UPSC MAINS OPTIONAL SUBJECT: PHILOSOPHY PAPER 1 TOPIC WISE UPSC QUESTIONS

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PHILOSOPHY PAPER 1 TOPIC WISE UPSC QUESTIONS

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SYLLABUSPREVIOUS YEAR QUESTIONS
History and Problems of Philosophy:

Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality.

·       2000 : Platos theory of ideas

·       2002 : ‘While Plato’s metaphysics is a visionary one, Aristotle’s metaphysics is a descriptive one.’ Explain fully giving the essential differences between the views of the two thinkers regarding the nature of reality. (60 marks)

·       2003 : ‘A universal exists only in the particular’. Discuss in this connection Aristotle’s notion of universal and the idea of substance that follows it. (60 marks)

·       2004 : State and discuss Plato’s theory of forms. (60 marks)

·       2005 : Distinction between opinion and knowledge. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·       2006 : Discuss the ‘theory of matter’ according to Aristotle. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·       2007 : Plato’s recollection theory of knowledge. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·       2008 : Aristotle’s teleological conception of causation. Short Notes (20 marks)

·       2009 : Comment on – Plato’s analogy of the cave and its significance in his theory of knowledge. (20 marks)

·       2010 : How does Aristotle’s notion of causation defer from the modern notion of causation. (15 marks)

·       2011 : How does Plato relate the world of ideas to the empirical world? Discuss. (15 marks)

·       2012 : Discuss Aristotle’s metaphysical theory as a polemic against Plato’s theory of ideas.(15 marks)

·       2013 : Discuss how by refuting different concepts of Substances Aristotle establishes his own theory of a Substance ? (10 marks)

·       2013 : Explain Plato’s ontological theory of Forms. Is knowledge one of the Forms ? Explain. (12 ½ marks)

·       2014 : Discuss between knowledge and belief according to Plato. How is it based on his metaphysics ? Explain.(20 marks)

·       2014 : Explain the significance of Aristotle’s doctrine of form & matter in his theory of causation. (15 marks)

·       2015 : Explain Plato’s theory of forms? Does it entail a kind of essentialism?Discuss.(20 marks)

·       2015 : Aristotle’s distinction between ‘actuality’ and ‘potentiality’.(10 marks)

·       2016 : 2.(a) Does Aristotle treat matter as a ‘Substance’? Give reasons for your answer. (20 marks)

·       2016 : 3.(a) Does Plato’s Theory of Form’ explain the change’ and ‘sensibility’ of matter? Give reasons for your answer. (20 marks)

·       2017 : (d) In what sense can ideas be both immanent and transcendent ? Discuss in this context Plato’s theory of universals and particulars.(10 marks)

·       2017: (c) Explain Aristotle’s theory of form and matter. How does it help him resolve the problem of change and permanence ? (15 marks)

·       2018 : (b) Is the relation between the Idea and the World as discussed by Plato logically consistent? Discuss Aristotle’s views regarding this and also give arguments in favour of your answer. (15 marks)

Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz): Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.·       2000 : Monadology of Leibnitz

·       2002 : State and critically examine Spinoza’s doctrine of the identity of the Substance, God and nature. (60 marks)

·       2004 : ‘I think, therefore I am.’ Short Notes. (20 marks)

·       2005 : Spinoza’s conception of the Ultimate Substance. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·       2005 : Mind and Body as two interacting substances. Short notes. (20 marks)

·       2006 : Explain Spinoza’s theory of Substance. (60 marks)

·       2006 : Discuss Descarte’s Dualism. (60 marks)

·       2008 : Explain Leibnitz’s notion of monad. Can monad be regarded as a basic particular in the Strawsonian sense? (60 marks)

·       2009 : Compare the views of Spinoza and Sartre on Freedom. (30 marks)

·       2009 : Compare the views of Leibnitz and Hume on the concept of substance. (30 marks)

·       2009 : Interactionism in the philosophical context. Short notes (20 marks)

·       2010 : Why does Spinoza think that God alone is absolutely real? Explain. (20 marks)

·       2011 : Why does Descartes not doubt the existence of God? Explain. (15 marks)

·       2011: Is the concept of freedom consistent with the theory of determinism of Spinoza? Support your answer with arguments. (30 marks)

·       2012 : How does Descartes’ ‘cogito ergo sum’ affect Hume and Kant’s transcendental philosophy? Explain (12 marks)

·       2012 : If  ‘ Every determination is negation ‘ then how can Substance have attributes ? Explain. (15 marks)

·       2012 : Does Leibnitz succeed in combining the mechanical with the teleological view of the world? Explain his theory of Pre-Established Harmony.(15 marks)

·       2012 : Does Monadology sufficiently exlainthe nature of Substance  ? Are monads independent of each other ? Expain.(15 marks)

·       2013 : Give a critical account of Leibnitz’s principle of the identity of indiscernibles. (12 ½ marks)

·       2013 : Explain Descarte’s method of doubt. Can this method be used to justify his belief in the existence of God ?Argue your case.(12 ½ marks)

·       2013 : Write a short critical essay on Spinoza’s conception of freedom of an individual.(12 ½ marks)

·       2014 : Does Leibnitz’s theory of pre-established harmony necessarily lead to determinism ? Discuss. (10 marks)

·       2014: Explain the doctrine of Cartesian Dualism and examine critically arguments in favour of it. (15 marks)

·       2015 : Does Descartes cogito principle entail that he is an essentialist?Discuss.(15 marks)

·       2015 : Explain Leibnitz’s principle of ‘ identity of indescernibles’. (15 marks)

·       2017 : (b) What, according to Descartes, is a ‘clear and distinct idea’? What is the epistemological status of clear and distinct ideas ? Does this account help Descartes prove that material objects exist ? Explain.(15 marks)

·       2018 : (b Is there any place for freedom in Leibniz’s philosophy, when he speaks of “pre-established harmony’? Discuss. (10 marks)

·       2018: Q2. (a) What is the reason for the difference in the definitions and classifications of substances made by Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz in spite of the fact that they all belonged to the rationalist school of thought? Discuss. (20 marks)

Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.·       2000 : Esse est percipi

·       2002 : Hume’s Phenomenalism. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·       2003 : To be is to be perceived. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·       2004 : Hume’s views on Induction. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·       2006 : Discuss Hume’s Scepticism. (60 marks)

·       2006 : Explain the theory of knowledge according to Locke. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·       2007 : State and discuss Locke’s views on Substance. (60 marks)

·       2008 : Hume and Kant on metaphysics. Short notes. (20 marks)

·       2009 : Compare the view of Leibnitz and Hume on the concept of substance. (30 marks)

·       2009 : “To be is to be perceived”. Discuss. (20 marks)

·       2010 : Does Hume deny the possibility of knowledge? Discuss. (15 marks)

·       2010 : What metaphysical implications can be derived from Berkeley’s statement “Esse Est Percipi”. (30 marks)

·       2011 : What, according to Empiricists is the concept of Substance? Discuss. (20 marks)

·       2012 : John Locke said that ‘ No man’s knowledge can go beyond his experience’. Discuss critically the implications of this statement.( 12 marks)

·       2012: Was Hume skeptic ? If not then what is his contribution to philosophy ? (15 marks)

·       2012 : If ‘to be is to be perceived’ then how does Berkeley explain the permanence of things ? (15 marks)

·       2012 : Critically examine John Locke’s categorization of primary and secondary qualities and explain the problem it posed for later empiricist.(15 marks)

·       2013 : Give a critical account of Hume’s theory of self. (12 ½ marks)

·       2014 : Evaluate critically Hume’s criticism of theory of causation.( 15 marks)

·       2015 : esse est percipi.( 10 marks)

·       2016: (a) What is the logical necessity for Lock to introduce the concept of secondary qualities? Give reasons for your answer. (10 marks)

·       2016: (b) Critically examine Hume’s views on the relation of cause and effect.  (15 marks)

·       2016: (c) Discuss the various stances on God taken by Rationalists and Empiricists. (15 marks)

·       2017: (e) Show how Hume’s analysis of experience leaves no ground for belief in any permanent reality either physical or mental. (10 marks)

·       2017: Q4.(a) How does Locke draw a distinction between primary and secondary qualities? Does he also draw a distinction between the idea of primary qualities and primary qualities as well as the idea of secondary qualities and secondary qualities ? Discuss. (20 marks)

·       2018: (a) Are the two truths-“The Sun will rise tomorrow” and ‘2+2-4′ of the same necessity for Hume? Give reasons in favour of your answer. (10 marks)

·       2018: Q3.(a) How does Berkeley establish that Mind and its ideas alone are real? How do Moore and Russell react to Berkeley’s view in this regard? Do you find any difference between Moore’s reaction and Russell’s one? Discuss. 20 marks

Kant:

The possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God

·       2000 : State and examine Kants criticism of the proofs for the existence of God.

·       2002 : ‘Kant’s “Critical Philosophy” is a reconciliation between Rationalism and Empiricism.’ Elucidate the remark fully and bring out the consequence of such a reconciliation for the possibility of traditional metaphysics. (60 marks)

·       2003 : How is synthetic apriori judgment possible? Short Notes. (20 marks)

·       2004 : The significance of Kant’s distinction between phenomena and noumena. Notes. (20 marks)

·       2005 : How does Kant respond to Hume’s scepticism? (60 marks)

·       2006 : Explain Kant’s criticism of the proofs for the existence of God. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·       2007: Nature of synthetic a-priory judgment according to Kant. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·       2008: Hume and Kant on Metaphysics. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·       2009 : Comment on Kant’s objections against the ontological argument for the existence of God. (20 marks)

·       2010 : Why does Kant say that existence is not a predicate? (15 marks)

·       2010 : What is the basic difference between Leibniz and Kant on the concept of space and time? (30 marks)

·       2011 : “Hume aroused me from my dogmatic slumber”. In what context Kant has made this statement? Explain. (20 marks)

·       2012 : Why Kant’s philosophy known as Copernicus revolution in metaphysics? What was revolutionary about Kantian philosophy? Give reasons for it.( 15 marks)

·       2013 : What is Antinomy ? Describe the major antinomies discussed by Kant. (10 marks)

·       2013: Explain Kant’s view of causality. How far is Kant able to answer Hume’s objection that causal relation lacks logical necessity.( 12 ½ marks)

·       2014 : How are synthetic apriori judgement justifiable according to kant? Explain. (10 marks)

·       2015 : Explain Kant’s division of categories.( 20 marks).

·       2016 : (b) Examine Kant’s criticism on Descartes’ view of Self. (10 marks)

·       2016 : (b) What, according to Kant, are ‘pure concepts”? Examine their role in the process of knowing. (15 marks)

·       2017 : Q2.(a) How is ‘all bodies are extended’ an analytic judgement but ‘all bodies are heavy a synthetic judgement ? Is ‘every event has a cause an analytic or a synthetic judgement ? Explain. (20 marks)

·       2017 : Q3.(a) Elaborate Kant’s theory of space and time. How does this theory enable him to explain how mathematical propositions can be both synthetic and a priori ? (20 marks)

·       2018 : (b) Explain the significance of the Kantian dictum, ‘Understanding makes Nature’. How far do you agree that Hegel’s Absolutism is the culmination of the Kantian Dualism? Discuss. Give reasons in favour of your answer. (15 marks)

Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism·       2002 : Hegal’s Dialectical Method. Short notes. (20 marks)

·       2006 : Critically discuss the Hegal’s Dialectical method. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·       2007 : Hegal’s Dialectical method. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·       2009 : “The rational is real and the real is rational”. Short notes (20 marks)

·       2012 : Explain Hegelian dialectical method and show how it is useful in explaining the historical development process ? (15 marks)

·       2013 : Comment : ‘ Movement is contradiction itself ’ Examine in this context Hegel’s dialectical method . (12 ½ marks)

·       2016 : (b) What is Hegel’s view on God? Do you think that his interpretation of God was contributive to the colonial and imperial expansionist designs? Explain.  (15 marks)

·       2017 : (a) Elaborate Hegel’s dictum : “All identity is identity and difference.” (10 marks)

Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing.·       2000 : Give a critical account of Moores refutation of idealism.

·       2002 : Moore’s Defense of Common-Sense. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·       2003 : What is Russel’s Logical atomism? Bring out in this connection the conception ormetaphysics involved in it. (60 marks)

·       2004 : Distinction between ‘saying’ and ‘showing’. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2004 : Critically discuss Moore’s Refutation of Idealism. (60 marks)

·       2007: State and discuss Russell’s analysis of Definite Descriptions. (60 marks)

·       2008 : Explain the theory of logical construction. Does it provide a satisfactory account of knowledge?( 60 marks)

·       2010 : What does Moore want to establish when he asserts that propositions like “Earth exists or we have consciousness” are truism? Discuss. (20 marks)

·       2011 : What is Russell’s idea of ‘Incomplete symbols’ in his theory of description? Discuss. (15 marks)

·       2011 : Are the arguments given by G.E. Moore against Idealism adequate? Give reasons for your answer. (30 marks)

·       2012 : Explain the theory of definite descriptions according to Russell.(15 marks)

·       2013: Comment : ‘ Moore’s defence of common sense essentially is defence of common language ’ (12 ½ marks)

·       2013: Distinguish between atomic and general proposition. Show how they are justified true . (12 ½ marks)

·       2014 : Why does Wittgenstein disagree Bertrand Russell’s interpretation of atomism in the philosophy of Tractatus ? Discuss (15 marks)

·       2014 : Are G.E.Moore’s arguments in defence of common sense satisfactory. Give reasons.(15 marks)

·       2015 : What do you understand by incomplete symbols? What role do they play in Russell’s theory of meaning?(15 marks)

·       2015 : G.E.Moore’s refutationof idealism.(10 marks)

·       2016 : (c) Why does Wittgenstein reject the possibility of private language? (10 marks)

·       2016 : (c) Explain Russell’s view that the physical object is a logical construction from sensedata”. Why does he call his metaphysical view “neutral monist’? (15 marks)

·       2017 : (c) ‘How is the statement, ‘I met a man’, semantically problematic for Russell ? How does he account for the meaningfulness of this statement ? (10 marks)

·       2017 : (b) What is Wittgenstein’s picture theory of meaning ? What are his reasons for giving up this theory and suggesting the use theory of meaning ? (15 marks)

·       2018 : (c) How does the notion of ‘family resemblance help Wittgenstein to uphold that ‘Language is a game’? Discuss.(10 marks)

·       2018 : (c) How does Wittgenstein apply the distinction between ‘saying’ and ‘showing’ to point to a single way of apprchending the most decisive problems of philosophy? Is he justified? Give reasons for your answer. (15 marks)

·       2018 : (c) How is Russell’s theory of definite description related to his Logical Atomisin? Discuss and give reasons for your answer. (15 marks)

Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.·       2000 : Explain the verification theory and show whether it leads to the elimination of metaphysics.

·       2005 : State and discuss the logical positivist’s attempts to eliminate metaphysics. (60 marks)

·       2007 : Elimination of metaphysics at the hands Logical Positivists. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·       2009 : Examine how Ayer eliminates metaphysics. (30 marks)

·         2010 : Are necessary propositions linguistic by nature? Discuss in the light of logical positivism. (20 marks)

·       2011 : Discuss the limitations of verification theory. (20 marks)

·       2012 : ‘Logical Positivism broadly claims that metaphysics and theology are meaningless because they are neither matters of logic nor verifiable empirically.’ Critically examine. (12 marks)

·       2013 : Distinguish necessary from empirical proposition. How is necessary proposition is justified? Explain (10 marks)

·       2014 : Are empirical statements verifiable ? Discuss the limitations of ‘ verification theory of meaning’. (20 marks)

·       2016 : (d) Explain verification theory. Does it lead to elimination of metaphysics? (10 marks)

·       2017 : (b) ‘Does the sentence, ‘Whatever is coloured is extended’, satisfy the criterion of meaningfulness proposed by the logical positivists ? Explain. (15 marks)

·       2018 : (b) How do the logical positivists show that metaphysical sentences are meaningless? Can their verification theory of meaning account for the meaningfulness of all scientific sentences? Discuss.(15 marks)

Later Wittgenstein:

Meaning and Use; Language-games; Critique of Private Language.

·        2008 : Wittgenstein’s notion of language-game. (20 marks)

·       2010 : Are tautologies meaning according to Wittgenstein? (15 marks)

·       2011 : “Meaning of the word lies in its use”. Explain in detail. (30 marks)

·       2012 : According to Wittgenstein ‘Philosophy is a battle against bewitchment of our intelligence by means of language’. Explain the function of philosophy in the above context.(12 marks)

·       2013: Explain Wittgenstein’s arguments against the possibility of private language.(10 marks)

·       2014 : Bring out the significance of ‘Language Games’ in Wittgenstein’s Use theory of meaning. (10 marks)

·       2015 : Bring out the relationship between language games and forms of life.(20 marks)

Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism.·       2003 : Discuss Husserl’s conception of philosophy as rigorous science. (60 marks)

·       2005 : What is ‘epoche’? Bring out its significance for Husserl’s conception of rigorous science. (60 marks)

·       2008 : What is the notion of transcendental ego according to Husserl? How is it differentfrom Sarte’s notion of the ego? (60 marks)

·       2011 : What, according to Husserl is Intentionality? Discuss its role in arriving at the meaning of object. (30 marks)

·       2014 : Explain the significance of ‘bracketing’ in Husserl Phenomenology. (10 marks)

·       2015 : Husserl’s notion of ‘bracketing’.(10 marks)

·       2016 : 4.(a) What, according to Husserl, is the task of a philosopher? Do you think his methods are relevant to philosophy? Discuss.  20 marks

·       2017 : (b) Explain Husserl’s reasons for advocating phenomenological reductionism. (10 marks)

Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger): Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the-world and Temporality.·         2000 : Sartre distinguished ontology

·         2003 : Existence precedes essence. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2004 : Discuss Sartre’s conception of freedom. (60 marks)

·         2008 : Heidegger’s contention that essence of “Dasein is its existence” .Short notes. (20 marks)

·         2009: “Existence precedes essence”. Comment. (20 marks)

·         2009 : Compare the views of Spinoza and Sartre on Freedom. (30 marks)

·         2010: How is the empirical ego and Heidegger different from the transcendent ego in Husserl? (30 marks)

·         2011 : “I am responsible for myself and for everyone else.” Discuss this statement in the light of Sartre’s existentialism. (15 marks)

·         2012 : Soren Kierkegaard clarified that “ The function of prayers is not to influence God but rather to change the nature of one who prays.” Comment on this statement.(12 marks)

·         2012: Elucidate Existentialism and indicate its strong and weak points in your own words.(15 marks)

·         2013 : Analyse Kierkegard’s concept of choice. Can there be , in his view , correct or incorrect choice ? Discuss. (12 ½ marks)

·         2013 : Examine Sartre’s distinction between Being-for-itself and Being-in-itself. (12 ½ marks)

·         2014 : State and evaluate Heidegger’s claim that temporality is the horizon against which the being of any entity is understood. (15 marks)

·         2014: Explain Kierkegaard’s concept of choice. How does the concept of choice in metaethics differ from normative ethics? Explain.(20 marks)

·         2015 : Bring out the relationship between existence and essence in case of human being.Explain the issuesit gives rise to for human beings according to Sartre.(15 marks)

·         2015: Discuss why Heidegger introduces the concept of Dasein in his metaphysics.(15 marks)

·     2016 : (c) Discuss Sartre’s notion of “Nothingness’. (15 marks)

·     2017 : (c) Discuss Heidegger’s concept of authenticity and explain how an inauthentic Dasein regains the lost self? (15 marks)

·     2018 : (d) How does Sartre connect inauthenticity with bad faith? Why does Sartre show that inauthenticity and bad faith lead to alienation? Discuss.(10 marks)

·     2018: Q4.(a) What is Epoché? How does Heidegger reject this method of phenomenological reduction? Explain Heidegger’s concept of ‘being in the world’ as opposed to the concept of a transcendental ego.(20 marks)

Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons.·         2002 : Quine’s attack on Analytic-Synthetic Distinction. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·     2003 : Strawson’s notion of person as primitive. Notes. (20 marks)

·         2005 : Quine’s criticism of analytic-synthetic distinction. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2007 : State and discuss Strawson’s theory of Person. (60 marks)

·         2010 : Is Strawson’s concept of person a refutation of Hume’s concept of self? Discuss. (30 marks)

·         2012 : Explain critically  Quine’s rejection of the analytic synthetic distinction and his subsequent philosophical arguments.(15 marks)

·         2013 : Explain and evaluate Strawson’s arguments for his conception of the nature of Person. (10 marks)

·         2014 : How far are Quine’s arguments in ‘two dogmasof empiricism’ justified ? Discuss. (10 marks)

·         2015 : Elucidate Quine’s arguments to show that analyticity is not synonymity.(15 marks)

·         2015 : Strawson’s distinction between ‘M’ and ‘P’ predicates.(10 marks)

·         2016 : (e) Discuss Quine’s attack on the analytic-synthetic distinction. (10 marks)

·         2017 : (c) What are the two dogmas of empiricism that Quine attacks ? What are his arguments against what he calls the second dogma ? (15 marks)

·         2018 : (e) How does Strawson explain the concept of person in his philosophy? Discuss. (10 marks)

·         2018 : (c) How does Quine show that the notion of a prior knowledge as discussed by Kant is a metaphysical article of faith’? Give reasons for your answer. (15 marks)

Cârvâka : Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent Entities.·         2000: Ethics of Carvaka school

·         2001 : The Charvak theory of consciousness. Short Notes.

·         2002 : State and evaluate critically Carvaka’s view that perception is the only valid source of knowledge. (20 marks)

·         2003 : Charvak’s refutation of anumana is itself a process of anumana. Discuss. (60 marks)

·         2004 : Dehatmavada of Carvakas. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2006 : Discuss the theory of knowledge, according to Charvaka Philosophy. Notes. (60 marks)

·         2007 : Carvaka’s views on the nature of soul. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2010 : Just as the skepticism of Hume helped Kant to come out of his dogmatic slumber, so also the Carvaka philosophy saved Indian philosophy from dogmatism. Discuss. (20 marks)

·         2011 : Why do Carvakas reject the concept of Akasa. Discuss. (30 marks)

·         2012 : On what basis does Carvaka reject the cause-effect relationship ? (15 marks)

·         2012 : Why do Carvaka do not believe in the validity of inference ? What logic do they give for their belief ? (15 marks)

·         2014 : “Limits of knowledge and world are determined by my sense perception”. Discuss this claim of Carvaka.(10)

·         2015 : Explain the the arguments of carvaka to reject transcendental entities.(15 marks)

·     2016 : (b) What would be Cārvāka’s view on Vyāpti? Can this view be acceptable to the Naiyāyikas? Give reasons for your answer. (15 marks)

·     2017: (a) “The soul is nothing but conscious body.” What are the reasons for Cārvāka in holding this view? (10 marks)

·     2018 : (b) Is Cārvāka rejection of inference acceptable to the other systems of Indian philosophy? If not, why? Do you think the views of other systems to be justified? Give reasons for your answer. (15 marks)

Jainism: Theory of Reality; Saptabhaòginaya; Bondage and Liberation.

 

·         2000: Saptabhngi Naya

·         2001 : Relation between anekantvada and saptabhanginaya. Notes.

·         2003 : Expound anekantvada of Jainism. It is a consistent theory of reality? Give reasons. (60 marks)

·         2004 : State and discuss the Jaina Doctrine of jiva. (60 marks)

·         2005 : Jaina Definition of Dravya. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2006 : Explain the theory of Substance according to Jainism. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2007 : Nature of Pudgala in Jaina philosophy. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2009 : Anekantavada. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2010: Is syadvada a self-contradictory doctrine? Discuss. (30 marks)

·         2011 : What according to Jainism is Path to Liberation? Discuss. (15 marks)

·         2011 : Why is Saptabhangi Naya not treated as a doctrine of Scepticism? Discuss. (20 marks)

·         2012 : Critically evaluate Jaina doctrine of relative pluralism or Anekantvada ? (15 marks)

·         2013 : Analyse the relation between the theory of Saptabhanginaya and Anekantvada. (10 marks)

·         2014 : Explain the concept of Karma and discuss various types of according to Jaina philosophy. (15 marks)

·         2015 : What do samvara and nirjara mean?Explain their significance in Jaina theory of liberation.(15 marks)

·         2015 : Jain concept of Dravya.(10 marks)

·     2016 : (d) Examine Jaina stance of ‘Naya’. How does it differ from ‘Syūdvāda”? (10 marks)

·     2016 : (b) Can the ‘Tattvārtha’ theory of Jainism be acceptable for scientific explanations? Explain. (15 marks)

·     2017 : (b) “The Jaina metaphysics is relativistic and realistic pluralism.” Discuss. (15 marks)

·     2018 : (c) How do the Jaina philosophers explain ‘bondage’? What, according to them, is the distinction between “liberated soul’ and ‘bound soul’? What do the Jainas think about the condition of the ‘liberated soul’? Discuss. (15 marks)

Schools of Buddhism:

Pratîtyasamutpâda; Ksanikavada, Nairâtmyavâda.

·         2000: Kshanikavada

·         2001 : Nagarjuna’s defense of Sunya-vada. Notes.

·         2002 : Buddhistic doctrine of Pratitya-samutpada. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2003 : Ksanikavada of Buddhism. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2004 : State and discuss the Buddhist notion of momentariness. (60 marks)

·         2004 : Nature and kinds of Nirvana. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2005 : State and discuss the Buddhist notion of Sunyata. (60 marks)

·         2006 : Discuss Pratityasamutpada in Buddhism. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2007 : Four Arya Satya (Noble Truths) according to Buddhism. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2008 : “The Madhyamika philosophy tries to adopt the mean between extreme affirmation and extremenegation.” Comment. (60 marks)

·         2008 : An examination of Buddhist Nairatmyavada. Short notes. (20 marks)

·         2010: Bring out the metaphysical implication of the second noble truth of the Buddhism. (30 marks)

·         2010 : How does the Buddhist accept the possibility of rebirth in the absence of an eternal soul? Discuss. (20 marks)

·         2011 : Is Sunyavada a philosophical doctrine? Evaluate. (15 marks)

·         2011 : What is the importance of the Buddhist concept of ‘Nama-Rupa’ in the exposition of the Doctrine of Dependent Origination? (20 marks)

·         2011 : Is the concept of Nirvana a logical necessity for the Buddhists? Give reasons for your answer. (30 marks)

·         2012 : Write a note on Nagarjuna’s contribution Madhyamica School of Buddhism. (15 marks)

·         2012 : Explain the theory of illusion accepted by Buddhist . Is it consistent with their philosophy ? Give reasons for your answer . (15 marks)

·         2012 : Examine critically the statement that the doctrine of ‘paticcasamuppada was given only to explain the problem of sorrow and not to solve the problems of metaphysics .’ (15 marks)

·         2012 : Do you agree with the view that in early Buddhismmore importance was given to Four Noble Truthsthan to systematic metaphysics ? Give reasons for your agreement or disagreement ? (15 marks)

·         2013 : Comment : ‘ Accepting Shunyavada makes one indifferent to the pursuit of dharma’. Examine in this context , Nagarjuna’s arguments for Shunyavada.( 12 ½ marks)

·         2013 : Explain the Buddhist notion of ‘Impermanence’ and show how the idea of Impermanence leads to theory of momentariness of reality.(10 marks)

·         2014 : Bring out the epistemological difference between Sautrantika and Vaibhasika school of Buddhism. (10 marks)

·         2014 : How does Nagarjuna explain the concept of sunyata ? (15 marks)

·         2015 : What is the role of Pratityasamutpada in explaining dukkha?Elucidate means to overcome it.(15 marks)

·         2015: Alayavijnana (10 marks)

·     2016 : (b) How does ‘Ksanikavada’ strengthen the arguments for ‘Nairātmyavāda’? Explain. (10 marks)

·     2017 : (e) Elucidate the role of catuṣkoți in explaining the nature of reality according to Mādhyamika school of thought. (10 marks)

·     2017 : (c) What are the arguments of the Buddhists to establish Kșaņikavāda ? Do they necessarily lead to krtanāśa and akstābhyupagama ?, (15 marks)

·     2017 : Q7.(a) How do Mādhyamikas, Yogācāravādins and Sarvāstivādins differ among themselves concerning the nature of reality? How do Sarvāstivādins differ among themselves with regard to knowledgeability of reality? (20 marks)

·     2018 : (b) How do the Madhyamika Buddhists apply the notion of Pratityasamutpada to establish their doctrine of Sunyata ? Discuss.(10 marks)

·     2018 : (b) Is it consistent for the Buddhists to admit the theory of Nairātmyavāda and the doctrine of Nirvana simultaneously? Give reasons in favour of your answer. (15 marks)

Nyâya- Vaiúesika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of Pramâna; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.·     2001 : Evaluate the Nyaya-Vaisesika theory of the nature of Vyapti.

·         2002 : Nyaya view of Self. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2003 : The Nyaya-vaisesika view of Samanya. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2004 : Nature and kind of anumanas according to Nyaya. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2005 : State and discuss the nature and kinds of Dravyas according to Vaisesikas. (60 marks)

·         2005 : Nature and kinds of Pratyaksha according to Nyaya. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2006 : Explain Nyaya theory of Pramanas. (60 marks)

·         2007 : Explain fully Nyaya’s Asatkaryavada. (60 marks)

·         2008 : Discuss critically Nyaya notion of Vyapti. (60 marks)

·         2008 : Samanya in Vaisesika. Short notes. (20 marks)

·         2009 : Compare the viewpoints of Nyaya , Vaisesika , Mimansa and Buddhism on the issue of knowledge of abhava. (60 marks)

·         2009 : Hetvabhasa according to Nyaya.( 20 marks)

·         2010 : Can qualities exist without substance? Substantiate your views in the light of Nyaya-Buddhism controversy? (20 marks)

·         2010 : Explain the reason for introducing the notion of extraordinary perception in nyaya-epistemology. (30 marks)

·         2011 : Why do the Vaisesikas treat Abhava as an independent category? Explain. (15 marks)

·         2011 : Do you find any inadequacy in the proofs for the existence of God as given by Naiyayikas? Give reasons in support of your answer. (15 marks)

·         2013: Examine Nyaya-Vaisesika’s arguments for the existence of jivatma(soul).(12 ½ marks)

·         2013 : Analyse the Nyaya concept of vyapti and examine its relation with tark .( 12 ½ marks)

·         2013 : What is Samavaya ? What are the grounds for accepting samavaya as distinct padartha ? (10 marks)

·         2014 : Bring out the philosophical implications of introducing extraordinary(aluakik) perception in Nyaya philosophy. (20 marks)

·         2015 : Is anyathakhyativada an adequate explanation of error?(15 marks)

·         2015 : ‘Our knowledge is confined to gunas only’. Examine this statement in the light of Vaisesika and Buddhist controversy.( 15 marks)

·     2016 : 6.(a) Does the ‘Doctrine of Dependent Origination’ reconcile the two extreme views on the law of causation, namely Satkāryavāda and Asatkāryavāda? Give reasons for your answer. (20 marks)

·     2016 : (c) Is the doctrine of ‘Self acceptable in the modern age of science and reason? Examine the view in the light of Indian philosophy. (15 marks)

·     2016 : 8.(a) How do the Naiyāyikas justify the introduction of “Abhāva’ as an independent category? Explain. (20 marks)

·     2017 : (b) What are the necessary characteristics of padārtha according to Vaiseșika philosophy ? (10 marks)

·     2017 : (c) Explain the conditions of valid hetu as propounded in Nyāya philosophy.(10 marks)

·     2017 : Q6.(a) Explain the early Nyāya definition of perception. Why this definition is considered inadequate by the later Naiyāyikas ? (20 marks)

·     2017 : Q8.(a) Explain the theory of Validity of Knowledge (prāmāṇyavāda) according to Mīmāṁsakas. How did they criticize the Nyāya theory of Validity ? (20 marks)

·     2018 : (a) How do the Vaišeșika philosophers explain the difference of the relationships in the Iwo cases-(i) the brown colour of the table and (ii) the book on the table? Discuss.(10 marks)

·     2018 : (d) How do the Buddhists and the Nyāya philosophers explain our knowledge of ‘the absence of the jar on the table’? Answer in detail.(10 marks)

·     2018 : Q6.(a) How do thc Naiyāyikas prove the existence of God? Do the Yoga philosophers prove God in the same way? If yes, how? And if no, why? Give reasons for your answer. (20 marks)

Sâmkhya: Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation.·         2000:Give a comparative account of the concept of causation as found in the various schools of Indian thought.

·         2001 : Evaluate the Samkhya justification for their theory of Purusa.

·         2002 : Samkhya theory of Evolution of Prakriti. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2003 : The Samkhya doctrine of liberation. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2005 : Samkhya conception of Purusha. Short notes. (20 marks)

·         2006 : Critically discuss the Samkhya theory of Causation. (60 marks)

·         2007 : Explain the Samkhya doctrine of three gunas. (60 marks)

·         2009 : Compare Aristotle’s view regarding causation with that of the Samkhya School’s view of Causation. (60 marks)

·         2010 : Does the effect pre-exist in the cause? Discuss. (15 marks)

·         2011 : Examine Sankhya’s arguments for Bahupurusavada (Plurality of Purusa). (30 marks)

·         2012 : How Samkhya theory of causation is different from that of Nyaya theory of causation ? Explain .( 15 marks )

·         2013 : Explain the possibility of jivanmukti . Critically compare it with the Yoga account of kaivelya . (10 marks) 

·         2013 : Evaluate relation ‘if any’ between prakriti and purusha .( 12 ½ marks)

·         2014 : Are the arguments given in favour of existence of Prakriti adequate in Samkhya’s philosophy ? Discuss. (10 marks)

·         2014: How is theory of causation central to the theory of reality in classical Indian tradition. ? Discuss. (20 marks)

·         2014 : Examine the Samkhya view about liberation that “ self is neither bound nor liberates , nor transmigrate.” (15 marks)

·         2015 : State and examine Samkhya proofs for the existence of Purusa.( 15 marks)

·         2015 : Satkaryavada (10 marks)

·     2016 : (c) Critically examine the role of “Praktti’ in the process of evolution. (10 marks)

·     2017 : (c) Given its theory of causation, is it possible for Samkhya to explain the presence of consciousness in the world ? Discuss. (15 marks)

·     2018 : (e) Is Purusa one or many? Explain the Sámkhya position in this regard and give arguments in support of your answer. (10 marks)

Yoga: Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.·         2009 : Compare Patanjali’s Yoga with integral Yoga expounded by Aurobindo, bringing out clearlypoints of similarity and dissimilarity. (60 marks)

·         2011 : “Yoga is more than a psycho-physical exercise”. Analyse this statement and support your conclusion with arguments. (30 marks)

·         2012 : Give your critical comments on the assertion that Yoga school broadly accepts Samkhya ontology . (15 marks)

·         2012 : Critically evaluate the statement that ‘ Yoga sutra emphasis more on praxis(action) than on theory ( reflection ). (15 marks)

·         2013 : Give a critical account of the accept of cittavritti in Yoga philosophy.( 12 ½ marks)

·         2014 : Explain the nature and levels of samprajnata Samadhi. How does each level lead more towards to asamprajnata Samadhi ? (15 marks)

·         2015 : What is bondage according to Yoga philosophy?Explain the method of attaining Kaivelya in Patanjali’s Yogasutra.( 20 marks)

·     2016 : (a) Differentiate the concept of ‘Kaivalya’ as discussed in Jaina and Yoga philosophies.(10 marks)

·     2016 : (b) What are Klešas? How can these be eliminated? Explain. (15 marks)

·     2017 : (d) What is meant by “yogaşcittavrttinirodhah” ? Explain cittavrtti and its effects according to Yoga philosophy.(10 marks)

Mimâmsâ: Theory of Knowledge.·     2001 : Kumarila Bhatta’s explanation of perceptual error. Notes.

·         2002 : What is Svatahprmanyavada according in Mimansakas? Is their explanation of errorconsistent with it? Discussfully. (60 marks)

·         2008 : Anupalabdhi as a pramana. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2011 : How do Mimamsakas defend Svatah Pramanyavada against the Naiyayika criticism? Discuss. (20 marks)

·         2012 : Discuss the views of Mimamsa and Nyaya on the theory of Pramanyavada. Which of them do find adequate ? Give reasons for your answer . (15 marks)

·         2012: Why does Mimamsa give utmost importance to SHABDA-PRAMANA the verbal testimony ? Is it anything to do with Vedas ? Give your comments.(15 marks)

·         2013 : How is the pramanya (validity/truth) of a statement determined ? Examine in this context the theory of paratah pramanyavada. (10 marks)

·         2013 : Evaluate Prabhakar Mimamsaka’s arguments for accepting sruti as pramana. (12 ½ marks)

·         2014: Can Arthapatti (postulation) be reduced to Anumana (inference )? Discuss it from Mimamsa point of view. (10 marks)

·         2014: How is an absence of an object known according to Naiyayikas and Mimamsakas ? Discuss. (15 marks)

·         2015 : Elaborate Nyaya-Mimamsa debate on Pramanyavada.(20 marks)

·     2016 : (c) What is the logical necessity for the Mimamsakas to treat ‘Arthāpatti’ as an independent Pramāna? Discuss. (15 marks)

Schools of Vedânta: Brahman; Îúvara; Âtman; Jiva; Jagat; Mâyâ; Avidyâ; Adhyâsa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda·         2000: State and examine the doctrine of Pancabheda in the Davaita system of Vedanta.

·         2000:Explain critically the objections raised by Ramanuja against Sankaras concept of maya.

·         2000 : Sankaras view on the nature and reality of individual souls (Jivas)

·     2001 : Evaluate Sankara’s analysis of moksha in the light of Ramanuja’s arguments.

·         2002 : Ramanuja’s refutation of Mayavada. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2003 : Describe Sankara’s explanation of jiva. Is the justification offered rational? Explain.( 60 marks)

·         2003 : Ramanuja criticism of Advaita concept of maya. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2004 : Madhava’s conception of moksha. Notes. (20 marks)

·         2004 : Why is Ramanuja’s philosophy called Visistadvaita? Discuss fully. (60 marks)

·         2005 : Elucidate Shankara’s conception of Adhyasa. (60 marks)

·         2005 : The nature of Brahman, Jiva and Jagat according Madhava. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2006 : Discuss the Metaphysics of Acharya Ramanuja. (60 marks)

·         2006 : Examine Shankara’s Mayavada. Short Notes. (20 marks)

·         2007 : State and explain the difference between Saguna and Nirguna Brahman. (60 marks)

·         2008 : Explain Sankara’s view on the status of Jagat and Ramanuja’s response to it. (60 marks)

·         2010 : How is Ramanuja’s concept of dharmabhutajnana different from Shamkar’s concept of swarupajnana? Explain. (15 marks)

·         2010 : Is Shamkar’s concept of adhyasa logical or psychological? Discuss. (15 marks)

·         2010 : “Both Shamkar and Ramanuja are right in their affirmation, but wrong in their denial.” Critically evaluate. (30 marks)

·         2012 : Explain the notion of egoor ahankara and its role in the doctrine of Vedanta.( 15 marks)

·         2012: Explain why avidya and maya are  considered  anirvachniya (indescribable) in advait vada ? (15 marks)

·         2012 : Write a note on Shankara’s Vivartavada and discuss its implications . (15 marks)

·         2012 : Do you agree with Ramanuja’s view that the nature of Brahman is qualified ? Give reasons . (15 marks)

·         2013 : Evaluate Ramanuja’s critique of Sankara’s theory of maya.   (12 ½ marks)

·         2013 : Distinguish between svarup lakshan and tatastha lakshan of Brahman after Sankara.( 12 ½ marks) 

·         2013: How can Isvara (God) be distinguished from Brahman( Absolute) ? Which of the two concepts are philosophically better ?( 12 ½ marks)

·         2013 : Describe the five types of differences (Panchvidbheda). Bring out their philosophical significance for Madhva’s theory.(12 ½ marks )

·         2014 : Bring out the significance of the concept of adhyasa in Sankara’s philosophy to develop his metaphysics. (10 marks)

·         2014 : How does nature of Brahman differ in the philosophy of Shankar , Ramanuja and Madhva ? Discuss critically. (20 marks)

·         2015 : Compare and contrast the notion of Brahman in Sankar and Ramanuja.( 20 marks)

·         2015 : Pancavidhbheda.(10 marks)

·     2016 : (e) Evaluate Sankara’s position on īśvara. (10 marks)

·     2016 : (c) Give a critical exposition of the concept of ‘Brahman’ as discussed by Sankara, Rāmānuja and Mādhava. (15 marks)

·     2017: (c) Distinguish between vivartavāda and pariņāmavāda with reference to causation and explain how in the light of these theories Sankara and Ramanuja differ on the status of the world. (15 marks)

·     2017 : (b) Explain Ramanuja’s conception of God and examine the difficulties he faced in explaining the relation of God to matter and spirit. (15 marks)

·     2018: (c) What is the difference between the indescribability (Anirvacaniyatā) of Brahman and the indescribability (Anirvacaniyata) of Māya in the Advaita Vedānta system? Discuss(10 marks)

·     2018 : Q7.(a) Give a comparative cxposition of the concept of Moksa as found in the systems of Višistādvaita, Dvaita, Suddhadvaita and Acintyabhedābheda. (20 marks)

·     2018 : (b) How do the Advaita Vedāntins react to the Prakrtiparināmavāda of the Samkhya philosophy? How do the Särhkhyas defend their own position in this regard? Discuss.(15 marks)

·     2018 : (c) How does Rāmānuja refute the doctrine of Maya as propounded by Sankara? Whyis Māyā needed by both Råmånuja and Sankara lo establish their doctrincs? Discuss. (15 marks)

·     2018 : Q8.(a) Does the admission of Svayamprakaśavada necessarily lead to the admission of Svatahprāmānyavāda? Discuss after the Naiyayikas, the Mimāmsakas and the Advaita Vedantins. (20 marks)

Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.

 

·         2008 : Sri Aurobindo’s conception of evolution and involution. (20 marks)

·         2010 : How are evolution and involution related in Sri Aurobindo’s philosophy? (15 marks)

·         2012 : ‘Involution is the precondition of Evolution’ . Explain the role of involution in the world process .( 15 marks)

·         2013: Explain Sri Aurobindo’s conception of cosmic salvation through spiritual salvation of individual. (10 marks) 

·         2014 : How is Sri Aurobindo’s integral yoga is an advancement over Patajala’s yoga ? Discuss. (15 marks)

·         2015 : Sri Aurobindo’s Integral Yoga (10 marks)

·     2016 : 7.(a) Discuss Aurobindo’s views on ‘Evolution’ and ‘Involution’. How do they differ from traditional Yoga philosophy? (20 marks)

·     2017 : (b) How does Sri Aurobindo’s integral yoga help in the realization of supramental consciousness ? Discuss. (15 marks)

·     2018 : (c) What is Evolution according to Sri Aurobindo? Describe the process of triple transformation and the nature of gnostic being in his philosophy. (15 marks)

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