UPSC MAINS OPTIONAL SUBJECT: POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS PAPER 2 TOPIC WISE UPSC QUESTIONS

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POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS PAPER 2 TOPIC WISE UPSC QUESTIONS

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SYLLABUSPREVIOUS YEAR QUESTIONS
Comparative Politics and International Relations-Comparative Political Analysis and International Politics:

  1. Comparative Politics: Nature and major approaches; political economy and political sociology perspectives; limitations of the comparative method.

 

·       2003 : Traditional approach and its significance.   20

·       2003 : Clearly explain Realist theory to the study of International Politics (60).

·       2003 : Impact of Sino-Indian conflict of 1962 on International Politics.  20

·       2007: Examine the relevance of the political economy approach to the study of comparative politics.   20

·       2009 : Is it necessary to evolve a distinct theoretical framework for analysis emergent politics in the developing world?    20

·       2010:  (a) How is the modern comparative politics approach different from the traditional legal – instotutional approach ?   20

·       2012 : Examining political phenomena through a process of cross-global investigation has become the fundamental function of Comparative Politics.” Discuss.

·       2012 : Elucidate the transdisciplinary nature of modern comparative politics and identify the modern comparative politics and identify the contributions of political sociologists towards this goal.

·       2013 : Sketch the journey of global political economy from Washington consensus to the present.  10

·       2014 : “The Feminist approach to international politics is biased.” Comment.   10

·       2015 : Which are the major approaches of comparative politics? Explain in brief, the political economy approach to the study of comparative inquiry.   10

·       2017 : (a) Explain the Political-Sociological Approach in the field of comparative politics and discuss its limitations.  10

·       2018 : (a) Describe the changing nature of Comparative Politics. Briefly explain the Political Economy approach to the study of Comparative Politics. 10 marks

  1. State in comparative perspective: Characteristics and changing nature of the State in capitalist and socialist economies, and, advanced industrial and developing societies.

 

·       2000 : Rethinking on sovereign state.   20

·       2003 : IMF and Indias development.   20

·       2004 : An oligopolistic global system.

·       2005: Critically evaluate the nature of capitalist model of development and its usefulness and limitations for developing countries. 60

·       2012 : “Nations and States have become virtually synonymous.” Elucidate.

·       2013:  Compare and contrast social movements in advanced industrial and developing societies.   20

·       2013 : Examine major principles of State centric world views.   15

·       2013 : ‘A minimal State ensures maximum of Individual Liberty’. Examine the concept of Minimal State.  15

·       2014 : Discuss the main factors that have contributed to the gradual transformation of the world from ‘Billiard Ball Model’ to ‘Cobweb Model’. 15

·       2015 : Do you subscribe to the view that the modern constructs of the State and politics are pre-eminently Eurocentric and not indigenous an appropriate for the analysis of non-western societies?    10

·       2015 : How far are the world governance mechanisms, dominated by IMF and world bank, legitimate and relevant? What measures do you suggest to improve their effectiveness in global governance?  15

·       2016 : 3.(a) “The IMF, World Bank, G-7, GATT and other structures are designed to serve the interests of TNCs, banks and investment firms in a ‘new imperial age’.” Substantiate with examples of governance of new world order. 20 marks

·       2017 : (b) How has the development of Global capitalism changed the nature of socialist economies and developing societies? (15 Marks)

·       2018 : (b) Describe the changing nature of the State in the developing societies in the context of inclusive growth in the 21st century.10 marks

  1. Politics of Representation and Participation: Political parties, pressure groups and social movements in advanced industrial and developing societies.

 

·       2011 : What is New Social Movement (NSM)? Explain the main challenges of the NSM in the developing countries. 8 + 12 = 20

·       2012 : How did the struggle for representation increase the level and quality of democracy in the industrial societies?

·       2012 : Evaluate the nature and distinctions of anomic and associational interest groups in the pressure politics of developing countries.

·       2013: Is the rise of social movement a sign of opening up of popular space in political process or decline of representative politics? Examine.   20

·       2014: Party system in India is neither western nor indigenous. Explain.  10

·       2014: In what respect is the new social movement new in nature? Discuss.   10

·       2015 : What is the difference between interest Groups and Pressure Groups? Are the Pressure Groups in India in a position to fully protect or promote the interests of their members?   10

·       2016 : (b) Comment on the decline of political parties and examine whether slew social movements shall be alternative strategy for establishing link between government and society.  10

·       2016 : (c)  Do interest groups help to promote democracy or to undermine it? Give your opinion. 15 marks

·       2017: (c) Examine the LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) movement: in developed societies and how it is affecting the political participation in developing societies.   10

·       2018 : (c) How big a role does identity play in determining political participation in the developing countries ? Discuss your answer with suitable illustrations. 10 marks

  1. Globalisation: Responses from developed and developing societies.

 

·       2000 : Comment on the contribution of global feminism to the consolidation of global society.

·       2010 : (b) The indications of the emergence of a global civil society.  20

·       2013 : “Global commons belong to global society and requires global attention”.Comment.   10

·       2014: What is ‘global village’? Elaborate its main characteristics and also the factors that contributed to its growth. 15 marks

·       2015 : How is it that economic and neo-liberal globalization is being interrogated from inside even in developed countries? What are the economic consequences of such globalisation?   15

·       2016: (c) Discuss the impact of globalization on the internal functioning of the state.  10

·       2017 : (b) Critically examine the Globalisation in the past 25 years from the perspectives of the Western world.  10

  1. Approaches to the Study of International Relations: Idealist, Realist, Marxist, Functionalist and Systems theory.

 

·       2002 : Marxist approach to international politics.   20

·       2005 : Game Theory for the study of International Politics and its limitations.  20

·       2006 : Input-output functions of political system.    20

·       2010: 2.(a) Examine  the post- modernist critique of Relasim in international politics. 20

·       2011 : “Structural-functional approach to political analysis focuses more on status quoism, and less on change.” Elucidate. 30

·       2011:  Expplain the uses of systems approach in international relations and examine the relevance of Kaplan’s system analysis. 10 + 20 = 30

·       2012 : What are the great debates between ‘classical’ and ‘modern’ realists ? Is there any thin line of continuity between these two traditions?

·       2013 : How does Marxist approcah explain contemporary International Relations?   15

·       2013 : Write a note on Intellectual precursors of Realism.  15

·       2014 : Who was Mr. ‘X’ in international politics? Elaborate his approach to foreign policy. 15 marks

·       2014: “Morton A. Kaplan’s system theory is contrary to the fundamental precepts of systems approach.” Comment. 15 marks

·       2015 : Identify the major differences between the classical realism of Hans J. Morgenthau and the neorealism of Kenneth Waltz. Which approach is the best suited for analysing international relations after the Cold War?   10

·       2016 : Critically examine the Marxist aspect of political economy approach to the study of comparative politics.  10

·       2016 : (d) Critically examine the functional and system approaches to the study of international relations,   10

·       2017 : (a) Is Realist Approach the best method to understand International Relations? Examine this in the context or Classical Realism. (20 Marks)

·       2017 : (c) Examine the World System Approach as developed by Emmanuel Wallerstein. (15 Marks)

·       2018 : (d) Bring out the major differences between the Classical Realism of Hans Morgenthau and the Neorealism of Kenneth Waltz. 10 marks

·       2018 : (c) Critically examine the Functionalist approach to the study of International Relations. 15 marks

6.     Key concepts in International Relations: National interest, Security and power; Balance of power and deterrence; Transnational actors and collective security; World capitalist economy and globalization.

 

·        2000 : Information Technology as element of national power   20

·       2000 : International politics, like all politics is a struggle for power. Comment (60).

·       2002 : Discuss various elements and limitations of national power (60).

·       2002: Balance of power and its impact on world politics.    20

·       2006 : A well-established system of collective security is a guarantee of world peace. Explain.    20

·       2009: What are the major critiques of liberal internationalization?    20

·       2009: Explain the role of non state actors, like IMF, World Bank, European Union and MNCs, in modulating and transforming the broad dynamics of international relations. 60

·       2010 : (b) Examine the changing nature of security in the times.  20

·       2010 : (c) Should National Interest be viewed as a constant category or is it situation- specified ?  20

·       2012 : Do you agree that liberal international theories are essentially ‘Eurocentric’ and not necessarily imperialist?

·       2012 : Why is the ‘polarity of power’ thesis less relevant and meaningful in the present architecture of ‘balance of power’?

·       2012 : What constitutes ‘national security discourses’ ? How far have the IR Feminists questioned how ‘security’ has been problematised ?

·       2012 : Is power a zero-sum or variable game in international relations? Can zero-sum game explain the mixture of conflict and cooperation of the present dynamics of international relations?

·       2012 : Examine the idea of a ‘balance’ between ‘security’ and ‘liberty’ in modern international politics. Do you think that the liberal international order is more ‘security-friendly’?

·       2013 : ‘National Interests are Dynamic’. Identify the dynamic nature of National Interests in the contemporary world polities with suitable examples.   15

·       2013 : ‘Transnational actors have become driving forces of global politics’. Elaborate.  20

·       2013 : ‘Collective Security and Collective Defense are the institutional and State mechanism to sustain the domination of powers that be in International politics’. Elaborate.  15

·       2014 : Critically assess the changing nature of the concept of national security. 15

·       2015 : Is globalization essentially a process of ‘Universalisation ’ of capitalist modernity?   10

·       2016 : 2.(a)Why does global human security need to be emphasized along with economic security? Explain with examples. 20 marks

·       2016 : 4.(a) Explain the instruments and methods devised for the promotion of national interest.  20

·       2016 : (b) “The notion of balance of power is notoriously full of confusion.” In the light of this quotation, do you think that the concept of balance of power is relevant? 15 marks

·       2017 : (c) Discuss the changing nature of modem state with reference to transnational actors. (15 Marks)

  1. Changing International Political Order:

(a) The rise of superpowers; strategic and ideological Bipolarity, the arms race and

Cold War; nuclear threat;

(b) Non-aligned movement: Aims and achievements;

(c) Collapse of the Soviet Union; Unipolarity and American hegemony; relevance of non-alignment in the contemporary world.

 

·       2000 : Pan-Americanism.   20

·       2000 : Do you agree with the stand that the Non-Alignment Movement needs to be reinvented (60)?

·       2000 : Examine the Israel-Arab conflict as a conflict of interest between the USA and the Soviet Union (60).

·       2001: Cuban Missile as a factor in U. S relationship with the USS. R.    20

·       2001 : The Arab-Israeli conflict is basically a conflict between two resurgent nationalism (60).

·       2001: Has the Non-Alignment Movement lost its relevance in the present day situation and how as India has evolved its foreign policy goals to the changing international scenario (60)?

·       2001 : Examine Pakistan as a factor in Indo-American relations during the Cold War (60).

·       2002 : How far the existing international economic order is unjust and hegemonic towards developing countries (60)?

·       2002 : Discuss Indias contribution to the growth and development of the Non-Aligned Movement (60).

·       2003 : Do you think Cold War still exists after the disintegration of the Soviet Union (60)?

·       2004 : Political and legal status of C. I. S

·       2005 : Relevance of Non-Alignment in Post-Cold war era.   20

·       2006 : International politics, like all politics, is a struggle for power. Comment.   20

·       2007 : How would you differentiate the post cold war global order from its predecessor? 60

·       2009 : (c) Explain the meaning and application of the concept of ‘strategic engagement’.   20

·       2010 : (b) Assess in detail the prospects of the ernergence of a nuclear-weapons- free world. 40

·       2010 : (a) Plausible aims of the Non-Aligned Movement in the Post-Cold War period.  20

·      2012 : How would you explain the future of ‘Nuclear Deterrence’ ? Do you think that ‘preventive war’ is a good substitute for Nuclear Deterrence ?

·      2012: examine the significance of ideological and policy aspects in the structural growth of modern political parties.

·      2012 : Do you think that Iran’s ‘victory’ in the NAM on the nuclear issue has brought in a new debate on the relevance of the Non-Aligned Movement.?

·      2013 : Highlight the major features of Non-alignment 2.0 document.    15

·      2013 : Identify the challenges to American hegemony in post Soviet world.  10

·      2014: “Ukraine crisis is a product of power politics and geo-politics.” Comment.  10

·      2014 : How do you explain the growing importance of multi-national corporations (MNCs) and civil society in contemporary international politics? 20 marks

·      2015 : Discuss the theory of Nuclear Deterrence. Did Nuclear Deterrence prevent a superpower war?  15

·      2015 : Discuss the collapse of the Soviet Union and its impact on international politics.    15

·      2016 : (b)Examine in brief the rise and fall of the Cold War.  15 marks

·      2016 : (c) Discuss the positive and negative impacts of Soviet Union’s disintegration on developing nations. 15 marks

·      2016 : 8.(a) Explain the socio-economic impacts of arms race and identify the obstacles in the way of disarmament 20 marks.

·      2017 : (e) Give an assessment of the Feminist critique of contemporary global issues.  10

·      2017 : (a) “The development or advanced missile technology and nuclear threat by North Korea has challenged the American hegemony in South-East Asia.” Evaluate the above statement in the context of recent developments in the region. (20 Marks)

·      2017 : (b) Do you endorse the view that the end of Bipolarity and the rise of multiple regional organisations has made Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) more or less irrelevant? (15 Marks)

·      2018 : (e) What, according to Joseph Nye, are the major sources of a country’s soft power? Discuss its relevance in the contemporary world politics. 10 marks

·      2018 : Q2.(a) Discuss the significance of Non-Aligned Movement as a unique contribution of the Non-Western world to World Politics. 20 marks

·      2018 : (b) Would you agree that the on-going debates on international environmental politics continue to be marred by a new North-South ideological divide over historical responsibility and developmental model ? Illustrate your answer with suitable examples. 15 marks

8.     Evolution of the International Economic System: From Brettonwoods to WTO; Socialist economies and the CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance); Third World demand for new international economic order; Globalisation of the world economy.

 

·   2000 : Liberalization and Globalization are feared by the developing countries, as the Trojan Horses of the developed countries. Elucidate (60).

·   2000 : The New International Economic Order .  20

·   2001 : Nature of political process in the Third World.   20

·   2003: Main features of WTO.   20

·   2005 : Sustainable Development.   20

·   2005:  Analyse the basic goals of Third World movement for global justice. What is the importance of South-South co-operation to achieve these? 60

·   2006 : India and the emerging International Economic Order.   20

·     2006 : Give a critical account of Indias rule in the affairs of the Third World countries (60).

·     2010 : Explain how far Deutschs model explains the framework international interdependence. Do you think that the processes of interdependence and integration have grown steadily in the post Cold War Globlisation trajectory? 60

·     2010 : (b) Critically examine globalisation from a Third World perspective.   40

·     2012 : How would you describe the contemporary words beyond the language of ‘North/South’ and ‘Developed/Developing’? Is the present transformation driven by domestic compulsion, or external overall crisis of the global economy?

·     2013 : Identify the major changes in the International Political economy in post Cold War period.  15

·     2015 : What are the real objectives of Millennium Development Goals (MDG)? Do you think that millennium development goals have been able to achieve the desired goals of poverty alleviation and sustainable development?  15

·     2017 : (c) Analyse the stalled progress of Doha Round of WTO negotiations over the differences between the developed and the developing countries. (15 Marks)

·     2018 : (c) “Some feel Multinational Corporations (MNCs) are a vital new road to economic growth, whereas others feel they perpetuate underdevelopment.” Discuss. 15 marks

9.United Nations: Envisaged role and actual record; specialized UN agencies-aims and functioning; need for UN reforms.

  1. Regionalisation of World Politics: EU, ASEAN, APEC, SAARC, NAFTA.
  2. Contemporary Global Concerns: Democracy, human rights, environment, gender justice, terrorism, nuclear proliferation.

 

·     2000 : The U. N General Assembly Millenium Summit (Sept. 2000).   20

·     2000 : Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE).  20

·     2000 : Potentials of Non-conventional energy sources .  20

·     2000:  Summit Diplomacy.  20

·     2001 : The compulsory jurisdiction clause under the statute of the International Court of Justice.    20

·     2001:  Identify some of the major issues challenging the North-South countries (60).

·       2001 : Moral claims of today becomes the human rights of tomorrow. Trace the efforts in the international protection of human rights in the twentieth century (60).

·       2001 : Indias opposition to the Non Proliferation Treaty: A realist paradigm.   20

·       2001 : Human rights and humanitarian intervention.   20

·       2002: ASEAN as third would model of regional cooperation.   20

·       2002 : Critical examine Indias objectives to CTBT and NPT (60).

·       2003 : Obstacles in the way of SAARCs smooth functioning.  20

·       2003 : Critically examine the protection and enforcement of Human Rights under the U. N. Syste (60).

·       2003 : Assess the merits of Indias case against signing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (60).

·       2004 : Sovereign National State and International concern for Human Rights

·       2004 : One of the truisms in world politics is that nothing is distributed equally on the face of the globenot people or their talent, not resources, not even climate, geographic features, technology or air quality. Elucidate.

·       2004 : Discuss, the illustrations, the way decision making is influenced by the external and internal environment as perceived by the decision maker.

·       2004 : Non-proliferation has now acquired the status of a vested interest with the nuclear weapon state which, in the name of political stability, are trying to perpetuate a global order which will preseve their hegemonic position. Discuss.

·       2004: Regional cooperation makes sense only in the event of there being, at least as the bottom line, a degree of ideological cohesion and/or economic dependence. The SAARC members have neither.

·       2005 : Basic issues in movements for Gender Justice.  20

·       2005 : Indias interest in ASEAN.   20

·       2006 : International Court of Justice.    20

·       2006 : Give a arguments in defence of Indias approach to Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) (60).

·       2007 : In What sense has gender justice become an urgent global concern today.   20

·       2007 : Development in contemporary discourse has dimension larger than just economic. Bring out the significance of the statement. 60

·       2007 : Analyze critically the major changes in the role of United Nations (UN) since the onset of new millennium. 60

·       2007 : Examine the trends in Indias relations with the European Union.   20

·       2009 : What is the significance of the increasing global diffusion of nuclear and long range delivery vehicle technology?   20

·       2009 : Examine the comparative advantages of democracy and autocracy in restraining political violence. Do you think that autocratic societies are more prone to political violence? Illustrate your answer with a comparative study of a few societies. 60

·       2009 : Analyze the basic causes of insurgency and terrorism in two majors areas that are affected in the country. In this regard, to what extent have state policies to counter terrorism been effective in these areas? 60

·       2009 : 3.(a) Discuss the different perspectives on global enviroment that have emerged in the context of the Copenhagen Summit.   20

·       2010 : (b) ” The UN today is more of social service organisation than an exclusively security – oriented body.” Critically examine.  40

·       2010 : (b) Would it be to India’s benefit if it were to Pursue a more serious relationship with South- East Asia ? Critically evaluate.  40

·       2011 : “Either terrorism triumphs or civilization triumphs.” Comment on the above statement. 20

·       2011 : Examine the nature and dynamics of contemporary globalization. 20

·       2011 : How for the efforts to maintain international order in the post-Cold War period by the UN have been successful? 30

·       2011 : “While India opposes NPT as discriminatory, it opposes CTBT on the ground of ineffectiveness.” Comment.  20

·     2012 : Is ‘terrorism’ an essentially ‘contested’ concept ? What are the different manifestations of ‘terrorism’ as a concept, and as practice?

·     2012 : How far have the UN reform efforts of 2004-05, transformed the concept of ‘Sovereignty’ as a fundamental principle of International Law ?  Do you think that UN reform discourse represents a ‘biopolitical reprogramming’ of contemporary sovereignty and global governance?

·     2012 : “Human Rights constitute the Third Generation of Rights.” Analyse the range and complex dimension of Human Rights in the globalised era.

·     2012 : The effort in restricting illegal migration from Mexico to U.S.A. and Canada has been one major gain for the United States through NAFTA. Comment.

·     2012 : Bring out linkage between environmental degradation and neo-corporatism in the globalised era.

·     2013 : Give reasons for Regionalism of world politics.  15

·     2013 : What roles do norms, taboos and epistemic play in the context of nuclear proliferation?  20

·     2013 : Substitantiate APEC as a regional economic and trade arrangement.  15

·     2013 : Identify the role and place of Gender in the global economy.  15

·     2013 : What does the pace of nuclear proliferation in post Cold War suggest?   15

·     2013 : State the place of Gender Justice in global agenda.   10

·     2013 : ‘Building ‘peace by pieces’ is the basis of functionalism’. Elaborate.  15

·     2014 : Do you agree that the U.N. has failed to contain transnational terrorism? Elaborate your answer with examples.  10

·     2014 : Argue a case for U.N. reform in the context of changing global milieu. 20 marks

·     2014 : Discuss the grounds for India’s opposition to NPT.   10

·     2015 : ‘The struggle for democracy has been marked by bitter strife and tribulations’ Examine the statement, illustrating the cases of Pakistan, Nepal and Myanmar.   10

·     2015 : Do you endorse that the conventional discourse on human rights has failed to include women’s rights? Explain in the context of feminist theories?   20

·     2015 : Has the reform of the economic and social arrangements of the United Nations been effective?    20

·     2015 : ‘The European Union has become, the most politically influential, economically powerful and demographically diverse regional entity in the world’ Discuss.   15

·     2015 : The United Nations completes 70 years of its establishment in 2015. What reforms is india asking for to strengthen the global institutions of governance and why?  20

·     2016 : (e) “A combination of internal pressures (ethnic and regional forces) and external threats (EU, UN, TNC, global market, etc) has produced what is commonly referred to as a ‘crisis of the nation-state’.” Elaborate.  10

·     2016 : (b) Do you endorse that the United Nations needs major changes in its structures and functioning? Suggest the changes for efficient improvements. 15 marks

·     2016 : (c) Discuss the evolution of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons in the post-Cold War period. 15 marks

·     2016 : (c) How does the regionalism shape the world politics? Explain with examples. 15 marks

·     2016: 6.(a)Explain Britain’s ouster from EU and bring out its consequences on world economy in general and India in particular. 20 marks

·     2016 : 7.(a) Examine the main problems and challenges involved in looking after environmental concerns in world politics. 20 marks

·     2017 : (d) American President: Donald Trump’s proposal to withdraw from the ‘NAFTA’ would bring unforeseen consequences to the regionalisation of world politics. Elaborate.  10

·     2017 : (c) Do you agree with the view that despite the limitations in the functioning of the UN, it has distinguished and unique achievements to its credit? (15 Marks)

·     2017 : (a) The recent move of USA to withdraw from the Paris climate Agreement is a setback in the consensus achieved on protecting the world environment. In this context, assess the future prospective on climate control. (20 Marks)

·     2017 : (b) How has ‘BREXIT’ affected the regionalisation process initiated by European Union and what could be its likely impacts in the regionalisation process of world politics? (15 Marks)

·     2017 : (c) The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) has failed to achieve the ultimate objective of Global Nuclear Department. Discuss the deficiency in the provision of NPT. (15 Marks)

·     2018 : (b) Discuss the consequences of Trump’s “America First” and Xi’s “Chinese Dream” on World Politics. 15 marks

·     2018 : (c) “Since its inception the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) has failed to deliver on its promises.” What initiatives should be taken to reinvigorate the organization ? 15 marks

·     2018 : Q4.(a) Critically examine the notion of “Asian Values” in the context of the on-going debates on human rights. 20 marks

·     2018 : (b) Discuss the implications of the Trump-Kim Singapore Summit on the prospects of denuclearisation of the Korean Peninsula. | 15 marks

India and the World:

1.     Indian Foreign Policy: Determinants of foreign policy; institutions of policy-making; continuity and change.

2.      India’s Contribution to the Non-Alignment Movement: Different phases; current role.

·  2002 : India and Handung Conference: Hope and Reality.   20

·  2003 : Critically examine the view that in the Post-Cold War era India policy of non-alignment has become irrelevant (60).

·  2004 Diplomacy is not only a technique of foreign policy implementation, but also an instrument by which other techniques-military and economic can be successfully deployed. Discuss the significance of diplomacy in the conduct of foreign relations.

·  2005 : Describe and assess the role and importance of Geopolitical and Geo-economic factors in the determination of foreign policy of a country 60

·  2005:  India as leader of Non-Aligned movement.  20

·  2006 : Analyse and evaluate the role of decision-making theory as a tool of foreign policy analysis (60).

·    2006 : Give a critical estimate of Indias role in the Non-Aligned Movement.  20

·    2006: Indias Foreign Policy could have matched with the fast-changing international system. Discuss it.   20

·    2007: Define geopolitical and account for its prevalence even in the modern nuclear age.   20

·    2007 : was there any domestic socio-political basis for India to pursue the policy of non-alignment.   20

·    2009 : Domestic problems and Historic legacies, apart from other factors, constitute major strains on Indian foreign policy. Discuss this statement with suitable examples. 60

·    2010 : 7. (a) Comment on the recent trends in Russia’s foreign policy.   20

·    2011 : “India’s policy of non-alignment was based on both idealist and realist calculations.”  20

·    2011 : “India’s policy in post-Cold War era is tilted towards pragmatism and wisdom.”  20

·    2011 : Explain the impact of coalition politics on India’s Foreign Policy since late 1990s. 30

·    2012 : Review the increasing role of Multi National Corporations in the policy making process of developing countries.

·    2012 : Comment on the essential elements of India’s foreign policy that are required to secure energy and security in the Indian Ocean region.

·    2013 : Identify the elements of change in India’s foreign policy.  10

·    2014 : “India’s policy of non-alignment has been guided by the genius of the Indian people and their interests.” Explain. 15 marks

·    2015 : The social structure of a country influences its foreign policy-making. How does the social structure of India impact the course and direction of its foreign policy?   10

·    2015 : ‘Non-alignment’ has been the basic principle of india’s foreign policy since independence. Discuss its relevance in the contemporary context.   10

·    2015 : How does the Parliament determine and influence the making of india’s foreign policy?  10

·    2016 : (a) Which determinant factors play an important role in making India’s foreign policy? Illustrate with examples.   10

·    2016 : (b) Comment on India’s contribution to Non-Alignment Movement and its contemporary relevance.  10

·    2017 : (a) Examine the Indian National Movement and Geographical location of India as determinants of India’s foreign policy.  10

·    2018 : (a). Do you agree with the view that the Indian Foreign Policy is increasingly being shaped by the Neoliberal outlook ? Elaborate. | 10 marks

·    2018 : (d) “India’s current foreign policy marks significant qualitative shifts from that of the previous regimes.” Discuss. 10 marks

3. India and South Asia:

(a) Regional Co-operation: SAARC – past performance and future prospects.

(b) South Asia as a Free Trade Area.

(c) India’s “Look East” policy.

·     2002 : SAARC: Problems and Prospects.   20

·     2002 : Look Eat policy of India. 20

·     2002 : Role and consequences of IPKF in Sri Lanka.   20

·     2004: GATT treaty and developing countries

·     2006 : Few agencies of International co-operation have been more successful in tending to the welfare of humanity than the I. L. O Discuss the organization of activities of the International Labour Organization in the light of the above statement (60).

·     2006 : The establishment of South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC) has opened the gargets of mutual co-operation among the State of South Asia. In the light of this statement examine Indias role in the South Asian region (60).

·     2007 : what are the motivations for Indias Look East Policy.   20

·       2007: Domestic turmoil in neighbouring South Asian countries often constitutes a strain on Indian Foreign policy. Discuss with illustration. 60

·       2009 : Do you think that Indias Look East policy would help a common Asian market, unlike European common market.   20

·       2011 : Explain the major flaws in India’s ‘Look East Policy’ Is it possible to steer and implement the policy successfully in views of China’s emergence as a high-tech power in Asia-Pacific? 20 + 10 = 30

·       2011 : To what extent is multi-lateralism a reality with regard to India’s constructive strategic partnership with Central Asian states? 30

·       2012 : “Despite the potentialities, India’s ‘Look East Policy’ requires a major course correction”. Discuss.

·       2013 : ‘The economic content of India’s foreign trade is increasingly growing’. Substantiate the statement with economic diplomatic engagements of India in the last decade.    20

·       2014 : “Despite so many agreed areas of cooperation, innumerable institutional mechanisms and a permanent secretariat, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) has not taken off as a meaningful regional grouping.” Discuss. 20 marks

·       2015: Identify the constraints / challenges to the regional cooperation in South Asia.   10

·       2016 : (e) “Sometimes we visualize that SAARC’s efforts come to halt because of various impediments to regional cooperation.” Elaborate with reasonable examples of impediments.  10

·       2016 : (b) Explain the concept of the North-South divide and suggest how structural inequalities between the high wage, high investment industrial North and low wage, low investment predominantly rural South can be reduced. 15 marks

·       2016 : (b) What are the hopes and aspirations of ‘Look East Policy of India? Explain. 15  marks

·       2017 : (b) What are the impediments of the developments of South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA)?  10

·       2018 : (b) “India is often said to have a rich strategic culture.” Discuss. 10 marks

·       2018 : (e) Analyse the significance of India’s Look East Policy in the light of concerns of the indigenous peoples of North-east India. 10 marks

(d) Impediments to regional co-operation: river water disputes; illegal cross-border migration; ethnic conflicts and insurgencies; border disputes.

1. India and the Global South: Relations with Africa and Latin America; leadership role in the demand for NIEO and WTO negotiations.

2. India and the Global Centres of Power: USA, EU, Japan, China and Russia.

·     2000 : Indo-Pak relationship veers around the peaceful settlement of the Kashmir issue. Critically evaluate various alternatives for its solution (60).

·     2001 : Explain Indias role in global disarmament (60).

·     2002: India and European Union.   20

·     2002 Examine the recent developments in Sino-Indian relations (60).

·     2003 : Indias role in the independence of Bangladesh.   20

·     2003:  Areas of cooperation between India and Russia.  20

·     2003 : Examine the areas of cooperation and conflict in the Indo-American relations (60).

·       2004 : US trade relations with Japan.

·       2004 : China one China policy

·       2004 : Despite some problems which USA is facing in Asia, it is unlikely that pressure on India over the nuclear issue, Kashmir and missile programme will be released. Discuss.

·       2005 : Emerging areas of co-operation between India and Japan

·       2005 : Explain the importance and limitations of recent Confidence Building Measures in Indo-Pak relations. 60

·       2005 : How far institutions like WTO and IMF have influenced Indias political and economic sovereignty? What has been Indias response to these? 60

·       2006 : Discuss the present state of Indo-Russian relations (60).

·       2007 : Identify the persistent points of frictions between India and Bangladesh at present.   20

·       2007 : Critically review the progress of India-Pakistan peace process since Kargil War. 60

·       2007 : Comprehensively examine the major developoement/trends in Indo-US relations since the early 1990s. Do you visualized the strengthening of ties between the two nations? Substantiate. 60

·       2009 : Identify Indias contributions and assistance in the process of nation-building in South Africa.  20

·       2009 : Examine Indias role in strategic terms with regard to the land-locked countries in South Asia. With regard to Nepal, to what extent has the involvement of major posers such as China, the US and the EU impacted India s strategic interests. 60

·       2010: 6. (a) Examine the nature of the issues currently being debated with the European Union.   20

·       2010 : (b) Assess the problems being faced by India on acocunt illegal migration into the country.   40

·       2011 : Explain the role of the Parliament in the shaping of 123 Agreement between India and the US on Civil-nuclear Cooperation.  20

·       2011 : Do you think that India should sign a treaty with China on water-sharing of Brahmaputra River, similar to what she did with Nepal and other neighboring states?  20

·       2011 : Discuss the implications of ethnicity and nation-building in South Asia, and their impact in the relations of states within South Asia. 30

·       2012 : Does the perspective of Dependencies Theory offer a robust critique on the nature of mainstream development process taking place in Africa and Latin America?

·       2012 : Illustrate the issue of illegal cross-border migration in South Asia and its impact on regional alliances and bilateral relations.

·       2012 : Is there any linkage between a shift in China’s relations with Japan to a perceived shift in her relations with India? Examine in the light of China’s so-called ‘anti-encirclement struggle’.

·       2012 : What are the political and environmental contexts of the Siachen Glacier conflict? Comment on the possibility of environmental peace-keeping and collaborative arrangements being worked out with Pakistan on this aspects.

·       2013: Sketch the leadership role of India in WTO negotiations.  10

·       2013 : Examine the recent developments in India-Japan relationship.  10

·       2013 : Compare and Contrast Sin-India approaches to global Environmental concerns.   15

·       2014 : Critically evaluate the approaches of global south towards addressing environment concerns. 15 marks

·       2014 : “EU – India relations have a long way to go before they can purposely be termed strategic.” Discuss.  10

·       2014 : Do you agree with the view that the USA is of late willing to treat India as a partner rather than merely a camp-follower? Give reasons for your answer.    10

·       2014 : Evaluate the recent changes in Indo – Japan relations. 20 marks

·       2014 : “Federal units are critical in the making of India’s foreign policy.” Examine this statement with reference to the role of West Bengal vis-à-vis Bangladesh. 15 marks

·       2014 : Analyse the drivers of Indo – Russian relations in the post-Cold-War era. 20 marks

·       2014 : “Some of the major changes that occurred in India’s foreign policy after the Sino – India war in 1962 were within the larger framework of continuity.” Discuss. 15 marks

·       2015 : Ethic conflicts and insurgencies in North-East india can be better managed by improving relations with the neighbouring countries. Substantiate the statement with suitable examples.   10

·       2015: Before the year 2000, the indo-US relationship has been marked more with estrangement than cordiality. Why?  20

·       2015 : ‘Economic interest has emerged as the main component of india’s foreign policy’. Discuss the statement in the light of india’s initiatives to improve relations with China, Japan and the Central Asian republics.  15

·       2015 : Discuss the factors for the decline of india’s presence in Latin America.   15

·       2015 : River water disputes are emerging as a major source of conflicts an suggest the remedial measures.     15

·       2016 : (c) Illustrate the main causes of tension between India and China. Suggest the possibilities of improving relationship.  10

·       2016 : (b) Comment on India’s growing relationship with USA in the background of constrained relations between India and China. 15 marks

·       2016 : (c) Discuss the shift of India’s foreign policy towards Pakistan in the light of Pathankot incident. 15 marks

·     2017 : (c) “The treaty of Perpetual Peace and Friendship between India and Bhutan needs to be revised with more pragmatic, realistic obligations and responsibilities.” Comment.  10

·     2017 : (a) Suggest measures so that India’s partnership with Africa becomes a true symbol of South-South Cooperation, delivering clear-cut economic and political dividends to both side of the equation. (20 Marks)

·     2017: (b) “Despite the difference between India and Pakistan on various issues, Indus Water Treaty has stood the test of time.” In the light of this statements, discuss the recent developments over the issue. (15 Marks)

·     2017 : (a) How is the “Belt and Road Initiative” of China going to affect India-China relationship? (20 Marks)

·     2017 : (b) The recent difference between India and Russia are the result of misconceptions than fact. Elucidate. (15 Marks)

·     2017 : (a) The natural behaviour of India and the United States is likely to serve each other’s interests. Hence, a deliberate strategy of dovetailing their efforts will obviously benefit both. Elaborate. (20 Marks)

·     2017 : (b) Do you subscribe to the idea that in the new evolving Asian dynamics, Japan and India have not only moved closer in economic cooperation but also in strategic partnership? (15 Marks)

·     2018: (c) Evaluate India’s stand on the recent Rohingya refugee issue. 10 marks

·     2018 : Q6.(a) India’s coalitional diplomacy within the WTO has earned it wide appreciation. What accounts for the success of India’s coalitional diplomacy ? 20 marks

·     2018 : (b) “India’s capacity building programmes under the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) has earned much goodwill for it in Africa.” Discuss. 15 marks

·     2018 : (c) “India’s Research and Information System for Developing Countries” (RIS) is a major initiative in the area of South-South Cooperation. Discuss. 15 marks

·     2018 : Q7.(a) Discuss the role of the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) in promoting India’s soft power abroad. 20 marks

·     2018 : (b) Discuss the role of Indian diaspora in promoting Indo-US relations. 15 marks

·     2018 : (b) Critically assess the evolving convergence of India and China in the areas of trade and environment. 15 marks

·     2018 : (c) Do you agree that the growing assertiveness of China is leading to multilayered Indo-Japan relations ? Comment. 15 marks

  1. India and the UN System: Role in UN Peace-keeping; demand for Permanent Seat in the Security Council.
  2. India and the Nuclear Question: Changing perceptions and policy.
·       2000 : Is the reforms of the UN. Indias claim on the permanent seat in the Security Council is national and equally justifiable. Elucidate (60).

·        2001 : India and the U. N Peace-keeping Force.   20

·        2002 : Changing nature and dynamics of national security.    20

·        2002:  Indias claim for permanents seat in the UN Security Council.   20

·        2004 : UNs peacekeeping role in domestic conflicts. 

·        2005:  Indias claim for acceptance as a nuclear power.   20

·        2005 : Evaluate the role India has played in U. N. Peace-keeping activities and the cause of global disarmament. 60

·        2009 : In the context of developments on the nuclear weapons front in the neighbourhood, do you think that any change in India s defence strategy is indicated?   20

·        2010 : (c) Bring out the role played by Indian armed forces in UN peace-keeping  efforts in various parts of the world.   20

·        2010 : 8. (a) Bring out India’s perspectives and Council.  20

·        2011 : What is comprehensive approach to national security? 20

·        2011 : Do you agree with the view that over-widening of the concept of ‘national security’ has made it a more amorphous concept? Discuss. 40

·        2011 : What are the major impediments to UN Security Council reform? 30

·       2013 : Bring out the objectives of India seeking permanent seat in Security Council.  10

·       2013 : Is India’s Nuclear doctrine a viable one?   10

·       2014 : Is India’s quest for a permanent seat in the Security Council a possibility or just a pipedream? Elaborate with reasons.   10

·       2014 : Evaluate India’s participation in United Nations peace-keeping operations over the years. 15 marks

·       2015: In 1998, India declared itself as a nuclear weapon state. India refuses to sign NPT and CTBT. What would be the implications for india’s nuclear policy in case it signs both the treaties?    15

·       2016 : (d) Critically analyze India’s nuclear policy.  10

·        2016 : (c) Critically analyze China’s role in international politics against India’s demand for permanent seat in UN Security Council. 15 marks

·        2017 : (d) “India has been the largest and consistent country contributing to the UN peacekeepers worldwide.” Examine India’s role in this perspective.  10

·        2017 : (c) ‘Uniting for Census’ also known as ‘Coffee Club’ has opposed the claims of India and other countries over permanent membership of the UN Security Council. Point out their major objections. (15 Marks)

·        2018: Q3.(a) Discuss the relevance of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on the security of women in conflict zones. 20 marks

·        2018 : (c) Discuss the various impediments in India’s way to a permanent seat in the Security Council. 15 marks

  1. Recent developments in Indian Foreign policy: India’s position on the recent crisis in Afghanistan, Iraq and West Asia, growing relations with US and Israel; vision of a new world order.
·        2001 : National interest and national peculiarities: A guide to foreign policy.  20

·        2002 : Critically examine the roots of Afghan Civil War. What role the Soviet Union and the United States played in it (60)?

·        2004 : Peace in West Asia

·        2006 : Oil crisis: Its impact on Indias development strategy.   20

·        2007 : The Afghanistan Civil War gave the US a long awaited upper hand in south Asia.   20

·        2009 : To what extent is Indias policy in regard to Afghanistan dictated by a vision of Global South, rather than compulsions?   20

·        2010 : (a) Can Israel be termed a ‘natural ally’ of India ?  20

·        2010 : (b) Examine India ‘s response to the Af-Pak policy of The US.  20

·       2012 : What have been the main challenges to India’s foreign policy in the last two decades? Are these essentially ‘concerns’ with domestic politics or ‘strategic’ issues?

·       2012 : is it correct to conclude that the ‘Arab Street’ revolutions have radically altered the political power scenario of the West Asian countries?

·       2012 : Assess the scope and importance of setting up the Public Diplomacy Division in the Ministry of External Affairs in strengthening India’s Foreign Policy.

·       2014 : “Afghanistan is a litmus test for India’s ascendance as a regional and global power.” Discuss.  10

·       2014 : Examine the implications of turmoil in Iraq and West Asia for India’s security and foreign policy concerns. 15 marks

·       2014 : The Ministry of External Affairs is losing its importance in the making of India’s foreign policy with the parallel rise of the P.M.O. Explain. 20 marks

·       2014 : In the history of foreign policy, seldom have relations between any two nations blossomed as fast as they have in the case of India and Israel. Discuss. 15 marks

·       2015: Vision of a new world order has emerged as the major objective of india’s foreign policy. Discuss the policy initiative taken by india in this regard and challenges faced by it.   20

·       2015: Discuss the realistic foreign policy initiatives taken by India to balance its relations between Israel and the Arab world.    15

·       2015: Discuss the humanitarian role played by india in the crisis-stricken Gulf countries like Yemen and Iraq.   15

·        2017: (e) Has the recent Indo-Israeli relationships given a new dynamics to India’s stand on Palestinian’s statehood?  10

·        2018: Q8.(a) Do you think that India’s capacity building role in Afghanistan has shrunk the strategic space for Pakistan there ? Discuss. 20 marks