       2000 : 7. Form an estimate of the personality of Firoz Shah Tughlaq with special reference to his religious policy and public works.

·       2001 : 6. Assess the impact of the market reforms of Alauddin Khilji on contemporary economy and society.

·       2003 : (b) Experiments of Mohammad Tughluq 

·       2004 : (b) The Token Currency System introduced by Muhammad Tughlaq.

·       2006: (a) The Khilji Revolution

·       2009: (b) Muhammad Tughluq as an agrarian innovator

·       2011 : (b) Examine critically the agrarian and economic reforms of Alauddin Khalji. How did it strengthen the Sultanate?

·       2011 : (c) What is your assessment of Ibn batutah’s Rehla as an important source of Indian history.

·       2014 : (c) Analyse the ordinances mentioned by Barani which Alauddin Khalji promulgated for market control.

·       2016 : (c) Assess the contribution of Firoz Shah Bahamani and Mahmud Gawan in the field of education. 15 marks

·       2017 : Q7.(a) Do you agree that the schemes of Muhammad bin Tughluq were correctly conceived badly executed and disastrously abandoned ? Discuss. 10

·       2018 : 5(b) Discuss evidence on slavery provided by Ibn Batuta with special reference to female slaves. (10 Marks)

·       2018 : 6(c) “The policy of creating heterogeneous nobility by Muhammad Tughlaq started the process of disintegration of Delhi Sultanate.” Explain.

·       2018 : 7(b) Describe the new architectural features added by successive Sultans in the construction of Tombs in India. (20 Marks)

Society, Culture, and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:

Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement –   Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture –       Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce

 

·       2000 : (d) The Sufi Movement and its role in promoting communal harmony

·       2001 : 7. Evaluate the impact of the Sufi and Bhakti Movements on vernacular languages and life and thought of the common people.

·       2002 : (a) Origin of the Bhakti Movement 

·       2003 : (c) Sufi Movements

·       2003 : 7. What impact did Kabir and Nanak leave on Indian Society and Culture ?

·       2004 : 7. Discuss the growth of the Nirguna School of Bhakti Movement emphasising the contribution of Kabir and Nanak to it.

·       2005 : 7. “The tenets of Hindu and Muslim mystics were similar enough that the ground was ripe for syncretic movements involving adherents of both religions.” Elucidate.

·       2007 : 7. “The tenets of Hindu and Muslim mystics were similar enough that the ground was ripe for syncretic movements involving adherents of both the religions.” Elucidate.

·       2010 : 6. (a) Examine the increasing importance of maritime trade of India during thirteenth to fifteenth centuries.

·       2013 : 6. (a) Evaluate the conditions of industries in India from 1200 — 1500 CE. 20

·       2013 : (b) Evaluate critically the conditions of labour 1200-1500 CE on the basis of historical sources. 15

·       2014 : (b) Trace the technological and stylistic development in the architecture of the Sultanate period.

·       2016 : 5.(a) Evaluate the contents of the Tabaqat-i-Nasiri as a source of medieval history. 10 marks

·       2017 : (b) “Bhakti and Sufi movements served the same social purpose.” Discuss.   (15 Marks)

·       2017 : (c) Delineate non-agricultural production and urban economy in the 13th and 14th centuries C.E.   (20 Marks)

The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy:

–  Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids –  The Vijayanagara Empire – Lodis – Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun – The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration –  Portuguese Colonial enterprise – Bhakti and Sufi Movements

 

·       2005 : (b) The Bahmani kingdom

·       2006 : (b) Sufism in North India

·       2008 : (b) The Bahamani Kingdom 

·       2008 : (b) Significance of the arrival of the Portuguese in India

·       2010: 7. (a). Comment on the Turco-Mongol theory of sovereignty. To what extent was it adopted by Babur and Humayun?

·       2013 : (b) Discuss the state of society and economy of the Bahmani kingdom as gleaned from historical sources. 10

·       2013 : (e) Bhakti and mysticism of Lal Deb emerged as a social force in Kashmir. Comment 10

·       2013 : (b) Assess the Lekhapadhati as an important source for evaluating the society and economy of the thirteenth century CE with special reference to Gujarat. 15

·       2014 : (e) How was Cartaz system used by the Portuguese to maintain their control over the oceanic trade?

·       2015 : c. Mention the salient feature. of the polity of Vijaynagar Empire under Krishnadevaraya.

·       2015 : e. How does Tuzuk-i-Babn testify that Babar had been a cultured man?

·       2015 : b. Why should the sixteenth century be regarded as the period of the Indian Renaissance?

·       2016 : (c) Evaluate Jonaraja’s account of the reign of Zain-ul-Abidin. 10 marks

·       2017 : (b) Evaluate the accounts of foreign travellers about the Vijayanagar Empire. 10

The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture:

 – Regional cultural specificities – Literary traditions   – Provincial architecture   – Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.  

 

·       2000 : (a) Architecture of the Vijayanagara empire.

·       2010 : (b) Discuss social dynamics in the Vijayanagara empire.

·       2013 : (b) On the basis of contemporary sources evaluate the system of agriculture and irrigation of the Vijaynagar kingdom. 15

·       2014 : 8. (a) To what extent is ‘Sagmentary State model relevant for defining the Vijayanagar State? Critically examine.

Akbar:

–  Conquests and consolidation of the Empire –  Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems – Rajput policy –  Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy –  Court patronage of art and technology

 

·       2000 : 8. Describe the Rajput policy of the Mughal emperors. Do you agree with the view that the reversal of Akbar’s Rajput policy by Aurangzeb was responsible for the disintegration of the Mughal empire?

·       2002 : (c) Mansabdari System

·       2002 : 7. Trace the evolution of the religious views of Akbar. Write a note on his policy of Sulh- i-Kul.

·       2003 : 8. ‘Akbar built the Moghul Empire by enlisting the support of the Rajputs, Aurangzeb destroyed it by alienating the Rajputs.’ Do you agree ?

·       2003 : (c) Was Din-i-Ilahi’a monument of Akbar’s folly’ ? 

·       2004 : 8. In what ways were Aurangzeb’s Rajput and religious policies different from those of his predecessors ? What were the consequences of the changes made by him ?

·       2006 : (c) Religious Tolerance of Akbar 

·       2007: 8. “Akbar built the Mughal Empire by enlisting the support of the Rajputs, Aurangzeb destroyed it by alienating the Rajputs.” Discuss critically.

·       2009 : (c) Implications of Akbar s notion of Sulh- i – Kul

·       2011 : (b) Give an estimate of Akbar as a promoter of technology.

·       2011 : (b) Examine the mansab and and jagir system by Akbar and its subsequent failure in the 18th century. 30

·       2013 : 8. (a) Analyze how the political process of state formation of Mewar from 10th – 15th century CE was challenged in the 16th century CE by the imperialist policy of Akbar. 15

·       2014: (b) How are Iqta system of the Sultans different from the Jagir system under the Mughals?

·       2015 : 7. a. Make an estimate of Rana Kumbha as a patron of literature and art.

·       2015 : 8. a. “In medieval Indian history Akbar was unique for his religio-political ideas and policies.” Analyse this statement.

·       2017 : (b) Do you think that Akbar’s Rajput policy was a conscious attempt to incorporate the Indian ruling elite with the Mughal Imperial System ?

·       2018 : 5(d) “Akbar wished to assert his strong belief in God, but his concept of the way god is to be worshipped was independent of either ourthodox Islam or Hinduism.” Comment. (15 Marks)

Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:

–  Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb –  The Empire and the Zamindars – Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb –  Nature of the Mughal State – Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts – The Ahom Kingdom –  Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

 

·       2001 : (c) The Zenith of Mughal architecture under Shahjehan

·       2002 : 8. Explain the principal features of architecture during Akbar’s rule. What changes were made in them by Shahjahan ?

·       2005 : 6. Give your opinion on the urban development in India during the Mughal times.

·       2006 : (d) Dara Shukoh

·       2008 : (a) The Ahom Kingdom

·       2009 : (b) “The major causes of revolts against the Mughal Empire during the latter half of the 17th century were economic, rather than religious.” Discuss.

·       2010 : (b) How did Shivaji organize his administration and finances to consolidate his power?

·       2012 : (e) Give social background to the rise of the Maratha movement during the seventeenth century.

·       2014 : (d) Give a brief account of resistance offered by Ahom State against the Mughal rule.

·       2014 : (c) Analyse the Mughal monetary system and examine their policy of minting of coins.

·       2015 : b. Will it not be correct to say that the rural economy in Mughal India was relatively? self-sufficient?

·       2016 : 8.(a) Do you think that the agrarian crisis of the 17th century led to the disintegration of the Mughal empire? Discuss. 20 marks

·       2018 : 8(a) Discuss the working of Zamindari System under the Mughal rulers. Also describe the role played by the Zamindars in the agrarian economy of Mughal India. (20 Marks)

·       2018 : 8(b) “The art of building was carried to highest degree of perfection under Shahjahan”. Illustrate by giving architectural details of two of his most celebrated buildings. (15 Marks)

Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries:

 – Population, agricultural production, craft production   – Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution – Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems – Condition of peasants, condition of women   – Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth  

 

·       2006 : 8. Examine the factors which were responsible for opening and development of European trade in India during the 16th and 17th centuries.

·       2008 : (d) Evolution of the Khalsa Panth.

·       2008 : 7. Delineate the striking features of agricultural and craft production during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in India. How did they impact the social fabric of the country?

·       2010 : 8. (a) What was Indian response to European Technology? 

·       2013 : 7. (a) On the basis of the accounts of Europeans bring out the agrarian crisis on the 17th century CE India. 20

·       2016 : (b) Was it the weakening of the Mughal empire or the rise of regional powers that led to the British conquest of India? Discuss. 15 marks

·       2017 : (e) The religion of the Sikhs was the main force of their unity. Comment.

·       2017 : (b) Assess the condition of peasantry during 13th to 17th centuries C.E.  (15 Marks)

·       2018 : 6(b) “An important feature of agriculture in Mughal India has been the large number of crops raised by the peasants.” Illustrate by giving examples.(15 Marks)

Culture in the Mughal Empire:

–  Persian histories and other literature –  Hindi and other religious literature – Mughal architecture –  Mughal painting – Provincial architecture and painting – Classical music –  Science and technology

 

·       2000 : (c) During the reign of Jahangir Mughal painting reached its Zenith

·       2005: (c) Mughal painting

·       2006 : 7. Write a short essay on the development of literature during the Mughal period.

·       2007 : (c) Mughal painting

·       2010 : (c) Discuss different types of Karkhanas in Mughal India. How was the production organized in the Karkhanas? 

·       2011 : 7. (a) Mughal paintings reflect the contemporary socio-political conditions. —Discuss. 30

·       2013 : (c) Assess the development of Science and Technology in the Mughal period. 20

·       2016 : (e) Delineate the development of the Mughal painting during the reign of Jahangir. 10 marks

·       2017 : Q8.(a) “Mughal paintings reflect social harmony in contemporary society.” Discuss.  (15 Marks)

·       2018 : 5(e) Discuss the literature written in Hindi in Mughal India. (10 Marks)  

The Eighteenth Century:

–  Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire –  The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh –  Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas – The Maratha fiscal and financial system –  Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat:1761 – State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest

 

·       2001 : 8. Were the Marathas restricted by their geopolitical limitations from becoming the paramount power of India ?

·       2002 : (d) Consequences of the Third Battle of Panipat

·       2003 : (d) Chauth and Sardeshmukhi.

·       2004 : (d) The system of the collection of Chauth and Sardeshmukhi by the Maratha rulers.

·       2005 : 8. How would you like to characterize the eighteenth century in Indian history ?

·       2007: (d) Chauth & Sardeshmukhi of the Maratha rulers

·       2008 : 8. What are the distinguishing components of the debate on “The Eighteenth Century” ?

·       2009 : (d) Estimates of population of Mughal India

·       2011 : 8. (a) Discuss the causes of the rise and growth of regional kingdom with special reference to the Deccan in the 18the century. 30

·       2012 : (b) How was the Afgan nobility responsible for the decline of the Afghan empires? Discuss. 30

·       2013 : (c) Give a sketch of Indian trade with Europe during the Mughal period. 10

·       2014 : (C) “The Battle of Plassey that decided the fate of Bengal was won by Clive through intrigues.” Explain.

·       2015 : c. Compare the Peshwas’ bureaucratic management with that of the Imperial Mughal administration.

·       2016 : (c) Identify the broad contours of the Mughal foreign policy and their impacts on the Mughal empire. 20 marks

·       2016 : (c) Is it true that the court intrigues and weak revenue system led to the collapse of the Maratha empire? Comment

·       2017 : (c) “The political disintegration was responsible for the socio-economic decline in India during the 18th century.” Comment.

·       2017 : (c) How will you view the Maratha policy of expansion ? Delineate.  (20 Marks)

·       2018 : 8(c) “The Afghan invasions in the Eighteenth Century not only signified the military irrelevance of the Mughal Empire but also hastened its decline.” Explain.(15 Marks)