UPSC PRELIMS 2020 : Naga Peace Framework Agreement

Naga Peace Framework Agreement

Topic : Naga Peace Framework Agreement

Topic in Syllabus: Indian Governance



Naga Peace Framework Agreement

  • The framework agreement was signed between the Central government and the Naga Groups led by the National Socialist Council of Nagaland- Isak- Muivah (NSCN-IM).
  • The central government accepted the uniqueness of Naga history and culture and primacy of the Indian Constitution was accepted by the NSCN-IM.
  • Earlier the objective of Naga group was to establish an independent sovereign state for the Naga community but now the demand has been limited to the creation of a Greater Nagalim with the integration of the Naga-inhabited areas of Assam, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh.



  • Shillong Accord, 1975: The Naga National Council (NNC) led by AngamiZapuPhizo accepted the Indian Constitution. NNC was formed in 1946 to hold the Naga community and their interest together.
  • NSCN, 1980: to oppose the decision of NNC to accept Indian Constitution, Maoist guerilla leaders IsakChisiSwu, ThuingalengMuivah, and SS Khaplang created NSCN in 1980. Later after the differences between the leaders, in 1988, the group split into the NSCN-IM and the NSCN-K. After the death of Phizo in 1991, the NSCN-IM came to be recognized as the voice of Naga assertion.
  • The ceasefire agreement, 1997: of India and NSCN-IM signed a ceasefire agreement which started the peace talks with resolving the conflict but the demand of the group insisted on a separate flag as well as the inclusion of all Naga-inhabited areas in one administration became a roadblock in the peace talks.
  • Later in 2015, the framework agreement was signed.



  • First-time NSCN-IM wipes out its demand for attaining sovereignty for Nagas from India.
  • The agreement has started the peace talks between the government and the groups. The agreement shifts the nature of the group who prefer violence as a method to achieve their aims as now the groups are regularly held consultations with the government.
  • The agreement will strengthen the security of India as the agreement will provide maximum sovereignty to the Nagas to grow.
  • The agreement would generate more trusts among Nagas.



  • Though the agreement was signed three years ago there is no progress since then.
  • The agreement is a secretive agreement as the provisions of the agreements have not been disclosed by the government which makes the rebel groups more active.
  • The agreement has failed to address the illegal activities of NSCN-IM.
  • The demand for autonomy to Nagas in other states i.e. Assam, Manipur, and Arunachal Pradesh will be a threat to integrity.
  • Special arrangement for Nagas as per Article 371 and similar concessions are expected by Manipur also as the Naga insurgency is linked with Manipur insurgency where the Nagas are more active.
  • The agreement does not address other important issues like the demand of Separate ‘flag’, non-codification of Naga customary law.
  • Politically unviable to accept this demand even though the Centre has agreed to guarantee the protection of the Naga identity.
  • The non-Nagas and other ethnic groups may be tempted to demand a similar arrangement.


Way forward:

  • Consultation with other northeastern states i.e. Manipur, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh can be a viable option.
  • Improving infrastructure for health, education and employment generation.
  • Providing autonomy to the Naga people.



The demand for flag and constitution are the core issues which are yet to be agreed upon between the two parties. Until these core issues solved, any solution would be far from honorable because Naga pride and identity is deeply entrenched here.


Sample Question:

The Naga Parliament formed by the Federal Government Nagaland (FGN) is known as:

a. Tatar Hoho

b. Midan

c. Yehzabo

d. Tatar


Answer: a