UPSC PRELIMS 2020 : India ranks 52 on Global Innovation Index

India ranks 52 on Global Innovation Index

Topic: India ranks 52 on Global Innovation Index

Topic in Syllabus:  International Affairs

 

Context:

India ranks 52 on Global Innovation Index

India is now ranked 52nd on the Global Innovation Index (GII) 2019, a jump of 5 places over last year, and 29 places in the last five years – up from 81 in 2015.

 

Global Highlight of Global Innovation Index 2019:

  • First Place: Switzerland
  • Israel finds its place in the top ten for the first time.
  • In Quality of Education pillar, China, India, and the Russian Federationhold the top 3 positions among middle income countries.

 

About Global Innovation Index 2019:

  • The theme of the 2019 report is ‘medical innovation landscape of the next decade’.
  • The GII 2019 ranked 129 economies based on 80 wide ranging indicators.
  • These included aspects ranging from traditional measurements like research and development investments and international patent and trademark applications to newer indicators including mobile-phone app creation and high-tech exports.

 

About the Global Innovation Index:

  • It is Co-published by World intellectual property organisation(WIPO), Cornell University and INSEAD (a Business school in France).
  • It is an annual ranking that quantifies the state of national innovation ecosystem across countries.

Global innovation index

 

Key pillars of Global Innovation Index:

  • Five input pillars capture elements of the national economy that enable innovative activities: (1) Institutions, (2) Human capital and research, (3) Infrastructure, (4) Market sophistication, and (5) Business sophistication.
  • Two output pillars capture actual evidence of innovation outputs: (6) Knowledge and technology outputs and (7) Creative outputs.
  • Each pillar is divided into sub-pillars and each sub-pillar is composed of individual indicators (80 in total in 2019).

 

India Specific Highlights of Global Innovation Index 2019

  • India is ranked 52nd, representing the biggest jump (from 81 in 2015 to 52 in 2019) by any major economy.


Improvement:

  • India improved its ranking in four out of seven pillars of Index which are:
    • Knowledge and technology outputs(up 11 spots to 32nd)
      • In this pillar, India ranks 1stin sub-pillar of ICT (information and communications technology) services exports and ranked 4th in labor productivity growth.
    • Market sophistication(up 3 spots to 33rd)
    • Human capital and research(up 3 spots to 53rd)
      • In this pillar, two important variables have improved for India: Gross expenditure on R&D (50th) andexpenditure by global R&D companies (15th).
      • In Global R&D companies, India reaches the 15thspot as the second middle-income economy. In this pillar, the indicator ‘Graduates in science and engineering’ (7th) remains a relative strength for the country.
    • Institutions (up 3 spots to 77th)
  • It remains 2ndamong middle-income economies in terms of the quality of innovation.
  • India has constantly been maintaining its leadership position as the most innovative country in Central and South Asiaregion every year since 2011.
  • India also outperformed on innovation relative to its GDP per capitafor nine consecutive years, only matched by three other countries. (Vietnam, Republic of Moldova, and Kenya).
  • Bengaluru, Mumbai, and New Delhiranked among the global top 100 world’s top science and technology clusters.

 

Decline:

However, India lost its rank in

  • Business sophistication(down 1 spot to 65th)
  • Infrastructure(down 2 spots to 79th)
  • Relative outputs(7down 3 spots 8th)
  • Among the sub-pillars, where India lost relative strength to other countries, the largest drops are found in logistics performance(down 9 spots to 43rd), Females employed with advanced degrees (down 10 spots to 103rd) and Printing and other media (down 12 spots to 88th).
  • India ranks badly in Environmental performance(125th), New businesses (100th), and Entertainment and media market (60th).

 

Sample Question:

The Global Competitiveness Report is published by the
(a) International Monetary Fund
(b) United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
(c) World Economic Forum
(d) World Bank

 

Answer:  c