UPSC PRELIMS 2020: Kalimantan – Indonesia Capital

Kalimantan – Indonesia Capital

Topic: Kalimantan – Indonesia Capital

 

Topic in Syllabus: World Geography

 

Kalimantan – Indonesia Capital

Context:

Indonesian President Joko Widodo announced that the nation’s capital will be moved from Jakarta on the island of Java to a yet-to-be-built city in East Kalimantan on the island of Borneo.

 

Reason:

  • Kalimantan is the Indonesian part of Borneo, an island shared with Malaysia and Brunei.
  • Jakarta is crowded with home to more than 10 million people – and has some of the world’s worst air pollution and traffic congestion– estimated to cost 100 trillion rupiah (S$9.73 billion) a year due to lost productivity
  • Poor urban planning in Jakarta, as well as unregulated draining of aquifers, has left 40% of the city below sea level. 
  • The move is part of a broader strategy to decentralise Indonesia’s economic growth – Jakarta is home to 60% of the country’s population and accounts for over half of its economic activity.

 

Background:

  • In 2005, Myanmar moved its capital from Yangon to Naypyidaw, which was also purpose built as a new capital. 
  • In 1960, Brazil moved its capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília, another planned city. 
  • Malaysia has also moved its administrative centre to Putrajaya, south of the capital Kuala Lumpur

 

Sample Question:

The Karimata Strait which is also spelled Carimata or Caramata, connects which of the following two seas?

a) Java Sea and Celebes Sea
b) South China Sea and Sea of Japan
c) South China Sea and Java Sea
d) Java Sea and Banda Sea

Answer: c)

Explanation: The Karimata Strait which is also spelled Carimata or Caramata is the wide strait that connects the South China Sea to the Java Sea, separating the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Borneo (Kalimantan). It is bordered by the Belitung island (off Sumatra’s eastern coast) in the west and Borneo in the east. It is the widest strait that connects the South China Sea and the Java Sea (other straits include the Bangka and Gaspar Straits), but its numerous islands and reefs reduce its navigability. Its weather and current is influenced by the annual southeast and northwest monsoon.