UPSC MAINS OPTIONAL SUBJECT: SOCIOLOGY PAPER 2 TOPIC WISE UPSC QUESTIONS

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SOCIOLOGY PAPER 2 TOPIC WISE UPSC QUESTIONS

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SYLLABUSPREVIOUS YEAR QUESTIONS
Indian Society: Structure And Change

1. Introducing Indian Society:

(i) Perspectives on the study of Indian society:

(a)  Indology (GS. Ghurye).

(b)  Structural functionalism (M N Srinivas).

(c)   Marxist sociology (A R Desai).

 

·       2010 : A. R. Desai’s characterization of leadership of Indian freedom movement. 20

·       2010 : How far is the structural functional perspective helpful in understanding changes in contemporary Indian society ?30

·       2011 : (d) The book-view and the field-view in Indian sociology.   15

·       2011 : 2. (a) Bring out the relationship between fertility and social structure as viewed by Davis and Blake. 30

·       2012 : Limitations of the dialectical approach to the study on Indian society.  15

·       2012 : Positional change and structural change.   5

·       2012 : ‘Indian society may be understood as a system of cognitive structures.’ How far do you agree with this statement?  20

·       2012 : Has nuclear family existed in traditional India? Discuss with reference to the views of I. P. Desai.  20

·       2013 : M.N. Srinivas’s concept of westernization.   10

·       2013 : What are the features of M.N. Srinivas’ concept of dominant caste How effective is it in understanding today’s reality  10

·       2014 : G.S. Ghurye’s Indological approach to understand society in India  10

·       2015 : Give some of the important studies relating to the structural changes in the Indian family system.  20

·       2015 : Discuss Marxist approach to the analysis of Indian nationalism.  20

·       2015 : Why is it necessary to implement PCPNDT Act in India?  10

·       2015 : How far Srinivas’s Sanskritization is modernizing force or traditionalizing force in understanding the changes in caste system?  10

·       2016 : (a) Salient features of A.R. Desai’s Marxist Sociology  10 marks

·       2017 : (a) Write a critique of the structural and functional perspective used by M.N. Srinivas in the understanding of Indian society.  10

·       2017 : (b) What, according to you are the two fundamental axes of social discrimination in Indian society ? Are they changing ? (20 Marks)

·       2018 : (a) Write a note on G.S.Ghurye’s Indological perspective of understanding Indian society.

·       2018 : Q 2. (a) Analyse A.R. Desai’s views on India’s path of development.  20

(ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :

(a)  Social background of Indian nationalism.

(b)  Modernization of Indian tradition.

(c)   Protests and movements during the colonial period. (d)  Social reforms.

 

·       2010 : The heterogenic feature that influenced Indian tradition, according to Yogendra Singh.  20

·       2012 : Westernization and institutional changes in India.    15

·       2012 : Interaction of ‘little tradition’ and ‘great iradition’.   15

·       2012 : How have social reform movements in colonial India contributed to modernization of Indian society?    20

·       2013 : Satya Sodhak movement of Mahatma Jyotiba Phule.  10

·       2013 : Discuss the sociological aspects of movements for separate States.  15

·       2014 : Modernisation of Indian traditions  10

·       2014 : Discuss the social background of Indian nationalism.20 marks

·       2015 : Discuss the paradigm of modernization of Indian tradition in analyzing social change in India.  20

·       2015 : Human development approach affirms that education and health –care growth are more important than economic growth. Discuss this issue in the light of post-liberalized Indian society. 20

·       2015 : Write a brief note on the Freedom of Press.   10

·       2017 : (a) The main objective of socio- religious movement during the colonial rule in India were reforming and synthesizing Hinduism. Write an any two such important movement. (20 Marks)

·       2017 : (b) Discuss Yogendra singh’s thesis on Modernization of Indian Tradition. And evaluate its applicability in the present day context. (20 Marks)

·       2017 : (b) To what extent does nation building depends on strengthening of pluralities in Indian society? (20 Marks)

Social Structure:

Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:

(a)  The idea of an Indian village and village studies. (b)  Agrarian social structure – evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.

 

·       2011 : 6. (a) Critically examine D.N. Dhanagare’s  views on agrarian movements in India.  20

·       2014 : What is the idea of ‘Indian village’? Explain.10 marks

·       2014 : Rural landless labourers and development induced displacement  10

·       2015 : Effect of displacement through development on the rural landless and marginal farmers .  10

·       2016 : (b) Significance of Village Studies in Indian Sociology 10 marks

·       2016 : (c) Analyse the major components of Land Reform Acts. Show their effectiveness in curbing rural inequality. 10 marks

·       2016 : 8.(a) Bring out the impact of the declining significance of the agrarian economy.  20 marks

(ii)  Caste System:

(a)  Perspectives on the study of caste systems: GS Ghurye, M N Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.

(b)  Features of caste system.

(c)   Untouchability – forms and perspectives.

 

·       2010 : Dumont’s concept of homohierarchicus.  20

·       2010 : With reference to their understanding of the Indian village, compare the perspectives of M. N. Srinivas and S. C. Dube.    30

·       2010 :  Critically assess the forms in which untouchability continues to be practiced. 30

·       2011 : (a) Perspectives’ on the study of caste by M.N. Srinivas and Andre Beteille.  15

·       2011 : (c) ‘Casteism is the  modern edition of the caste system.’ Do you agree with this statement / Discuss with arguments. 20

·       2013 : Andre Beteille’s definition of class.  10

·       2013 : What are the main features of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar’s views on annihilation of caste  20

·       2013 : Critically evaluate Louis Dumont’s Homo Hierarchicus.  20

·       2014 : Features of caste system  10

·       2014 : Write some of the important social reforms in India for the removal of untouchability.10 marks

·       2015 : Louis Dumont’s perspective on Indian caste system .  10

·       2015 : How far Gandhi ji was trusted by the untouchables.  10

·       2015 : Is caste system changing, weakening or disintegrating in India?   20

·       2016 : 2.(a) How has B.R. Ambedkar identified the features of caste system ? How is it different from the mainstream treatment of caste features ? 20 marks

·       2016 : (b) Discuss Andre Beteille’s account of the relationship between caste, class and power as a change from symmetrical to asymmetrical one. 20 marks

·       2017 : (d) How have the struggles against untouchability changed their forms and perspective from Gandhian to Ambedkarite positions?   10

·       2017 : (c) What are the changes in the cultural and structural aspects of the caste system since independence ? (10 Marks)

·       2017 : (a) Explain the concepts of dominant caste’ and ‘ vote ‘ bank giving examples from specific regions. (20 Marks)

·       2017 : (c) Give an account of the problems relating to the “creamy layer”.   10

·       2018 : (b) Give a critical analysis of Andre Beteille’s study of Tanjore village.  10

·       2018 : Q 3. (a) What do you understand by discrete castes and muddled hierarchies? Substantiate your answer with suitable illustrations.  20

·       2018 : Q 7. (a) Has caste system hindered democracy and adult franchise in India. Discuss.  20

(iii) Tribal communities in India:

(a) Definitional problems. (b)  Geographical spread. (c) Colonial policies and tribes. (d)  Issues of integration and autonomy.

 

·       2011 : (c) Unity and diversity among the tribes in India.  15

·       2011 : (b) Analyze the changing nexus between caste and tribe.   20

·       2012 : Tribe and Caste  5

·       2012 : Has geographic and economic mobility impacted the tribal culture and social structure ? Give examples.    30

·       2013 : What are the features that distinguish tribes from the rest of the population  20

·       2013 : How does the new Forest Act affect tribals?  10

·       2014 : Analyse the different views on integration and autonomy of tribes in India.20 marks

·       2015 : Verrier Elwin’s views on freedom for the tribals.  10

·       2015 : Main objective of Tribal sub plan (TSP)

·       2016 : (c) Isolationism’ as a dominant feature of colonial tribal policy  10 marks

·       2017 : (b) What is the nature of religious change among tribal communities ? Illustrate with two examples from colonial and post independence times. (20 Marks)

·       2017 : (c) Why have we started using another category of tribes called the Particularly Vulnerable Groups (PVTGs) Why are they so called ? (10 Marks)

·       2018 : (b) Discuss development induced displacement in the context of tribal uprising in India. Substantiate your answer with any one detailed illustration from India.  20

(iv) Social Classes in India:

(a)  Agrarian class structure. (b)  Industrial class structure. (c)   Middle classes in India.

 

·         2011 : (c) Bring out the relationship between social class and mortality.  20

·       2012 : Discuss the factors which contributed to industrial modernization in India. What are the salient features of new industrial class structure ?  20

·       2013 : Classes in agrarian society in India.   10

·       2013 : Discuss the salient features of Indian middle class.  15

·       2015 : Jyotirao Phule as an agrarian radical.  10

·       2015 : Discuss the impact of post- 1970 feminist movement on Indian middle class.  20

·       2016 : (c) What accounts for the growth and consolidation of the middle classes in modern India ? 10 marks

·       2018 : (d) Write a note on the changing roles of middle-class women in India.  10

·       2018 : Q 4. (a) How has the New Economic Policy (1991) affected the lifestyle and life changed in new middle class in India.  20

(v)  Systems of Kinship in India:

(a)  Lineage and descent in India. (b)  Types of kinship systems. (c) Family and marriage in India. (d)  Household dimensions of the family. (e) Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour.

 

·       2010 : Linkages between Patriarchy and honour killings.   20

·       2011 : (b) Distinction between the concepts of family and household.   15

·       2012 : Challenges to institution of marriage.  15

·       2012 : Affinal kin and Consanguineous kin.  5

·       2012 : Marriage as sacrament and marriage as contract.   5

·       2012 : Comment on the social and cultural determinants of sexual decision of labour.  20

·       2014 : Types of kinship systems in India  10

·       2014 : Define Patriarchy. How does it impact the overall entitlement of a girl child in India ?10 marks

·       2015 : Broadly comapare the kinship system of North and South India.  10

·       2015 : What is patriarchy? How does it affect the child socialization pattern in India? 20

·       2016 : (e) Patriarchy as a form of dominance 10 marks

·       2016 : 3.(a) Bring out the significance of the difference between family and household. 20 marks

·       2017 : (b) Clarify the distinction between “household” and “family” and evaluate Whether joint families have completely disintegrated. (20 Marks)

·       2017 : (c) Compare the north Indian kinship System with the South Indian kinship system. (10 Marks)

·       2018 : (c) Illustrate the importance of ‘Kanyadan’ and ‘Kulabadhu’ in changing institution of marriage and family.  10

·       2018 : (c) Discuss the issues relating to the entitlement of transgender in Indian society. 10

·       2018 : (b) Western patriarchy which surrenders feminine principles is the development project in India. Do you agree with this view? Why?  20

(vi) Religion and Society:

(a)  Religious communities in India. (b)  Problems of religious minorities.

 

·       2010 : The Parsi community and its contribution to Indian society.   20

·       2014 : Discuss the problems of religious minorities in India.20 marks

·       2015 : What are the basic tenets of Hindu religion? Is Hinduism based on monotheism or polytheism?  20

·       2015 : What are the major concerns of ethic identity and religious identity in India?  10

·       2017 : (c) What are the distinct features of islam as practised in India, and how have they changed over time ?  10

·       2018 : (e) Discuss the growth of religious sects in India.  10

·       2018 : (b) Write a critical narrative on the concerns of religious minorities in India.  20

·       2018 : (c) Assess the impact of ban on ‘Triple Talak’ on marriage and divorce among the Muslim community in India.  10

Social Changes in India:

(i)  Visions of Social Change in India:

(a)  The idea of development planning and mixed economy. (b)  Constitution, law and social change. (c) Education and social change.

 

·       2010 : Evaluate the policy of SEZ (special economic zones) and the nature of social response to it. 30

·       2012 : Constitution as a living document of social change.  12

·       2013 : Five Year Plans.  10

·       2013 : Discuss the salient features of right to education. 15

·       2014 : Impact of privatisation on educational disparities  10

·       2016 : (d) Empowerment through ‘Right to Education  10 marks

·       2018 : (a) Elaborate the concept of constitutional morality as given by B.R.Ambedkar.  20

·       2018 : (d) Assess the role of the State in promoting education of girl child.  10

(ii)  Rural and Agrarian transformation in India:

(a)  Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes. (b)  Green revolution and social change. (c) Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture. (d) Problems of rural labor, bondage, migration.

 

·       2010 : Social security measures for the elderly.  20

·       2011 : (b) Impact of Green Revolution on rural class structure.   15

·       2011 : 7. (a) Comment on the factors responsible for the growth and consolidation of middle level peasantry in rural India. How is it related to capitalism in Indian agriculture?             30

·       2012 : Changing rural power structure.  15

·       2012 : Bring out some positive and negative social consequences of green revolution. How has green revolution changed the rural social structure?   20

·       2013 : Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.  10

·       2013 : Green Revolution.  10

·       2014 : Give a sociological analysis of the problems of migrant urban poor.20 marks

·       2015 : Discuss the problems of elderly in India. What are the different perspectives to solve their problems?  10

·       2016 : (b) Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme for rural development  10 marks

·       2016 :  6.(a) Write a note on the uneven impact of “Green Revolution’ on rural society. 20 marks

·       2017 : (e) Write a short note an changing means of production and increased rural poverty.  10

·       2017 :  (a) Discuss some of the striking issues of development induced imbalances that need urgent attention. (20 Marks)

·       2018 :  (b) Has Green Revolution led to the formation of new power elite in rural India? Elaborate your answer.   20

(iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:

(a)  Evolution of modern industry in India. (b)  The growth of urban settlements in India. (c)   Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization. (d)  The informal sector, child labor. (e) Slums and deprivation in urban areas.

 

·       2010 : From a sociological perspective, examine the effects of the BPO industry on the youth.  30

·       2011 : (b) What are the linkage points between globalization and the growth of the informal sector? How have these affected the nature and functioning of the working class? 30

·       2011 : 8. (a) Rapid urbanization and sustainable development do not go together. Discuss with arguments.  20

·       2012 : Demographic perspective of Indian youth.

·       2013 : Distinguish between formal and informal sectors in India.   20

·       2013 : Examine the influence of industrialization on caste.  15

·       2013 : Child Labour.  10

·       2013 : Write an analytical note on slums in cities. 15

·       2014 : Discuss the status of women among the emerging urban middle class.20 marks

·       2014 : Discuss the impact of globalisation on the workers in the Informal sector.10 marks

·       2015 : Issues relating to the informal labour market in urban India.  10

·       2016 : 7.(a) Write a detailed note on the effects of growing slums in urban areas.  20

·       2016 : (b) Discuss the changing nature of the problems of working class in the informal sector of the economy.  20 marks

·       2016 : (b) Examine the impact of industrialization and urbanization on family structure.  20 marks

·       2017 : (c) Compare the pressing problems of a dalit poor family living in an urban slum with a similar type of family living in a rural setting . (10 Marks)

·       2017 : (d) Do you agree that the issue of child labour raises questions about and beyond the informal sector ? Give reasons.  10

·       2017 : (b) Examine the impact of heritage tourism on urban socio-spatial patterns in India. (20 Marks)

·       2018 : Q 6. (a) How do you relate the growth of development of metropoles and its impact on the mental and social life of people in India.  20

·       2018 : (c) Write a note on Basic Services to Urban Poet (BSUP) and Integrated Housing and Slum Development (IHSD) programme provided for the urban poor.  10

(iv) Politics and Society:

(a)  Nation, democracy and citizenship. (b)  Political parties, pressure groups, social and political elite. (c)   Regionalism and decentralization of power. (d) Secularization.

 

·       2010 : Factors responsible for increasing demands for the information of separate states.  20

·       2010 : Identify the reasons for the resilience of democratic system in India.  30

·       2011 : 3. (a) Distinguish between ‘secularism’ and ‘secularisation’. Analyse the nature and extent of secularization in contemporary India. 30

·       2012 : Examine the impact of secularization on various religious communities in India.   30

·       2012 : Regional political elites and the democratic process.  12

·       2012 : Critically examine the concepts of nation and citizenship in the context of globalization.  20

·       2015 : Discuss B.R. Ambedkar as a wise democrat. 20

·       2016 : (c) Comment on the increasing significance of caste in politics. 10 marks

·       2018 : (c) Media is the fourth pillar of democracy. Discuss.  10

(v)  Social Movements in Modern India:

(a)  Peasants and farmers movements. (b)  Women’s movement. (c) Backward classes & Dalit movement. (d)  Environmental movements. (e) Ethnicity and Identity movements.

 

·       2010 : Women in the I. T. sector.  20

·       2010 : Ethnic movements.  20

·       2010 :  Assess the contribution of contemporary women’s movement in women’s empowerment.30

·       2011 : (b) Analyze the term ‘dalit’ and the evolution of the related concept as a reflection of the changing consciousness and self-assertion of the dalit community. 30

·       2011 : 4. (a) How are the issues of ethnicity are the issues of ethnicity and nationalism related? Discuss in the context of the emergence of ethno nationalism in India. 30

·       2011 : (a) Stage of the Women’s movement in India.  15

·       2012 : Education and Dalit empowerment.  12

·       2012 : Have the new economic policy and economic reform led to weakening of labour class movements? Explain your views with examples.  30

·       2013 : Other Backward Classes.   10

·       2013 : Write a note on ethnicity and integration in the context of tribes.   20

·       2013 : Bring out the main features of farmers’ movements in Modern India.  20

·       2013 : What is the Dalit movement Examine the issues highlighted by it.  20

·       2014: Describe the impact of land reforms on the peasants of Indian society.20 marks

·       2014: Dynamics of Contemporary Dalit movements  10

·       2014: What are the main features of the second wave of Women’s movement in the Indian context ?20 marks

·       2014: Discuss the ‘Chipko movement’ as an example of eco-feminism.20 marks

·       2015: Discuss the main features of farmers’ movements in independent India.  20

·       2015 : Analyze Gandhi as a moralist, ascetic and man of action through his Hind Swaraj.  20

·       2016: (d) Anti-Brahmanical movements during the colonial period  10 marks

·       2016: 4.(a) How is the tribal question related with the issues of integration and autonomy in modern India ? 20 marks

·       2016 : (b) Comment on the factors behind the changing status of women in urban India. 20 marks

·       2016: (c) Different forms of Dalit assertion  10 marks

·       2016: (c) Discuss the various forms of environmental movements waged in India. 10 marks

·       2016: (c) What are the factors accounting for the resurgence of ethnic identity movements in India ? 10 marks

·       2017: (a) Indebtedness is one of the serious issue leading to farmers suicides Discuss reasons and suggest solutions. (20 Marks)

·       2017: (a) Despite gains from the women’s gender movement and states policy of women empowerment, gender equality is far from achieved. Identify two major challenges the the prevent this goal form being reached. (20 Marks)

·       2017: (c) Explain the issue relating to ethnicity and sub-ethnicity. (10 Marks)

·       2018: (b) Examine sociological dynamics of Champaran Peasant Movement in colonial India.  20

·       2018: (c) How do the recommendations of Swaminathan Commissions (2004-2006) ensure food and nutrition security for the Indian masses?  10

·       2018: (c) Explain the dynamics of neo-farmers movement in contemporary India.   10

·       2018: (b) Elaborate various forms of Dalit assertions in contemporary India? Discuss.   20

(vi) Population Dynamics:

(a)  Population size, growth, composition, and distribution. (b)  Components of population growth: birth, death, migration. (c)   Population policy and family planning. (d) Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.

 

·       2010 : Discuss the socio-cultural factors for the declining sex-ratio in states of India. 30

·       2011 : (c) Infant Mortality Rate is the most sensitive index for measuring development. Comment.   15

·       2011 : (b) Explain the interface between population, ecology and environment in the context of India. 20

·       2012 : Discuss some social and cultural determinants of infant morality rate. Give your suggestions to prevent infanticide.  20

·       2012 : What are the problems if ageing population? Describe the declining traditional social support system for the aged. Suggest alternative measures to support ageing population.  30

·       2013 : Sex Ratio.   10

·       2013 : What are the main causes of female mortality in India  15

·       2014 : Trends of Infant Mortality Rate among females 10 marks

·       2014 : What are the demographic projections for the ageing population (60+) for the next decade? What are the implications for formulating policy for them ?20 marks

·       2016 : (e) Differential sex-ratio and its implications 10 marks

·       2016 : (c) How is ageing becoming an emerging issue in Indian society? 10 marks

·       2017 : (e) What are the Emerging concerns on women’s reproductive health ?  10

·       2017 : (c) What are the causes and solutions for the low female sex-ratio in the DEMARU States of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal, and Gujrat ? (10 Marks)

·       2018 : (b) Construct a sociological narrative on the increasing trend of child abuse in India.  10

·       2018 : Q 8. (a) What are the issues relating to male migration and its impact on birthrate? Does it necessarily result in skewed sex ratio?  20

(vii) Challenges of Social Transformation:

(a)  Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability. (b)  Poverty, deprivation and inequalities. (c) Violence against women. (d) Caste conflicts. (e)   Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism. (f) Illiteracy and disparities in education.

 

·       2010 : Discuss the inter-relationship between caste, class and power.   30

·       2011 :  Highlight the important dimensions of inter-caste conflict in India.     30

·       2011 : (b) “Protective discrimination not only protects but also discriminates.” Comment.  30

·       2011 : (d) Structural factors behind violence against women.   15

·       2012 : Education and removal of inequality.  12

·       2012 : Describe those social changes which have contributed to increase of violence against women. What are the emerging forms of violence against women? Suggest suitable measures to contain this problem.  30

·       2012 : Do you think that some policies and laws relating to environment have retarded the development process ? Give examples. How can an ideal balance between environmental protection and development goals be brought about?  30

·       2013 : Explain the inter-linkages between poverty, deprivation and inequality.  15

·       2013 : Discuss the problems of working women in India.  20

·       2013 : Analyse the role of communalism in undermining democracy in India.  15

·       2014 : Gandhi’s efforts on communal harmony  10

·       2014 : Domestic Violence Act, 2005  10

·       2014 : What are the possible underlying causes of the spurt of increased violence against women in public spaces in the last decade ?20 marks

·       2014 : How do caste and class come together in creating the category of extreme poor ?10 marks

·       2014 : Many caste conflicts are between castes which are close to each other on the hierarchical scale.’ Give a sociological explanation for this phenomenon.20 marks

·       2014 : Tribal conflicts based on ethnic differences often camouflage a struggle for political and economic advantage.’ Substantiate with examples.20 marks

·       2014 : Who are the elites? Discuss their roles in bringing social transformation.10 marks

·       2015 : Feminization of poverty.  10

·       2015 : Important components of National Education Policy in India.  10

·       2015 : How serious is the problem of trafficking against women and children in India?  10

·       2015 : To what extent the Muslim Personal Law Board is in agreement with Islamic feminist agenda?  10

·       2016 : (b) Elucidate the concepts of majoritarianism’ and ‘minoritarianism’ in accentuating communal tensions in India.  20 marks

·       2016 : (a) Privatization of education and increasing inequalities  10 marks

·       2016 : (b) Discuss the emerging forms of ‘inequalities’ and ‘acute poverty’ as major challenges of social transformation in India. 20 marks

·       2017 : (b) Which is more significant, the principal of ‘hierarchy’ or the principal of difference; in intercaste relations in the present day ?  10

·       2017 : (a) What are the reason for the escalation of violence against women in the public domain ?   10

·       2017 : (b) Write a note on Education and equality in India.  10

·       2017 : (a) What is cultural Revivalism ? Give some examples from performing arts , language dissemination and arts crafts in recent times. (20 Marks)

·       2018 : (e) Elaborate the ‘Me Too’ Movement and its impact in India.  10

·       2018 : (c) With increase in education and economic development is Indian society becoming more secular.  10