Topic : Women headed Chandrayaan-2 Mission
Topic in Syllabus: Science & Technology
Chandrayaan-2 is India’s second lunar exploration mission after Chandrayaan-1, developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation.
Ritu Kridhal and M Vanitha are leading as project and mission directors respectively for Chandrayaan-2 mission.
- Quantify the water available on the moon’s surface.
- Map its topography, to explore chemicals and minerals such as magnesium, iron, and Helium.
- Study topmost part of the lunar atmosphere.
- If successful, India will be the fourth country (After Russia, China, and the USA) to land a rover on the moon.
- India will be the first country to land on the southern pole of the moon.
- This would give ISRO opportunity to name that site on the moon.
- Indigenous mission: 13 instruments from India, one instrument from US space agency, NASA.
- Future Space Exploration: mission will also expand the country’s footprint in space as moon is the perfect test-bed for proving technologies required for future space exploration.
Significant Components of Chandrayaan-2
Chandrayaan-2 is ISRO’s upcoming Lander and Rover mission to Moon.-consists of an Orbiter, Lander and Rover.
- The Orbiter will 100 km away from the moon, which will observe lunar surface and relay communication between Earth and the Lander.
- The orbiter is equipped with different kinds of camera to take create high-resolution three-dimensional maps of the surface, would remain in orbit for a year.
Vikram Lander– .
- It is the first time that ISRO is attempting to soft-land a module in extra-terrestrial space.
- The main challenge is in controlling its speed as it approaches the surface.
- Once the Lander and the Rover, enter the Moon’s gravity, they would be in a state of free fall.
- To enable a smooth landing, the speed of the Lander just ahead of touchdown should be 1 m/s (3.6 km/h) or less.
- The Lander will mainly study the moon’s atmosphere and look out for seismic activity.
- The 6-wheeled, AI Solar powered rover was designed, developed and build indigenously by ISRO.
- The rover will be landed in be landed closer to the Moon’s equator to receive more sun light.
- Its primary objective will be to study the composition of the surface near the lunar landing site, and determine its abundance of various elements.
- Both the Lander and Rover are designed to work for only 14 days (1 lunar day).
Complexities involved in a moon landing
- Trajectory accuracy: Ensuring trajectory accuracy while navigating 3.844 lakh km has its own challenges.
- Communication hurdle: Owing to the large distance from Earth, radio signals, which need to be picked up, would be weak.
- Lunar dust: Firing engines close to the lunar surface results in the backward flow of gases and dust, causing hindrance to deployment mechanism and damaging sensors.
- Extreme temperatures: A lunar day or night lasts 14 earth days, resulting in extreme surface temperature.
- Trans-lunar injection, capture:Series of engine burns to get close to the moon, intersection of probe and moon must be predicted in advance with accuracy.
- Orbiting: The lumpy lunar gravity influences the orbit of the spacecraft.
Which of the following statements is/are correct about Chandrayaan-2?
- It will includes a lunar orbiter, a lander and a lunar rover.
- The lander is developed with help of NASA.
Choose the Correct Answer
a). Only 1
b). Only 2
Answer : a