Weekly Current Affairs Prelims (14th to 20th March, 2019)

Cabinet approves Measures to promote Hydro Power Sector

 

Weekly Current Affairs Prelims (14th to 20th March, 2019)

(Info graphic Summary at the end)

 

Topic: Septic tanks meet norms: Ministry

Topic in Syllabus: Indian Society – Health Issues

 

Why in news?

Septic tanks and single pits are safe sanitation technologies that meet the standards prescribed by the Sustainable Development Goals, according to the Union Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.

 

More about on news:

  • Only 26% of rural toilets use twin-leach pits. the Ministry said the States were making adequate arrangements to ensure that the faecal waste generated caused no environmental damage.
  • Based on raw data from the National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey (NARSS) 2018-19, concluded that “the remainder of rural toilets [that do not use twin-leach pits] could create a new sanitation nightmare…”
  • 34% of rural toilets are connected to septic tanks but failed to clarify that this was a perfectly safe sanitation solution
  • A large proportion of the remaining toilets have single-leach pits which, like the twin-leach pits, are also safe.

 

Key findings:

  • Jharkhand, which is second on the list, with almost 58% of its toilets connected to twin pits, was declared open defecation free (ODF) only late last year. “Our focus was on quality construction and twin-pit technology,”
  • Uttar Pradesh, which tops the list with 64% of toilets with twin pits, had made the technology mandatory for anyone who wanted to avail the government’s Rs. 12,000 subsidy to build toilets.
  • A 2018 survey of 30 cities and towns in Uttar Pradesh by the Centre for Science and Environment found that 87% of toilet waste is dumped into water bodies and farm lands.

 

Union Ministry’s Response

  • Ministry responded that Septic tanks and single pits are safe sanitation technologies that meet the standards prescribed by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).
  • The twin-leach pit toilet is among the most economical and safe sanitation technologies, and has been promoted and extensively adopted.
  • Ministry accepted, there is a manpower challenge to empty and clean such tanks, given the social context of the country and caste prejudices against such cleaning work.
  • It is preparing technological and entrepreneurial solutions to the problem.
  • The twin pit has been promoted by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation as well as the World Health Organisation as an in-situ sanitation system which claims to bypass thorny issues such as caste purity, as owners will be dealing with manure, not excreta.

 

Twin pit toilets:

  • Twin pit toilets are scalable, implementable and cost-effective; and therefore can have a great impact in making rural India open defecation free (ODF).
  • Further at a cost of Rs. 12,000, they are easy to use and make.
  • They comprise of two pits, each measuring 3.5 feet deep and one metre in diameter; the distance between them being one metre.
  • When twin pit toilets are used, fecal matter will be allowed to pass and settle in one pit only. When that pit is filled in about four to five years, the channel to the first pit is closed and the second opened for the fecal matter to pass into. 
  • After a one year rest period, the content of the first pit will be converted into manure and can be removed and used for plants.
  • The same procedure is followed when the second pit gets filled.

 

Sample Question:

Consider the following statements

  1. Only 26% of rural toilets use twin-leach pits.
  2. The twin-leach pit toilet is among the most economical and safe sanitation technologies.
  3. National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey (NARSS) was conducted by an Independent Verification Agency under the World Bank support project to the Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen).

Choose the correct answer from the above

a). 2 only

b). 2 and 3 only

c). 1 and 2 only

d). All of the above

Answer: d)

 


 

Topic: Cabinet approves Measures to promote Hydro Power Sector

Topic in Syllabus: Indian Geography

Cabinet approves Measures to promote Hydro Power Sector

 

Why in news?

The Union Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi, has approved Measures to promote Hydro Power Sector. These include Declaring Large Hydropower Projects (HPO) as part of non-solar Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO).

 

Background:

  • India is endowed with large hydropower potential of 1, 45,320 MW of which only about 45,400 MW has been utilized so far.
  • Only about 10,000 MW of hydropower has been added in the last 10 years.
  • The hydropower sector is currently going through a challenging phase and the share of hydropower in the total capacity has declined from 50.36% in the 1960s to around 13% in 2018-19.
  • Hydropower also provides water security, irrigation and flood moderation benefits, apart from socio-economic development of the entire region by providing employment opportunities and boosting tourism etc.
  • The importance of hydropower is increasing even more as the country has targeted to add 160 GW of intermittent Solar and Wind power by 2022 and 40% of the total capacity from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030 to honour its Nationally Determined Contribution for Climate Change.
  • DISOMS are reluctant sign Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) Hydro Power due to higher tariff, particularly, in the initial years. One of the reasons for high tariff of hydropower is the loading of cost of flood moderation and enabling infrastructure in the project cost.
  • the decision has been taken to adopt measures to promote hydropower sector including providing budgetary support for flood moderation cost and enabling infrastructure cost and tariff rationalization measures to reduce tariff and thus the burden on the consumer.

 

Measures to promote Hydro Power Sector:

  • Large Hydropower Projects to be declared as Renewable Energy source (as per existing practice, only hydropower projects less than 25MW are categorized as Renewable Energy).
  • HPO as a separate entity within non-solar Renewable Purchase Obligation to cover LHPs commissioned after notification of these measures (SHPs are already covered under Non-Solar Renewable Purchase Obligation).
  • The trajectory of annual HPO targets will be notified by Ministry of Power based on the projected capacity addition plans in hydropower sector. Necessary amendments will be introduced in the Tariff Policy and Tariff Regulations to operationalize HPO.
  • Tariff rationalization measures including providing flexibility to the developers to determine tariff by  back loading of tariff after increasing project life to 40 years,  increasing debt repayment period to 18 years and introducing escalating tariff of 2%;
  • Budgetary support for funding flood moderation component of hydropower projects on case to case basis; and
  • Budgetary support for funding cost of enabling infrastructuree. roads and bridges on case to case basis as per actual, limited to Rs. 1.5 crore per MW for upto 200 MW projects and Rs. 1.0 crore per MW for above 200 MW projects.

 

Major Impact including employment generation potential:

  • As most of the hydro power potential is located in the higher reaches of Himalayas and North- East Region, it will result in overall socio-economic development of the region by providing direct employment in the power sector.
  • It will also provide indirect employment/ entrepreneurial opportunities in the field of transportation, tourism and other small scale businesses.
  • Another benefit would be of having a stable grid considering 160 GW capacity addition by 2022 from infirm sources of power like solar and wind.

 

Sample Question:

Which of the following statements with respect to Hydro Power Sector

  1. Only hydropower projects less than 25MW are categorized as a renewable energy source.
  2. Hydropower provides water security, irrigation and flood moderation benefits, apart from socio-economic development of the entire region by providing employment opportunities and boosting tourism.

Choose the correct answer from the above

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: c)

 


 

Topic: FSDC panel discusses ways to improve quality of credit ratings

Topic in Syllabus: Indian Economy

FSDC panel discusses ways to improve quality of credit ratings

 

Why in news?

The Sub-Committee of the Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC), headed by Reserve Bank of India Governor Shaktikanta Das, recently discussed ways to address challenges pertaining to the quality of credit ratings in the wake of the IL&FS defaults crisis.

 

More about on news:

  • Credit rating firms, currently regulated by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), had come under sharp criticism from the RBI recently for failing to identify financial troubles in various companies, especially in the case of IL&FS, which commanded AAA rating just before it started defaulting.
  • The FSDC panel also discussed interlink ages between housing finance companies and housing developers.
  • Mortgage sector regulator National Housing Bank (NHB) had recently proposed to increase the capital adequacy ratio (CAR) of housing finance companies (HFCs) to 15 per cent in a phased manner in order to protect them from “untoward events which arise as a result of liquidity risk as well as the credit risk that the HFCs are exposed to in the normal course of their business”.
  • NHB also proposed to bring down public borrowings to 12 times by March 2022 in a gradual manner from the existing 16 times of the net owned fund.
  • The FSDC sub-committee also deliberated on interlinking of various regulatory databases and National Strategy for Financial Inclusion (NSFI).
  • The panel reviewed the functioning of State Level Coordination Committees (SLCCs) in various States and Union Territories (UTs), activities of its various technical groups, and a thematic study on financial inclusion and financial stability.
  • The panel also reviewed the major developments on the global and domestic fronts that impinge on the financial stability of the country.

 

About FSDC:

  • FSDC is an apex-level body constituted by the Government of India to create a super regulatory body as mooted by the Raghuram Rajan Committee in 2008.
  • Finally in 2010, the then Finance Minister of India, Pranab Mukherjee, decided to set up such an autonomous body dealing with macro prudential and financial regularities in the entire financial sector of India.
  • An apex-level FSDC is not a statutory body. No funds are separately allocated to the council for undertaking its activities.

 

Composition

  • Chairperson: The Union Finance Minister of India
  • Members:
    • Governor Reserve Bank of India (RBl),
    • Finance Secretary and/ or Secretary, Department of Economic Affairs (DEA),
    • Secretary, Department of Financial Services (DFS),
    • Secretary, Ministry of Corporate Affairs,
    • Chief Economic Advisor, Ministry of Finance.
  • Other members include chairman of SEBI, IRDA, PFRDA and IBBI

 

The objectives of FSDC would be to deal with issues relating to:

  • Financial stability
  • Financial sector development
  • Inter-regulatory coordination
  • Financial literacy
  • Financial inclusion
  • Macro prudential supervision of the economy including the functioning of large financial conglomerates.
  • Coordinating India’s international interface with financial sector bodies such as the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and Financial Stability Board (FSB).

 

Credit Rating Agencies:

  • A credit rating agency (CRA) is a company that assigns credit ratings, which rate a debtor’s ability to pay back debt by making timely principal and interest payments and the likelihood of default.
  • The assessed entities may be companies, special purpose entities, state governments, local governmental bodies, non-profit organisations and even countries.
  • There are six credit rating agencies registered under SEBI namely, CRISIL, ICRA, CARE, SMERA, Fitch India and Brickwork Ratings.

 

Sample Question:

Which of the followings are correct with respect to Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC)

  1. The idea to create it was first mooted by the Rangarajan Committee on Financial Sector Reforms in 2008.
  2. It is a super regulatory body for regulating financial sector which is a vital for bringing healthy and efficient financial system in the economy.
  3. FSDC is a statutory body.

Choose the correct answer from the above

a). 1 and 2 only

b). 2 only

c). 1 and 3 only

d). All of the above

Answer: b)

 


 

Topic: Centre defends electoral bonds in SC

Topic in Syllabus: Indian Polity

 

Centre defends electoral bonds in SC

Why in news?

The Centre recently defended in the Supreme Court its decision to issue electoral bonds saying it aimed at ensuring “enhanced accountability” and pushing electoral reforms “to defeat the growing menace of black money”.

 

More about on news:

  • The Centre said the electoral bonds were introduced on January 2, 2018 to promote transparency in funding and donation received by political parties.
  • These can be encashed by an eligible political party only through their authorized bank accounts.
  • It added that the electoral bonds do not have the name of the donor or the receiving political party and only carry a unique hidden alphanumeric serial numbers as an in-built security feature
  • Only a political party, registered under Section 29A of the Representation of People’s Act, 1951 and which has secured not less than 1 per cent of the votes polled in the last general election to the Lok Sabha or the Legislative Assembly, will be eligible to receive the bond, govt said.
  • The Centre denied that the amendments and the notification issue by it seek to create “an anonymous and secretive mechanism for increasing the wealth of political parties”.
  • It also denied that they are “arbitrary in nature or brings in unreasonable restrictions on the freedom to information regarding the identities of persons or corporations making contributions to political parties”.
  • The government further stated that the scheme envisages building a transparent system of acquiring bonds with validated KYC and an audit trail.

 

Electoral bonds:

  • The electoral bonds scheme was announced in Union Budget 2017 with an aim for increasing transparency in political funding.
  • It makes India first country in the world to have such unique bonds for electoral funding.
  • These bonds are bearer instrument in nature of promissory note and interest-free banking instrument.
  • It aims at rooting out current system of largely anonymous cash donations made to political parties which lead to generation of black money in the
  • These electoral bonds can be bought for any value in multiples of Rs 1,000, Rs 10,000, Rs 1 lakh, Rs 10 lakh or Rs 1 crore after fulfilling all existing Know Your Customer (KYC) norms and making payments from bank account.

 

Purchasers:

  • A citizen of India or a body incorporated in India will be eligible to purchase the bond.
  • The purchaser is allowed to buy electoral bonds only on due fulfilment of all extant KYC norms and by making payment from a bank account.
  • It will not carry the name of the payee.

 

Validity:

  • It will have a life of 15 days during which they can be used to make donations to registered political parties.
  • The bond can be encashed by an eligible political party only through a designated bank account with the authorised bank.
  • The electoral bonds will be available for purchase for a period of 10 days each in months of January, April, July and October with additional 30 days to be specified by Central government in year of general election so that this does not become a parallel currency.

 

Eligibility:

  • Political parties that have secured not less than 1% of votes polled in last general election to Lok Sabha or Assembly can avail funding through this bonds.

 

Sample Question:

Consider the following statements with respect to Electoral bonds

  1. These bonds are bearer instrument in nature of promissory note and interest-free banking instrument.
  2. It will carry name of payee.
  3. Electoral Bonds may be purchased by only citizen of India.

Choose the correct answer from the codes given below

a). 1 only

b). 1 and 2 only

c). 1 and 3 only

d). All of the above

Answer: c)

 


 

Topic: MCA releases national guidelines on responsible business conduct

Topic in Syllabus: Indian Governance

 

MCA releases national guidelines on responsible business conduct

Why in news?

Ministry of Corporate Affairs has revised the National Voluntary Guidelines on Social, Environmental and Economic Responsibilities of Business, 2011 (NVGs) and formulated the National Guidelines on Responsible Business Conduct (NGRBC). These guidelines urge businesses to actualize the principles in letter and spirit.

 

These principles are:

  • Businesses should conduct and govern themselves with integrity in a manner that is Ethical, Transparent and Accountable.
  • Businesses should provide goods and services in a manner that is sustainable and safe
  • Businesses should respect and promote the well-being of all employees, including those in their value chains.
  • Businesses should respect the interests of and be responsive to all their stakeholders.
  • Businesses should respect and promote human rights.
  • Businesses should respect and make efforts to protect and restore the environment.
  • Businesses, when engaging in influencing public and regulatory policy, should do so in a manner that is responsible and transparent.
  • Businesses should promote inclusive growth and equitable development.
  • Businesses should engage with and provide value to their consumers in a responsible manner.

 

Various initiatives for ensuring responsible business:

 

Voluntary Guidelines on Corporate Social Responsibility:

  • As a first step towards mainstreaming the concept of business responsibility, the ‘Voluntary Guidelines on Corporate Social Responsibility’ were issued in 2009.
  • These guidelines were subsequently revised as ‘National Voluntary Guidelines on Social, Environmental and Economic Responsibilities of Business, 2011 (NVGS)’ after extensive consultations with business, academia, civil society organizations and the government.
  • The NVGs were developed based on India’s socio-cultural context and priorities as well as global best practice.

 

United Nations Guiding Principles on Business & Human Rights (UNGPs):

  • There have been various national and international developments in the past decade that have nudged businesses to be sustainable and more responsible, prior most being the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business & Human Rights (UNGPs).
  • These became the key drivers for further revision of the guidelines.
  • Some of these include the thrust of Companies Act, 2013 (Act) on businesses to be more mindful of their stakeholders.

 

Companies Act, 2013 (Act):

  • The Act casts fiduciary duties on the Directors of a Company (S. 166) requiring them to promote the objects of the company for the benefit of its members as a whole, and in the best interests of the company, its employees, the shareholders, the community and for the protection of environment.
  • There was also a need to demonstrate more visibly India’s implementation of the UNGPs based on UNHRC’s ‘Protect, Respect & Remedy’ Framework and also make evident India’s commitment to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

 

Business Responsibility Reports (BRRs):

  • The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) through its ‘Listing Regulations’ in 2012 mandated the top 100 listed entities by market capitalization to file Business Responsibility Reports (BRRs) from an environmental, social and governance perspective.
  • These BRRs enabled business to demonstrate the adoption of the NVG principles and the attendant core elements with the intent of engaging businesses more meaningfully with their stakeholders going beyond regulatory financial compliance.
  • This was extended to top 500 companies in FY 2015-16.
  • This, for the first time, introduced voluntary sustainability reporting among companies in India which is still in a nascent stage.

 

The Committee on Business Responsibility Reporting (BRR):

  • In furtherance to updation of NVGs and formulation of the NGRBCs, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs has constituted the Committee on Business Responsibility Reporting (BRR) to develop BRR formats for listed and unlisted companies.
  • Non-financial reporting is increasingly forming the basis for enhancing investor confidence in businesses and increasing their creditworthiness.
  • The Committee is to develop comprehensive yet simple formats situating the various stakeholders at the center so as to not increase or duplicate reporting burden. The proposed formats are to reflect linkages to prevalent non-financial reporting formats, viz, Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), Integrated Reporting (IR) etc., and SDGs from a NGRBC perspective.

 

Sample Question:

Which of the followings are correct with respect to Companies Act, 2013

  1. National Company Law Tribunal introduced.
  2. Companies are required to go for maintenance of documents in electronic form.
  3. Concept of “one Person Company” introduced.
  4. National Financial Reporting Authority (NFRA) to be constituted.

Choose the correct answer from the above

a). 1,3 and 4 only

b). 1, 2 and 3 only

c). 2, 3 and 4 only

d). All of the above

Answer: d)

 


 

Topic: Fishing, coral reef degradation threaten parrotfish in Andaman: Study

Topic in Syllabus: Ecology & Environment

 

Fishing, coral reef degradation threaten parrotfish in Andaman

Why in news?

Coral cover protection along the existing protected marine areas in Andaman and Nicobar islands is necessary for conservation of the endangered bumphead parrotfish, a new study has suggested.

 

More about on news?

  • A group of researchers have studied the distribution, abundance and dangers to this species in the waters of Andaman and Nicobar islands.
  • The team carried out underwater visual census, during November 2013 and April 2015, at a total of 75 reef sites across 51 islands of Andaman and Nicobar islands, using scuba diving and underwater camera.
  • It recorded 59 individuals of parrotfish across nine sites from the northernmost island in the Andamans (Landfall Island) to the southernmost island in the Nicobars (Great Nicobar Island).
  • The scientists also spoke to about 100 fishermen regarding their awareness and perception of B. muricatum.
  • The team found that the fish occurs unevenly, with most sightings from only two islands, and with an apparently very small density.
  • It also emerged free diving spear-fishers exclusively target the aggregations of this fish during night.

 

Bumphead parrotfish:

  • Bumphead parrotfish, Bolbometopon muricatum, is an important component of coral reef ecosystem, but is highly endangered globally.
  • It is categorized as ‘vulnerable’ in the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
  • This fish is a highly prized resource, but is threatened due to limited knowledge about its distribution and abundance in Indian waters.
  • The distribution, abundance and dangers to this species in the waters of Andaman and Nicobar islands.

 

Sample Question:

Which of the followings are correct with respect to Bump head Parrotfish

  1. The fish is threatened due to limited knowledge about its distribution and abundance in Indian waters.
  2. It is categorized as critically endangered in the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
  3. The distribution, abundance and dangers to this species in the waters of Andaman and Nicobar islands.

Choose the correct answer from the above

a). 1 only

b). 1 and 2 only

c). 1 and 3 only

d). All of the above

Answer: c)

 


Topic: A climate vulnerability index for India

Topic in Syllabus: Ecology & Environment

A climate vulnerability index for India

Why in news?

The Department of Science and Technology (DST) will be commissioning a study to assess the climate risks faced by States in India.

 

Key findings from the report:

  • This follows an assessment of the global warming risks faced by 12 Himalayan States and discussed at last year’s U.N. climate change conference in Poland that found States such as Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand vulnerable to climate change.
  • On a scale ranging 0-1, 1 indicating the highest possible level of vulnerability.
  • At the top of the scale were Assam with a score of 0.72 and Mizoram at 0.71, whereas Sikkim, with an index score of 0.42 was relatively less vulnerable.
  • This doesn’t mean that States with a lower score are safe in an absolute sense
  • In fact, some districts in Uttarakhand [at 0.45 and at the lower end of the scale] are more vulnerable than those in Assam.
  • In Arunachal Pradesh, the key factors are low female literacy and high percentage of population above BPL whereas in Nagaland the key issues are loss of forest cover, steep slope and high yield variability.
  • Assam is highly vulnerable to climate change because of factors like low per capita income, deforestation, large number of marginal farmers, least area under irrigation, lack of alternative sources of income and high rates of poverty.

Climate Sensitive

 

Climate vulnerability index:

  • The researchers prepared a ‘vulnerability index’ of each of these States based on district-level data.
  • Vulnerability would be a measure of the inherent risks a district faces, primarily by virtue of its geography and socio-economic situation.
  • The assessment has been done jointly by experts from Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) at Guwahati and Mandi, in collaboration with Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore with support from the Department of Science and Technology and the Swiss Development Corporation (SDC) which is implementing the Indian Himalayas Climate Adaptation Program (IHCAP).
  • The framework can be applied to states in the rest of the country as well, with suitable modifications.
  • The vulnerability assessments will be useful for officials, decision makers, funding agencies and experts to have a common understanding on vulnerability and enable them to plan for adaptation.

 

Parameters:

The scientists conducted workshops with the States and culled eight key parameters on the basis of which a vulnerability score could be generated. They included:

  • percentage of area in districts under forests,
  • yield variability of food grain
  • population density
  • female literacy rate
  • infant mortality rate
  • percentage of population below poverty line (BPL)
  • average man-days under MGNREGA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act)
  • the area under slope > 30%

 

Sample Question:

Consider the follow key findings from climate vulnerability index

  1. The report finds that low per capita income, low open forest area per 1,000 households and lack of irrigation coverage as the most important drivers of vulnerability in Himalayan states.
  2. The assessment shows that the vulnerability index is the highest for Assam and Mizoram.
  3. Sikkim is the least vulnerable state with the index.

Choose the correct answer from the above

a). 1 only

b). 1 and 2 only

c). 1 and 3 only

d). All of the above

Answer: d)

 


 

Topic: Finland is the happiest nation, India slips 7 spots, ranks 140th

Topic in Syllabus: International Affairs

Finland is the happiest nation, India slips 7 spots, ranks 140th

Why in news?

Indians are not as happy in 2019 as they were in 2018 and the country figures at 140th place, seven spots down from last year, on UN World Happiness Report- 2019, released recently. The list is topped by Finland for the second year in a row.

 

More about on news:

  • According to the report, the overall world happiness has fallen over the past few years, which has mostly been fuelled by a sustained drop in India, which came in 140th place this year compared with 133rd place a year ago.
  • The UN’s seventh annual World Happiness Report, which ranks the world’s 156 countries on “how happy their citizens perceive themselves to be”,
  • Finland has been ranked as the happiest country in the world for the second year in succession.
  • The Nordic nation is followed by Denmark, Norway, Iceland and The Netherlands.
  • Pakistan is ranked 67th, Bangladesh 125th and China is place at 93rd.
  • People in war-torn South Sudan are the unhappy with their lives, followed by Central African Republic (155), Afghanistan (154), Tanzania (153) and Rwanda (152).
  • The United States ranks at 19th place for happiness, despite being one of the richest countries in the world.

 

World Happiness Index:

  • The happiness study ranks the countries of the world on the basis of questions from the Gallup World Poll.
  • The results are then correlated with other factors, including GDP and social security.
  • The report was released by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network for the United Nations
  • March 20 which has was declared as World Happiness Day by the UN General Assembly in 2012.

 

Six key variables:

The report ranks countries on six key variables that support well-being:

  • income
  • freedom
  • trust
  • healthy life expectancy
  • social support
  • generosity

 

Sample Question:

Consider the following statements with respect to World Happiness Report 2019

  1. Finland has been ranked as the happiest country in the world.
  2. The report was released by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network for the United Nations.
  3. March 21st which has was declared as World Happiness Day by the UN General Assembly in 2012.

Choose the correct answer from the above

a). 2 only

b). 1 and 3 only

c). 1 and 2 only

d). All of the above

Answer: c)

 


Info graphic Summary


Weekly Prelims Current Affairs - Info graphics - Mar20th