European Penetration into India:

The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal -The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.


·       2000 : (a) The Battle of Plassey was “not a great battle but a great betrayal.”

·       2000 : (b) Towards the Princes, Canning adopted a policy of “punishing resistance and rewarding obedience”.

·       2000 : (c) Sir Charles Napier said, “We have no right to seize Sind, yet we shall do so, and a very advantageous, useful, human piece of rascality it will be”.

·       2002 : (a) “The Verdict at Plassey was confirmed by the English victory at Buxar.”

·       2003 : (a) ‘Absentee landlordism was a consequential feature of Bengal’s Permanent land settlement.’

·       2004 : 2. Discuss the causes that led to the ‘economic drain’ in Bengal following the Battle of Plassey.

·       2006 : (a) “Neither Alexander the Great nor Napoleon could have won the empire of India by starting from Puduicherry as a base and contending with a power which held Bengal and the command of the Sea.”

·       2009 : (b) How did the East Indian Company become the dejure power in India ?

·       2012 : (b) “Compared to their English counterpart, the French East India Company enjoyed little discretionary power and had to always look up to Paris for all major decisions. This partly explains the failure of the French in India.”

·       2013 : (a) “Duplex made a cardinal blunder in looking for the key of India in Madras: Clive sought and found it in Bengal.”  10

·       2014 : 1. (a) “Plassey did not complete the British conquest of India. Had the English been convincingly defeated in any subsequent battle in India, then (the battle of) Plassey would have remained as a minor episode in the history of India.”

·       2016 : (a) Comment on the French ambition of building a territorial empire in India. 10 marks

·       2016 : (b) After the Battle of Plassey, how did India transit from the medieval to the modern age? 10 marks

·       2016 : 2.(a) How far is it correct to say that if Clive was the founder of the British Empire in India, Warren Hastings was its administrative organiser ? 20 marks

·       2016 : 4.(a) “The need to impose greater parliamentary control over the Company’s affairs increased during the decades (1773 – 1853) after Plassey.” Elucidate. 20 marks

·       2018 : (a) “The Battle of Plassey (1757) thus marked beginning of political supremacy of the English East India Company in India.” (10 Marks)

British Expansion in India:

Bengal – Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.


·        2002 : 2. “ The rise and expansion of British empire was an accident rather than the result of a deliberate policy and design.” Critically examine this statement.

·       2004 : (a) ‘The Treaty of Salbai (1782) was neither honourable to the English nor advantageous to their interests.’

·       2005 : (a) ‘Upon the whole, then, I conclude that the treaty of Bassein was wise, just and a politic measure.’

·       2006 : 2. Examine the circumstances which led to the Third Mysore War. Could Cornwallis have avoided it?

·       2009 : 2. (a) Why was Mysore-considered a threat by the British to their possessions and mercantile interests in the south. Do you think that Tipu Sultan’s posturing became his undoing ?

·       2010 : (b) “Punjab’s fate after Ranjit Singh was foredoomed as the impulse of neo­ Victorian Imperialism was bound to overwhelm “ Elucidate. 

·       2015 : a. ‘Annexation of Punjab was part of a broad nort motion after the exit of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.”

·       2016 : (b) “Peace hath her victories no less renowned than war.” Examine this statement with reference to Lord William Bentinck. 20 marks

·       2017 : (a) “The Maratha polity disintegrated through internal stress.”

·       2017 : (c) Underline the major considerations of the British imperial power that led to the annexation of Punjab. (10 Marks)

Early Structure of the British Raj:

The early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.


·        2001: (a) ‘Dalhousie changed the map of India with speed and thoroughness no campaign could equal.’

·       2004 : (b) ‘The object of the Act (Regulating) was good, but system that it established was imperfect.’

·       2005 : 2. Examine the essential principles of the Subsidiary Alliance system. How far did it contribute in making the British Company the supreme sovereign authority in India ?

·       2005: (a) ‘Though reform was inevitable, the Act (1832) by which it was accomplished was open to grave criticism.’

·       2008 : (a) “Sprung from paternalism, the English Utilitarian philosophy as introduced in India rejected its human warmth between rulers and the ruled”.

·       2009: (d) “The annexation of Awadh shook the loyalty of the Sepoys, as it was for them an ultimate proof of untrustworthiness of the British.”

·       2010: (a) “The educated middle class in the 19th century often found the domain of reason to be oppressive, as it implied the historical necessity of `civilizing’ colonial rule.”

·       2011 : 2. (a) “The Charter Act of 1833 rung down the curtain on the Company’s trade and introduced a new concept of government in India,” Substantiate. 20

·       2012 : 2. (a) “The forces of free trade and the British determination of create a political and administrative environment conductive to trade and investment had shaped the British polity towards Indian in the first half of the nineteenth century.” — Elucidate. 30

·       2015 : b. The Regulating Act (1773), the Pitt’s India Act (1784) and eventually the Charter Act of 1833 left the East India Company as a mere shadow of its earlier political and economic power in India.”

·       2016 : (c) “India’s need for a federal system was more an imperative than a political choice.” Do you agree? 10 marks

Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:

(a)   Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.

(b)  Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; Deindustrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.


·       2000 : 2. Discuss the view that the British rule brought about economic changes in India to serve the needs of the imperial economy and establish a dependent form of underdevelopment in this country.

·       2001 : 2. Discuss the main features of the ‘Raiyatwari Settlement’ in South India. Did it satisfy the aspirations of the peasantry ?

·       2001 : (c) ‘The British industrial policy in the nineteenth century ruined the Indian handicrafts.’

·       2003: (b) ‘India underwent suffering and mortality in the wake of recurring famines’ in the later half of the 19th century.

·       2003 : 2. What was the impact of early British land policy on the ‘village communities’ of North India ?

·       2004 : (c) ‘Permanent Settlement disappointed many expectations and introduced the results that were not anticipated.’

·       2004 : 3. Examine the impact of British rule on Indian Society in the 19th Century.

·       2005 : 3. Trace the development of the famine policy of the British in India between 1876 and 1921. Did it provide relief to the people ?

·       2006 : (b) “A self-sufficient village, based on agriculture carried on with the primitive plough and bullock-power, and handicrafts by means of simple instruments, was a basic feature of Pre-British Indian economy.”

·       2006 : 3. What do you mean by the commercialization of Indian agriculture ? Discuss its results.

·       2007 : 2. Examine the major factors shaping the British land-revenue policy in India. How it affected Indian society ?

·       2008 : 2. Critically examine the impact of the famine policy on rural India. Describe the official remedial measures undertaken.

·       2008 : 3. Write a critique on the impact of the Drain Theory of Dadabhai Nauroji in the growth of economic nationalism.

·       2009 : (a) “Though the Permanent Settlement had serious defects, it gave tranquillity to the countryside and stability to the government.”

·       2010 : (b) “Railway development in India provides an interesting instance of private enterprise at public risk” 

·       2010: 3. (a). What role did the economic ideas play; the early phase of the British rule in the shaping of land tenure policy? 

·       2011 : 4. (a) To what extent did the process of commercialization of agriculture affect the rural scene in India?

·       2012 : (d) “Plantations and mines, jute mills, banking, insurance, shipping and export-import concerns in India were run through a system of interlocking managing agencies.”

·       2012: 3. (a) “The railways, instead of serving as the catalyst of an industrial revolution as in Western Europe and the USA, acted in India as the catalyst of complete colonization’.”— Examine 30

·       2013: (c) “Ryotwari falls into three stages – early, middle and late, and the only description common to all is that it is mode of settlement with small farmers, so small, indeed, that their average holding is, on recent figures, only about 6.5 acres.”  10

·       2013: 2. (a) “Weaving”, says R. C. Dutt, “was the national industry of the people spinning was the pursuit of millions of women.” Indian textiles went to England and other parts of Europe, to China and Japan and Burma and Arabia and Persia and parts of Africa. Elucidate. 25

·       2015: 3. a. “Under the forceful thrust of British colonialism, Indian economy was transformed into a colonial one, the structure of which was determined by the requirements of Britain’s fast developing industrial economy “ Examine.

·       2016: 3.(a) Critically examine the causes responsible for the phenomenon called de-industrialisation’ in India during the nineteenth century. 20 marks

·       2017: (c) “The British railway construction policy in India benefitted British economy in the nineteenth century.”

·       2017 : (a) Explain the factors responsible for the recurrence of famines in the nineteenth century. What remedial measures were adopted by the British Indian Government ? (20 Marks)

·       2018 : (b) “The passing of the land from the hands of the peasant proprietors into the hands of non-cultivating landlords brought about increasing polarization of classes in agrarian areas.” (10 Marks)

Social and Cultural Developments:

The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India.


·       2010 : (b) “India broke her British fetters with Western hammers.”

·       2008 : (b) “The vernacular press in the nineteenth century was both newspaper as well as ‘viewspaper’ that enlightened the dormant masses”.

·       2011 : (b) “Orientalism produced a knowledge of the past to service the needs of the Colonial State.” Elucidate. 20

·       2011 : (c) “The vernacular press in nineteenth century India served not just as newspapers but more importantly as views-papers.” Comment. 20

·       2015 : d. “The very idea of the bomb and the secret society and of propaganda through action and sacrifice were imports from the west”

·       2015 : b. “James Mill, the apostle of utilitarian philosophy, proposed a revolution of Indian society through the Sveapon of law’ solely. But in actual policy framing, other influences and considerations weighed much more than the colonial State.” Elucidate. 10

·       2016 : (c) Do you agree with the view that the growth of vernacular literature in the 19th and the 20th centuries paved the way for social reform and cultural revival in India ? 10 marks

·       2017 : (b) Assess the role of press in arousing awareness on important social issues in the second half of the nineteenth century. (20 Marks)

·       2018 : (c) “Faced with the challenge of the intrusion of colonial culture and ideology an attempt to reinvigorate traditional institutions and to realize the potential of traditional culture developed during the nineteenth century.” (10 Marks)

·       2018 : (c) What was the significance of Orientalist-Anglicist controversy in nineteenth century India? Analyse. (10 Marks)

Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas:

Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayananda Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism – the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.


·       2002 : (a) ‘The Renaissance was the discovery of the world and of man.’

·         2005 : (d) ‘The national democratic awakening of the Indian people found expression also in the religious sphere.’

·       2006 : (c) “So long as the millions live in hunger and ignorance, I hold every man a traitor who, having been educated at their expense, pays not the least heed to them.”

·       2006 : (d) “A clever conqueror will always impose his demands on the conquered by instalments.”

·       2006 : 6. “The Renaissance scholars laid the eggs which Luther, the father of the Reformation, later on hatched.” Discuss.

·         2007 : (d) “There is no other instance in the history of mankind of a poet and philosopher working such a miracle in shaping the destiny of his people.” (A Tribute to M. Iqbal)

·       2009 : (b) “The Arya Samaj may quite logically be pronounced as the outcome of conditions imported into India by the west.” (Lala Lajpat Rai )

·       2010 : (b) Discuss the extent to which the Indian Renaissance movement contributed towards the rise of nationalist consciousness.

·       2011 : (b) “Young Bengal left little distinctive or permanent impression on the plane of religion and philosophy.”  20

·       2012 : (a) “The current practice of categorization of ‘Early Modern India’ is based on a shift from the old imperialist periodization of ‘Muslim India’ — ‘British India’ to the more secularist one of ‘Medieval India’ — ‘Modern India’, which puts Indian history in a universalists chronological structure.”

·       2012 : (b) “The contact of the new Indian middle class with the West proved to be a catalyst. The social and religious movements launched by Rammohan or Iswar Charidra Vidyasagar have to be understood in the context.” — Elaborate. 30

·       2013 : (b) Swami Vivekananda opined that “We should give our ancient spirituality and culture and get in return Western Science, technology, methods of raising the standard of life, business integrity and technique of collective effort.”  10

·       2013 : (b) “The first point to note is the continuing importance of religion and philosophy as vital ingredients in the modern Indian Renaissance. Indeed, there is as much reason for regarding it as a reformation as there is for treating it as a Renaissance.” Critically examine. 25

·       2015 : 2. a. Swami Dayanand’s philosophy represents both elements of extremism and social radicalism” Substantiate.

·       2017 : (b) “The chief value of Raja’s (Raja Rammohan Roy) labours seems to lie in his fight against the forces of medievalism in India.”

·       2017 : (d) The Arya Samaj may quite logically be pronounced as the outcome of condition imported into India from the West.”

·       2017 : (e) “Sri Narayana Guru’s was a major intervention in the social reform movement from a subaltern perspective.”  10

Indian Response to British Rule:

Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (18991900); The Great Revolt of 1857 – Origin, character, causes of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.


·       2000 : (d) The 1921 Moplah rebellion was “in essence an expression of long-standing agrarian discontent which was intensified by the religious and ethnic identity”.

·       2000 : 3. Discuss the important social reform legislation passed in the 19th century, and elucidate the reaction of Indian leaders to the measures adopted.

·       2000 : (a) “Of all forms assumed by the Protestant Reformation, Calvinish has been the most far­reaching in its scope and the most profound in its influence.”

·       2001 : (b) ‘The tribal and peasant rebellion laid the foundation of the revolt of 1857.’

·       2002 : 3. “The recurring famines in the 19th century were the inevitable consequence of the British policy and expose the real character of the paternal solicitude for the peasantry on the part of the British administration.” Examine this statement critically.

·         2005 : (b) ‘Whatever might have been its original character, it (Rebellion of 1857) soon became a symbol of challenge to the mighty British power in India.’

·       2007 : (a) “The Revolt of 1857 seemed to call the very presence of the British into question. What it did not do was reverse these changes.”

·       2011 : 3. (a) “In 1857, the robel sepoys showed a remarkable centripetal tendency to congregate at Delhi.” Do you agree? Substantiate. 30

·       2011 : (b) “Tribals revolted more often and far more violently than any other community including peasants in India.” Elaborate. 30

·       2012 : (c) “The peasant movement of the second half of the nineteenth century lacked a positive conception of an alternative society — a conception which would unite the people in a common struggle on a wide regional and all-India plane and help develop long-term political developments.”   12

·       2012 : (b) “The Santhal hool began in July 1855. The core of the movement was economic, the basic cause of the uprising was agrarian discount.” — Elucidate. 30

·       2014 : 2. (a) “The Dual System of Government was a complete failure from the outset. In the first place, the abuse of the private trade reached a greater height than over. In the second place, the demands of the Company for the increase led to gross oppression of the peasantry.”

·       2015 : c. “The Indigo Revolt of 1859-60 holds a very significant place in our history of national liberation movement. For the first time in the history of our anticolonial struggle, its two independent currents— spontaneous peasants and constitutional agitation in defence of the peasantry—came into mutual contact.”

·       2015 : c. The Royal Indian Navy Revolt was seen as an event which marked the end of the British rule almost as finally as Independence Day.” Explain

·       2016 : (d) “The Mutiny of 1857 was much more than a Mutiny of Sepoys and much less than a National Rebellion.” Comment. 10 marks

·       2016 : (b) How far is it correct to say that the 19th century tribal uprisings are a part of subaltern nationalism? 20 marks

·       2017 : (c) Discuss the nature of peasant movements under the Kisan Sabhas during 1920-1940. (10 Marks)

·       2018 : Q2.(a) Was the Moplah Rebellion in Malabar an expression of anti-landlord and anti-foreign discontent? Discuss. (20 Marks)

  1. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.


·       2000 : 4. To what extent was the emergence of the Congress in 1885 the culmination of a process of political awakening that had its beginning in the 1870s ?

·       2001 : 3. Examine the economic and social factors which led to the rise of Indian nationalism in the second half of the nineteenth century.

·       2003: (d) ‘Rabindranath Tagore’s nationalism was based on a Catholic internationalism.’

·       2003 : 4. Examine the causes of the rise and progress of revolutionary movements in India from 1905 to 1931.

·       2008 : 4. Describe the changing nature of revolutionary activities in India between 1905-1946.

·       2009 : (b) Analyse the social composition of the early Congress leadership.

·       2010 : (c) ‘The developments during 1937-1939 greatly undermined the ability of the Indian National Congress to push through the agenda of national unity.” Comment.

·       2010: (b) “All long marches begin with small steps.”

·       2010 : (c) “The essence of Perestroika is for people to feel they are the country’s master.”

·       2013 : 3. (a) “At the dawn of the twentieth century Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India, was full of hostility towards the Indian Congress and he confidentially reported to the Secretary of State in November 1900: My own belief is that the Congress is tottering to its fall, and one of my greatest ambitions while in India is to assist it to a peaceful demise.” Examine. 25

·       2014 : 4. (a) “Though Sri Ramakrishna became the prophet of neo-Hinduism, he never claimed to have founded any new religion.” Elaborate.

·       2016 : (e) Explain “Constructive Swadeshi” characterised by atmashakti (self-reliance), which propelled the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal. | 10 marks

·       2017 : (a) Trace the origin of the Ghadar movement and discuss its impact on the revolutionaries in India. (20 Marks)

·       2018 : (c) Can methods and policies of the moderates be referred to as „political mendicancy‟? (20 Marks)​​​​​​​

  1. A rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.


·       2001 : (d) ‘The Quit India Movement was a spontaneous revolt of the people against British rule.’

·       2002 : (c) “Gandhi restrained mass movements, yet he retained his popularity among the masses.”

·       2003: (c) ‘In the summer of 1942 Gandhi was in a strange and uniquely militant mood.’

·       2004 : (d) ‘We are therefore unable to advise the British Government that the power which at present resides in British hands should be handed over to two entirely separate sovereign States.’

·       2005 : 4. Analyse the factors responsible for the Civil Disobedience movement (1930-31). How far were its aims realised in the Government of India Act of 1935 ?

·       2007 : (b) “Of the evils which corroded Indian society in the nineteenth century were probably those stunted its womanhood.”

·       2007 : (c) “At Karachi in 1931, the Congress defined what Swaraj would mean for the masses.” 

·       2007 : 3. Explain the circumstances leading to the alliance between the Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movements. Was it a politically wise step on the part of the Congress ?

·       2008 : (c) “Is moral law, the law of conscience, higher than the law of the state, which is oppressive ?” (Mahatma Gandhi, 1922)

·       2009 : 3. (a) How did social legislation in the nineteenth century improve the condition of women in India ?

·       2009 : (b) Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution ?

·       2010 : (c). “The active participation of Arena Asaf Ali in 1942 movement symbolized the role of women in India’s freedom struggle.”

·       2013 : (e) “Gandhi’s body is in jail but his soul in with you, India’s prestige is in your hands, you must not use any violence under any circumstances. You will be beaten but you must not resist; you must not raise a hand to ward off blows.”  10

·       2014 : (c) “The military, feudal and traditional overtones of the Revolt of 1857 were overshadowed by its nationalist or proto-nationalist character.”

·       2014 : (e) “M.K. Gandhi made a gross mistake in championing the Khilafat cause an extra-territorial issue which cut at the very roots of Indian nationality.”

·       2014: (b) “………….instead of rejecting the plan (Cabinet Mission Plan), they (the Congress Leadership) resorted to a half-baked legalistic stratagem to reserve their position on its long-term arrangements and accepted its short-term provisions.” Critically examine.

·       2014: (b) “Why did the British finally quit India on 15th August. 1947? The Imperialist answer is that independence was simply the fulfulment of Britain’s self-appointed mission to assist the Indian people to self-government.” Examine.

·       2015 : e. “This retention of Roweltt legislation in the teeth of universal opposition repeal is an affront to the nation. Its repeal is necessary to appraise national honour.”

·       2015 : b. To characterize the quit India Movement as ‘ Spontaneous revolution’ would be partial interpretation, so also would be to look up at it as the culmination of Gandhian Satyagraha movements” Elucidate.

·       2015 : 4. a. Analyze the nature of peasant movements during the nationalist phase and bring out their shortcomings.

·       2015 : c. ‘Although the Government of India Act 1935 replaced diarchy with Provincial Autonomy, the overriding powers of the Governor diluted the spirit autonomy.” Elucidate.  10

·       2016 : (b) What significant role did women play in the Indian National Movement ? 20 marks

·       2017 : (a) Discuss how the Satyagrahas of Gandhi removed the spell of fear among Indians and thus knocked off an important pillar of imperialism. (20 Marks)

·        2018 : (d) “An ideology of paternalistic benevolence, occasionally combined with talk of trusteeship and training towards self-government, thinly veiled the realities of a Raj uncompromisingly white and despotic.” (10 Marks)

·       2018 : Q4.(a) Do you consider the suspension of Non-Cooperation Movement a “national calamity.”? (20 Marks)​​​​​​​

  1. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935.


·        2010 : 2. (a). “In terms of the administrative structure, the Government of India Act of 1858, … meant more continuation than change.” Do you agree? Substantiate. 

·       2013 : (b) “Thought the Act of 1919 was superseded by that of 1935, the preamble to the former was not repealed – the preservation of the smile of the Cheshire cat after its disappearance, and the latter said nothing about Dominion Status:” Elucidate. 25

·       2014: (b) “Montague-Chelmsford reform proposals introduced ‘dyarchy’ but blurred the lines of responsibility.”

·       2018 : (c) Could Dyarchy 1919 satisfy the national sentiments of the Indians? (10 Marks)

  1. Other strands in the National Movement.The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, the Madras Presidency, Outside India.The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.


·       2002 : (d) “The ideology of Subhash Chandra Bose was a combination of nationalism, fascism and communism.”

·       2002: 4. Discuss the nature of the leadership and programme of the Congress Socialist Party.

·       2003: 3. Trace the factors which led to a split in the Indian National Congress in 1907. What was its impact on the course of the nationalist movement ?

·       2006: 4. Account for the emergence of the left-wing within the Congress. How far did it influence the programme and Policy of the Congress ?

·       2011 : (c) “The emergence of left-wing group in the Congress radicalized its social and economic agendas.”

·       2011 : 6. (a) “The roots of Chartism are party political and party economic.” Elaborate. 20

·       2013 : (d) “Many of us who worked for the Congress programme lived in a kind of intoxication during the year 1921. We were full the excitement and optimism. We had a sense of freedom and a pride in that freedom.”  10

·       2014 : (d) “The ‘safely-valve thesis’ does not adequately explain the birth of the Indian National Congress in 1885.”

·       2014 : 3. (a) “Politics remained for the bulk of the Moderates very much a part-time affair. The Congress was not a political party, but an annual three-day show………” Elucidate.

·       2014 : (b) “The Anti-Partition Agitation (1909) had an economic character in Bengal unlike the Extremist Agitation in Maharashtra which had a religious character.” Examine.

·       2015 : c. A powerful left-wing group developed in India in the late 1920s and 19 30s, contributing to the radicalization of national movement.” Critically examine.  10

  1. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.



·       2006 : (d) “I felt that if we did not accept partition, India would be split into many bits and would be completely ruined.”

·       2009 : 4. (a) Discuss as to why the Congress accepted the partition of India in 1947.

·       2014 : (c) “Sardar Patel accomplished a silent revolution by ensuring the absorption and assimilation of a multitude of principalities without shedding even a drop of blood.” Elucidate.

·       2018 : (b) Critically examine the turns and twists in the politics of partition in 1930‟s and 1940‟s. (20 Marks)​​​​​​​

  1. Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbors (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganization of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.


·       2001 : 4. Jawaharlal Nehru was the architect of India’s policy of non-alignment. In the light of this statement discuss India’s relations with the two ‘Power Blocks’ between 1947-1964.

·       2004 : 4. Analyse Indian foreign policy of Non-alignment between 1947 and 1964.

·       2007: 4. “With great skill and masterful diplomacy and using both persuasion and pressure, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel succeeded in integrating the hundreds of princely states with the Indian Union. Discuss.

·       2011 : 4. (a) “Nehru’s ‘Temple of Modern India’ consisted not only of steel and power plants, irrigation dams, but included institutions of higher learning, particularly in the scientific fields,” Elaborate. 30

·       2011 : (b) Would you agree that India’s effort to pursue and independent foreign policy was a highlight of post-1947 polities? 30

·       2012 : (e) “Nehru’s policy of Non-Alignment came to symbolize the struggle of India and other newly independent nations to retain and strengthen their independence from colonialism.”  12

·       2013 : 4. (a) “Notwithstanding the quest for modernity and the antagonism that guided Nehru’s attitude towards the inequalities inherent in the social structure in rural India, the Congress Party did not carry out a concerted campaign against discrimination based on caste. Nehru’s own perception was the industrial growth was bound to break the stranglehold of this feudal remnant. This, however, did not happen in India”. Examine. 25

·       2013 : (b) “The reorganization resulted in rationalizing the political map of India without seriously weakening its unity. If anything, its result has been functional, in as much at it removed what had been a major source of discord, and created homogeneous political units which could be administered through a medium that the vast majority of the population understood. Indeed, it can be said with the benefit of hindsight that language, rather than being a force for division, has proved a commenting and integrating influence.” Examine. 25

·       2015 : b. “Jawaharlal Nehru, though a declared socialist, was nr-ion focus on providing building blocks to the making of a new India” Examine.  10

·       2017 : (b) Explain why the efforts at finding solution to India’s constitutional impasse failed during 1942-1946. (20 Marks)

·       2017 : (b) How far the developments in science and technology in post-Independence period put India on the path of modernity ? (20 Marks)

·       2017: (c) Throw light on the nature of ‘Instrument of Accession’ and ‘Standstill Agreement’ signed by the Princely State with the Indian Union.  (10 Marks)

·       2018 : (e) “States‟ reorganization did not, of course, resolve all the problems relating to linguistic conflicts.” (10 Marks)

  1. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward castes and tribes in postcolonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.


·       2008 : (d) “In exercising its exclusive power the Parliament additionally enacted the Untouchability (Offences) Act in 1955.”

·       2010: (b) Discuss the factors that led to the growth of Dalit consciousness and mention the major movements aimed at their empowerment.

·       2012 : 4. (a) “Nehru favoured the policy of integrating the tribal people in Indian society, of making them an integral part of the Indian nation even while maintaining their distinct identity and culture.” — Elaborate with special reference to Northeastern India. 30

·       2014 : (c) “Dalit Movements for empowerment in independent India have essentially been for carving out political space through electoral politics.” “iscuss.

·       2016 : (c) How did Dr. B.R. Ambedkar try to seek a political solution to the problem of caste in India ? 10 marks

·       2018: (b) Analyse various trends in Dalit Movements in various parts of postindependent India. (20 Marks)

  1. Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post-colonial India; Progress of science.


·       2005 : (c) ‘The impact of government on the people meant essentially the impact of government on the village.’

·       2012 : (b) “The Chipko became famous as the first major environmental movement in post-colonial Indian and gave rise to the understanding that environmental issues are often women’s issues because they suffer most from the its deterioration.” — Explain 30

·       2016 : (c) Critically examine the nature and scope of environmental movements in Independent India. 10 marks

·       2018 : (b) Trace the development of land reforms in India between 1947 and early 1960‟s. (20 Marks)​​​​​​​

  1. Enlightenment and Modern ideas:

(i)   Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau (ii)   Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies (iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); the spread of Marxian Socialism.


·       2001 : (a) ‘Marxian Communism is primarily the offspring of German Hegelianism and French Socialism.’

·       2004 : (a) ‘Rousseau’s political philosophy contains the seeds of Socialism, Absolutism and Democracy.’

·       2008: (a) “ France was more fertile than Britain in producing new Socialist theories and movements, though they bore less concrete results in France than in Britain”.

·       2008 : 6. “The Enlightenment represented alternative approaches to modernity, alternative habits of mind and heart, of conscience and sensibility.” Discuss.

·       2010 : (a) “… he (Voltaire) was living in the Age of Enlightenment … . The age itself was not enlightened.” – E. Kant. 

·       2011 : (a) “The need for a unilateral transfer of funds to Britain was a constant factor and; in fact, progressively increased over time.”  20

·       2011 : (a) “The promptings of the heart are more to be trusted than the logic of the mind.” — Rousseau.

·       2012 : (a) “The despotic rules of Europe were influenced by the philosophy of Enlighten and began to follow a benevolent policy toward their subjects.”

·       2013 : (a) “For Kant, Enlightenment is mankind’s final coming of age, the emancipation of the human consciousness from an immature state of ignorance and error.”  10

·       2014 : 7. (a) “The Declaration of Rights was the death-warrant of the system of privilege, and so of the ancient regime………..Yet in the history of ideas it belonged rather to the past than to the future.” Examine.

·       2015 : a. “France was even more fertile than Britain in producing new socialist theories and movements, though bore less concrete results in France than Britain.

·       2015 : e. “The Constitutional blockade was a misconceived idea of economically defeating Great Britain.”

·       2016 : (a) “Karl Marx applied his critical intelligence to Wealth of Nations … Where Smith had seen only the sunlight, Marx saw only the shadows thrown upon the human scene by the unimpeded exercise of individual liberty …” Elucidate. 10 marks

·       2017 : (a) “Kant’s redefinition of reason and his rehabilitation of conscience marked a high point in the intellectual reaction against dominant rationalism of the Enlightenment.”

·       2018 : (a) “With the writings of Karl Marx, Socialism assumed the form of Scientific Socialism.”

·       2018 : Q6.(a) Explain the major ideas of Enlightenment. Discuss the contribution of Rousseau in Enlightenment. (20 Marks)​​​​​​​

Origins of Modern Politics:

(i)   European States System. (ii)   American Revolution and the Constitution. (iii)   French revolution and aftermath, 1789, 1815. (iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery. (v)  British Democratic Politics, 18151850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.


·       2000 : (b) “The Crimean War was the most useless war ever waged.”

·       2000 : 6. How did Napolean Bonaparte heal the wounds of France inflicted by the Revolution and corrected the errors perpetrated by its leaders ?

·       2001 : 6. ‘The Napoleonic Empire was doomed because of its inherent and self-defeating contradictions.’ Elucidate.

·       2002 : (b) ‘If monarchical misrule ignited the French Revolution, lofty ideas both inspired and sustained it.’

·       2003 : (a) ‘The French Revolution attacked privileges and not property.’

·       2004 : (b) ‘Napoleon was the child of the Revolution, but in many ways he reversed the aims and principles of the movement from which he sprang…….. .

·       2004 : 6. Review the background of the Chartist Movement. Despite its failure how had their demands been met in the succeeding years?

·       2005 : (b) ‘The writings of the philosophers had a remendous influence on the minds of the people and created a revolutionary awakening in their minds and formed the intellectual creed of the French Revolution.’

·       2005 : 6. ‘What were the factors that worked in the drafting of the American Constitution ? Do you agree with Beard’s view of the constitution being an Economic Document?

·       2007 : (a) “No event, as encompassing as the French Revolution occurs in an intellectual vacuum.”

·       2008 : (b) “ Most of the European Revolutions of 1848 were nationalist as well as popular insurrections against foreign rule and repressive policy of Metternich”.

·       2009: (c) “Please remember, in granting separate electorates we are sowing the dragon’s teeth and the harvest will be bitter.” (Morley)

·       2009 : (a) “The capitalism which gave the European empires their apparent solidarity and permanence also hastened their downfall.” 

·       2010 : 6. (a) How far is it correct to say that every feature of American Constitution was ultimately of English origin?

·       2010 : (c) To what extent did Napoleon’s economic war with England become his undoing?

·       2012 : (b) “The American Revolution was essentially an economic conflict between American capitalism and British mercantilism. 12

·       2012 : (c) “The connection between the philosophers’ ideas and the outbreak of the French Revolution (1789) is somewhat remote and indirect.”  12

·       2012 : 7. (a) How did Napoleon fuse the France of the ancient regime with the France of the post-revolutionary era? 30

·       2013 : (b) “Six hundred thousand men had died. The union was preserved, the slaves freed. A nation ‘conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal’ had survived its most terrible ordeal.”  10

·       2013 : (b) “Change in Britain came comparatively peacefully through democratic process in the first half of the nineteenth century and a model of a functioning democracy through ballot box was successfully put in place.” Elaborate. 25

·       2018 :

·       2014 : 6. (a) “American Revolution seems to have come with remarkable suddenness. A roster of talented leaders emerged during 1763 to 1775 to make it happen.” Elucidate.

·       2015 : b. “The multiple contradictions that quickly undermined the new edifice, had been expressed even before the meeting of the Estates General in France. The internal conflict among Estates had manifested itself.”

·       2015 : c. “The whole episode that is known as the July Revolution (1830) was fought and won not for the establishment of an extreme democracy but to get rid of the aristocratic and clericalist attitude of the restored Bourbons.”

·       2015 : 6. a. “The Berlin congress (1878) failed to unlock the Eastern Question Though there was no major war in Europe for nearly three decades after the Treaty contained the seeds of many future wars” Critically evaluate.

·       2016 : (b) What is Metternich system? Assess its impact on Europe. 10 marks

·       2016 : 6.(a) Critically examine the statement that the French Revolution was not caused by the French philosophers but by the conditions of national life and by the mistakes of the government. 20 marks

·       2016 : (b) “A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently, half slave and half free.” Explain Abraham Lincoln’s perspective. 20 marks

·       2016 : 7.(a) How did Lenin achieve an abrupt transition from a Monarchical autocratic to a Socialist State? 20 marks

·       2017 : (b) “The spirit behind the great reforms of Napoleon’s Consulate at home was the transference of the methods of Bonaparte the general to task of Bonaparte the statesman.”  10

·       2017 : (c) “The roots of the Chartist movement in Great Britain were partly political and partly economic.”  10

·       2017 : (c) Discuss how agrarian crisis accompanied by severe industrial depression triggered the Revolutions of 1848. (10 Marks)

·       2018 : (b) “The American War of Independence transformed Europe as well as America.”

·       2018 : (d) At the end of the Battle of Sedan (1870), “Europe lost a mistress and gained a master”.

·       2018 : (c) “The American War of Independence transformed Europe as well as America.


(i) English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society (ii) Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan (iii) Industrialization and Globalization.


·       2002: (c) ‘The Great Depression (1929-34) was attended by momentous consequences in the economic as well as in the political sphere.’

·       2009 : (b) What was the extent of industrialization in Western Europe by the end of the nineteenth century?

·       2011 : (b) “Whoever says Industrial Revolution, says cotton.” Comment. 20

·       2012 : (d) “The process of industrialization in some other countries of Europe was different from that in England.”  12

·       2014 : (d) “…………….the passing of the ‘Reform Act’ marked the real beginning of modern party organization in England……… In a real sense, the present political system of England dates from 1832.”

·       2014 : (b) Critical examine the socio-cultural and economic impact of migration in Europe and Asia in the 18th and 19th centuries.

·       2015 : c. “The oppressive exploitation of the working class in the wake of Industrial Revolution had jolted the social conscience of England.” Elucidate.

·       2017 : (a) Explain why England became the harbinger of Industrial Revolution. Also throw light on its social consequences. (20 Marks)

·       2018 : (b) Discuss how Japan Industrialized after the Meiji Restoration, What were the consequences for its neighbours? (20 Marks)​​​​​​​

Nation-State System:

(i)   Rise of Nationalism in 19th century (ii)   Nationalism: state-building in Germany and Italy (iii)   Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the world.


·       2001 : (b) “Bismarch created a new Germany with the policy of ‘blood and iron’.”

·       2002 : 6. “Napoleon kindled the national sentiment, but German unity was achieved by Bismarck.” Discuss.

·       2003 : 6. ‘Bismarck united Germany not by majority of votes and speeches but by a policy of “blood and iron”. In the light of this statement assess the contribution of Bismarck to the unification of Germany.

·       2004 : (c) ‘To Bismarck the conclusion of the Treaty of May 20, 1882, was the culmination of this system.’

·       2004 : 7. What were the weaknesses and difficulties of the Weimer Republic ? How did Hitler succeed in establishing, his dictatorship ?

·       2007 : 6. Give reasons for the origin of the Renaissance in Italy

·       2009: (c) “Hitler did not really want a world war. His intention was only a short war with Poland.” (A. J. P. Taylor)

·       2009 : 7. (a) How did Napoleon Bonaparte fuse the old France with the new?

·       2012 : (b) Was German unification achieved more by ‘coal and iron’ than by ‘blood and iron’? 30

·       2014 : 5. (a) “Rousseau strove to reconcile the liberty of the individual and the institution of Government through a new vision of the Contract-Theory of Government.”

·       2014 : (c) “Enlightened despots (Europe) were not necessarily politically liberal.”

·       2014 : (b) “If we were to define our conception of the States, our answer would be that the State is the banker of the poor. The government would finance and supervise the purchase of productive equipments and the formation of social workshops.” In light of the above statements of Louis Blanc, throw light on the Pre-Marxist Socialist Thought in Europe.

·       2017 : (a) What determinant factors, along with diplomatic, shaped the process of German Unification ? (20 Marks)

·       2017 : (a) Examine the circumstances which led to the overthrow of democracy and the establishment of Fascist dictatorship in Italy. (20 Marks)

·       2018 : Q7.(a) Examine the role of Bismarck in state building in Germany.

Imperialism and Colonialism:

(i)   South and South-East Asia (ii)   Latin America and South Africa (iii)   Australia (iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.


·       2001 : 7. Trace the various stages of European imperialism in Africa in the nineteenth century.

·       2006 : (a) “No taxation without representation.”

·       2006: (b) “Colonies are like fruits which cling to the tree only till they ripen.”

·       2007 : (b) “New imperialism was a nationalistic, not an economic phenomena.”

·       2009 : (b) “In all the long annals of Imperialism, the partition of Africa is a remarkable freak.”

·       2009 : 6. (a) Discuss the emergence of neo-imperialism in the late nineteenth century.

·       2010 : (b) What do you understand by Imperialism? State briefly its unique features in the case of Africa.

·       2010 : 7. (a) Critically examine the Dutch colonial policy in Indonesia.

·       2011 : 7. (a) Explain how American imperialism in Philippines differed with European imperialism in Indonesia and Indo-China. 30

·       2013 : (c) “Colonialism not only deprives a society of its freedom and its wealth, but of its very character, leaving its people intellectually and morally disoriented.”  10

·       2013 : 7. (a) “New imperialism was a nationalistic, not an economic phenomena.” Critically examine. 25

·       2014 : (e) “The Russo-Japanese War helped in the rise of japan as great power.”

·       2014 : (c) Discuss the nature of American overseas expansion in Asia and explain the consequences.

·       2016 : (c) Trace the growth of British imperialism in South Africa from 1800 to 1907. 10 marks

·       2017 : (c) Examine the nature of  Dutch imperialism in Indonesia. (10 Marks)

Revolution and Counter-Revolution:

 (i) 19th Century European revolutions (ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917 1921 (iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany. (iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949

World Wars:

(i)   1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications (ii)   World War I: Causes and consequences (iii) World War II: Causes and consequence


·       2000 : (c) “Until December 1941 the battlefield of the Second World War was exclusively European and Atlantic; thereafter it became also Asiatic and Pacific.”

·       2000 : 7. To what extent did the Western powers bring China under their domination without annexation ?

·       2000 : 8. Analyse the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 and examine the validity of Germany’s objections to the treaty.

·       2002 : (d) “One of the most important consequences of the Second World War, was ‘division of Europe’, eastern and western.”

·       2002 : 7. Examine the circumstances in China in the years 1945-49. What did the United States do to resolve the conflict between the Nationalists and the Communists there ?

·       2003 : (b) ‘The roots of the rise of Fascism lay in Peace Treaties.’

·       2003 : 7. Examine the causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and indicate its significance in world history.

·       2004 : (d) ‘The most important single factor ……….. in the years following 1919 was the French demand for security.

·       2005 : (c) ‘They have stopped me from making Italy by diplomacy from the North, I will make it by revolution from the South.’

·       2005 : (d) ‘The Russian Revolution (1917) was an economic explosion hastened by the stupidities of the autocratic Government.’

·       2005 : 7. Discuss the circumstances leading to the Chinese Revolution of 1949 and analyse its significance.

·       2006 : (c) “Treaty of Versailles contained the seeds of future conflict”.

·       2006 : 7. Critically analyse the causes and results of the Chinese Revolution of 1949.

·       2007: (c) “The War’s (First World War’s) most permanent contribution to the spirit of the post-War years was disillusion.”

·       2007 : 7. Discuss the main characteristics of Fascism.

·       2008 : (c) “In the long run, the Locarno Treaty (December 1925) was destructive both of the Treaty of Versailles and of the Covenant “.

·       2009 : 8. (a) Account for the overthrow of the Tsarist regime in Russia.

·       2011 : (b) “The peace of Versailles lacked moral validity from the start.”

·       2011 : (c) “By 1914, the sick man of Europe was no longer just Turkey: it was Europe itself,” Explain. 20

·       2011 : (b) How did the policy of appeasement escalate the problem of Nazi aggrandizement? 30

·       2012 : 6. (a) “The impact of the French Revolution (1789) was initially confined to Europe, but, that of the Russian Revolution (1917) was global.” — Critically review. 30

·       2012 : (b) “Any single explanation for the outbreak of the First World War is likely to be too simple. An amalgam of factors intellectual, social, economic as well as political and diplomatic contributed to this horrifying conflict f monumental proportions.” — Explain. 30

·       2012 : 8. (a) “The announcement of the certain of the Peoples’ Republic of China on October 1, 1949 by Mao Zedong ended the civil war between the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Nationalist Party (KMT).” — Elaborate. 30

·       2013 : (d) “If the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia (that resulted in the creation of the Union of Soviet Republics or Soviet Union) inaugurated an international competition for the hearts and minds of people all over the globe the Chinese Revolution raised the stakes of the struggle.”  10

·       2013 : 8. (a) “The European Union is the new sick man of Europe”. Critically evaluate. 25

·       2014 : (b) “The language of narrow nationalism held at. Frankfurt destroyed the German Revolution; as the fatal idea of aggrandizement of the House of Savoy. Destroyed the Italian Revolution.” Discuss.

·       2015 : d. “Mazzini’s conception of Italian nationality was not exclusive and his dominant ideal was the recreation of moral unity of mankind.”

·       2015 : c. “The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan were considered by the Russian Bloc as a weapon against Russia in order to restrict her influence” critically examine

·       2015 : 7. a. How far is it correct to say that the First World War was fought essentially for the preservation of the balance of power?

·       2015 : b. “The failure of Kuomintang against the communist onslaught was unimaginable and it was Mao Tse-tung whose tenacity and innovative approach had accomplished the unthinkable.” Discuss.

·       2016 : (b) Do you agree with the view that the Treaty of Versailles was a bad compromise between a treaty based upon force and a treaty based on ideas? 20 marks

·       2017 : (d) “18 January, 1871 had been a day of triumph for the strength and pride of Germany and 28 June, 1919 was the day of chastisement.”

·       2017 : (b) Why was the First World War termed as the first ‘total’ war in modern history ? (20 Marks)

·       2017 : (b) Examine the statement that “the danger of ‘Bolshevism’ dominated not only the history of the years immediately following the Russian Revolution of 1917 but the entire history of the world since that date.” (20 Marks)

·       2018 : Q3.(a) Underline the growth of various forms of Socialist ideologies in the Indian National Movement between World Wars I and II. (20 Marks)​​​​​​​

·       2018 : (e) “Until December 1941, the battlefield of the Second World War was exclusively European and Atlantic; thereafter it became also Asiatic and Pacific.”

·       2018 : (c) Outline the circumstances leading to adoption of Marshall Plan.

·       2018 : Q8.(a) In the Chinese Revolution of 1949, the elements of communism and nationalism were discernible. Explain the statement in the light Mao‟s strategy which was different from that of Lenin.

The World after World War II:

 (i) Emergence of two power blocs   (ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment (iii) UNO and the global disputes.


·       2003 : (c) ‘The Security Council is the heart of the United Nations.’

·       2008 : (d) “After World War II, the strategy of the West towards Soviet bloc crystallized as a ‘policy of containment”.

·       2009 : (b) Examine the peace – keeping efforts of the United Nations Organization.

·       2010 : (b). Explain the circumstances leading to the emergence of Third World and analyze its impact on world affairs.

·       2011 : 8. (a) Would you argue that Non-Aligned Movement played a crucial role in promoting a climate of peace? 30

·       2013 : 6. (a) “In spite of the careful framing of the Character, the role of UNO as peacekeeper and international mediator has been somewhat lackluster and muted and that continues to be so even after the end of Cold War.” Elucidate. 25

·       2015 : 8. a. The UNO was created in the light of experience of the ‘League of Nations’ but out spite of the mandate contained in the UNO constitution, its effective role maintaining world peace has lacked cohesiveness and collective approach.” Examine.

·       2015 : c. “The role of the Non-Alignment Movement in world affairs has suffered greatly due to the theatre of internecine conflicts among the Third World countries who spearheaded it” Elucidate.

·       2016 : (c) “League of Nations is a League of Notions.” Comment. 10 marks

·       2018 : (b) Discuss how far the United Nations has been successful in resolve global disputes from year 1946 to 1991.

Liberation from Colonial Rule:

(i)   Latin America-Bolivar (ii)   Arab World-Egypt (iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy (iv)   South-East Asia-Vietnam


·       2001 : 8. Discuss the aims of the establishment of the Arab League and assess it role in safeguarding the interests of the Arab nations.

·       2006 : 8. Give a brief account of the struggle against ‘Apartheid’ in South Africa.

·       2009 : (d) “Arab nationalism and oil – there were the principal factors in complicating the relations of middle eastern countries with the outside world.”

·       2009: (b) Why did Vietnam go through thirty years of war after the second world war?

·       2012 : (b) “The Arab nationalism had a peculiar character. It stood for national independence for separate Arab States as well as for the unity of all Arabs irrespective of their state boundaries.” — Examine. 30

·       2013 : (b) “There must be an end to white monopoly on political power, and a fundamental restructuring of our political and economic systems to ensure that the inequalities of apartheid and addressed and our society thoroughly democratized.” Discuss 25

·       2014 : (c) To what extent did the Freedom Movement in India influence the Liberation Movement in Africa?

·       2014 : (b) “The commercial and industrial interests created a veritable hothouse atmosphere in Europe for the establishment of colonies.”

·       2014 : (c) Discuss the circumstances leading the Suez, Crisis of 1956 and examine its repercussions on global politics.

·       2015: b. History of Africa appears to be simply an extension or mere sub-theme under historiography, Africa and American history. According to this scramble Elucidate without any history before the European scramble” Elucidate.

·       2016 : (c) Trace the significant role played by Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam’s struggle for freedom. 10 marks

·       2016: 8.(a) Trace the growth of Arab nationalism after the First World War. How far was it a reaction to Oil imperialism ? 20 marks

·       2017 : (c) Examine why Bolivar’s failed to fructify in bringing about united stand of the Latin Americans. (10 Marks)

·       2018 : (c) Explain the features of Apartheid in South Africa. (15 Marks)​​​​​​​

Decolonization and Underdevelopment:

(i)   Factors constraining development: Latin America, Africa


·       2001 : (d) ‘The decolonization led to the break-up of Empires.’

·       2013 : (e) “Decolonization has finished. It definitely belongs to the past. Yet somehow it has refused to become history.”  10

·       2016 : (d) Explain the main features of the US Federal Constitution. 10 marks

·       2018 : (b) Discuss the factors constraining development of Africa after decolonization

Unification of Europe:

(i)   Post War Foundations: NATO and European Community

(ii)   Consolidation and Expansion of European Community

(iii) the European Union.


·       2000 : (d) The simultaneous expansion of European powers overseas during the last quarter of the 19th century brought them into frequent collisions at remote points all over Africa and Asia.”

·       2001 : (c) ‘There was not only a difference of principles at Paris (Peace Conference) but a clash of personalities.’

·       2003 : (d) ‘The Brussels Treaty of 17 March, 1948 paved the way for the formation of NATO.’

·       2007: (d) “NATO in many ways symbolized the key role that the United States had come to play in Europe.”

·       2010 : (b) “Europe faced peace in 1945 politically disorganized and economically crippled.” Elaborate.

·       2014 : (c) To what extent did the expansion of European Powers in the late 19th century help in the modernization of Africa?

·       2014 : 8. (a) “Europe was eclipsed through European folly due to the two world wars.” Elucidate.

·       2015 : b. “The European Union, a diplomatic marvel, continues to grapple with intermittent fissures Arising qui oi economic contentious issues that pose a challenge to an effective integration of the Union.” Critically examine

Disintegration of the Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World:

(i)   Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet communism and the Soviet Union, 1985-1991

(ii)   Political Changes in Eastern Europe 1989-2001. End of the cold war and US ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.


·       2002: 8. Discuss the main factors leading to the collapse of the Soviet Union.

·       2003 : 8. Analyse the factors leading to the end of the Cold War and account for the U.S. ascendancy in the world.

·       2004 : 8. Analyse the factors for the collapse of Soviet Communism and Soviet Union during’-1985-1991.

·       2005 : 8. Critically examine the various dimensions and phases of the cold war between 1947 and 1962.

·       2007 : 8. “By the 1980s, the Communist system of the Soviet Union was incapable of maintaining the country’s role as a Superpower.” Explain this statement.

·       2008: 7. Account for the factors that brought about the end of the Cold War.

·       2008 : 8. Assess the significance of the political developments that took place in Eastern Europe during 1989 – 2001.

·       2010 : 8. (a) “The Eastern Question has always been an international question.” Elucidate. 

·       2011 : (c) “The collapse of Berlin Wall in 1989 brought new ideas of co-operation in Europe.”

·       2011: (b) Examine the challenges confronted by the proponents of European unity after the collapse of Soviet Empire in Eastern Europe. 30

·       2012 : (e) “With the Cold War over and the Soviet Union gone, the face of international diplomacy has undergone a metamorphosis.”  12

·       2013 : (b) “By the 1980s the Communist system of the Soviet Union was incapable of maintaining the country’s role as Superpower.” Elucidate. 25

·       2016 : (e) What factors contributed to the emergence of a unipolar world? 10 marks

·       2016 : (b) In what way did the political changes in Soviet Union influence the events in Eastern Europe during the closing decades of the 20th century ? 20 marks

·       2016 : (c) Outline the circumstances leading to Détente. 10 marks

·       2017 : (e) “The collapse of Berlin Wall on 9 November, 1989 brought new meaning to the idea of cooperation in Europe.”

·       2017 : (b) “By 1980s, the Communist System of Soviet Union was incapable of maintaining the country’s role as a Superpower.” Substantiate. (20 Marks)

·       2018 : (c) Review the policy of Glasnost adopted by Gorbachev.