Weekly Current Affairs Prelims ( 16th to 22nd September, 2018)

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Weekly Current Affairs Prelims ( 16th to 22nd September, 2018)

 

Topic : DRDO successfully tests anti-tank missile

Topic in syllabus: GS3 – Security Issues

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Why in news:

The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) on Sunday successfully tested a low-weight indigenously developed man-portable anti-tank guided missile (MPATGM) at its Ahmednagar range.

About MPATGM:

  • MPATGM is a third generation Man-Portable Anti-Tank Missile to be used by Infantry and Parachute battalions of the Indian Army developed by State-owned DRDO in partnership with Private sector company VEM Technologies Ltd which is helping in sub-system manufacturing for the DRDO.
  • DRDO successfully flight tested the indigenously developed third generation anti-tank guided missile (ATGM), Nag, twice last year on September 8 against two different targets in the ranges of Rajasthan.
  • A similar test in the month of June earlier with the launcher system Nag Missile Carrier (NAMICA) had convinced DRDO of its efficacy. The Nag is meant to eventually replace foreign-made missiles to become the Indian military’s first and primary anti-tank weapon.
  • The Name Nag comes from the Missile Trajectory, which follows the Cobra, the missile uses Top Attack mode, means once you launch the Missile it can fire high and Mark the Tanks Back side where Tanks armour is in lesser, and hit the Target. Most Anti tank missiles use the same technology for Higher Kill probablity.
  • Nag is a fire-and-forget ATGM with ‘top attack’ capabilities and a range of about four kilometres while NAMICA is an Indian license-produced variant of the Soviet-era BMP-II armoured infantry fighting vehicle which can carry eight of such missiles for Anti armour purpose, namica is the initial version of nag program. for Army use, here namica uses IIR seekers to identify and lock the Target, The IIR is a Imagining Infrared Seeker, which can choose and lock the Target before Launching, which means some third party chooses the Target and feed it to the Nag and Nag take care of the Target on it’s own, something like same Fire and forget mode.
  • As per reports, few countries possess this integrated avionics technology. The ATGM will be of immense support to the mechanised infantry and airborne forces of the Indian Army when inducted but the fact remains that it is a third generation missile while Spike is a fourth generation one. Also, Nag, manufactured by state-owned Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL), has so far only been tested while mounted on the NAMICA combat vehicle.
  • The Indian Army has a total requirement of 40,000 anti-tank guided missiles in the next 20 years and needs missiles like Nag which can hit high-speed moving tanks without the support of an operator.
  • Currently, the army is using 2nd generation ATGMs, Russian licensed Konkurs and French licensed Milan 2T, which do not have night-fighting capabilities.

ATGMs in India

  • The DRDO is also working on HeliNa ATGM, the helicopter launched version of Nag, with a maximum range of up to seven kilometers. Once operational, the HeliNa will be part of the armaments of the indigenously designed India’s fleet of light combat helicopters (LCH).
  • The Helina is same but it can have some good features, like lock on after launch, non line of sight and more Range, here it’s being believed that Helina uses the mmW seeker for better performance and able to perform LOAL modes.
  • India’s anti-tank missile requirement is of around 44,000 ATGMs of different types. with an authorized holding strength of 81,206 ATGMs, present inventory is not even half of what Indian Army requires to fight a war dominantly.
  • India is likely to also place orders worth $500 million deal with Israel for the government-to-government purchase of around 4,500 Spike anti-tank guided missiles as an Interim measure before the indigenous solution is available for mass production.

 

Sample question:

Q. Which of the following is not correct regarding Anti-tank Guided Missiles (ATGMs)?

a) ATGM is a third generation missile

b) DRDO successfully flight tested the indigenously developed third generation anti-tank guided missile (ATGM), Nag, last year

c) The DRDO is also working on HeliNa ATGM, the helicopter launched version of Nag

d) All are correct


 

Topic – Sex offenders’ registry

Topic in syllabus: Indian Polity and Governance – Public Policy

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Why in news:

  • India became the ninth country in the world to have a National Database on Sexual Offenders (NDSO), accessible only to law enforcement agencies for the purpose of investigation and monitoring.
  • The proposal to set up a registry was mooted after the 2012 Nirbhaya gangrape case in New Delhi.
  • This will not only aid the victims/complainants but also help the civil society organisations and responsible citizens to anonymously report such complaints.

About the registry

  • The first-of-its-kind national sex offenders’ registry has names and details of some 4.4 lakh people convicted for various sexual offences across the country.
  • The database is for those convicted for sexual offences 2005 onwards.
  • It includes name, address, photograph and fingerprint details of the convict.
  • The database will be maintained by the National Crime Records Bureau, that will also track whether the State police were updating the records on time.
  • The database will include offenders convicted under charges of rape, gang rape, Protection of Children from Sexual Offenders Act (POCSO) and eve teasing.

Cybercrime Portal

  • Another portal was launched, cybercrime.gov.in, that will receive complaints from citizens on objectionable online content related to child pornography, child sexual abuse material, and sexually explicit material such as rape and gang rape.
  • There are other features, such as a victim or complainant can track his/her report by opting for ‘report and track’ option using his/her mobile number.
  • The complaints registered through this portal will be handled by police authorities of respective State/UTs.

 

Sample question:

Q. India has recently launched National Database on Sexual Offenders (NDSO). Consider the following statements:

  1. The first-of-its-kind national sex offenders’ registry has names and details of more than 4 lakh people convicted for various sexual offences across the country.
  2. The database will include offenders convicted under charges of rape, gang rape, Protection of Children from Sexual Offenders Act (POCSO) and eve teasing.
  3. The database will be maintained by the National Crime Records Bureau, that will also track whether the State police were updating the records on time.

Which of the above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 1 and 3 only

c) 2 and 3 only

d) 1,2 and 3


 

 

Topic – Increased number of migratory birds in Raiganj Wildlife Sanctuary

Topic in syllabus: Biodiversity, Environment

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Why in news

  • Nearly one lakh winged visitors arrive at Bengal sanctuary
  • As per a census carried out by the State Forest Department, the number of winged visitors at the Raiganj Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal has crossed all previous records.
  • Not only has the number of migratory birds is increasing every year, but the number of species has also increased from 50 in 2012-13 to over 120 this year.

Rajganj Wildlife Sanctuary

  • The sanctuary is also known as the Kulik Bird Sanctuary, drawing its name from the river Kulik.
  • Situated near Raiganj in Uttar Dinajpur district of West Bengal, the sanctuary is home to 164 bird species.
  • It is claimed by some to be the largest bird sanctuary in Asia.
  • The sanctuary has one of the highest numbers of Openbill stork population not only in India but in Asia and this makes the sanctuary unique.
  • Of the 98,000 birds about 67,000 are Openbill storks.
  • Openbill storks have a conservation status of Least Concern.
  • Then there are cormorants, night herons, little egrets, flycatchers, owls and other species.
  • Birds visit the Raiganj Wildlife Sanctuary in June and stay till November, when the temperature drops.
  • The temperature in the sanctuary’s numerous water bodies remains above 40 degrees Celsius during this period.
  • Because of the presence of water bodies, there is a lot of food available for the birds. They primarily feed on fishes and snails.
  • Of the new bird species visiting the sanctuary for the first time in 2018 are the Asian Paradise Flycatcher and Indian Pitta.

Asian Paradise Flycatcher

  • It is native to the Indian subcontinent, Central Asia and Myanmar, but widely distributed.
  • As the global population is considered stable, it has been listed as Least Concernon the IUCN Red List since 2004.
  • They are migratory and spend the winter season in tropical Asia.
  • There are resident populations in southern India and Sri Lanka, hence both visiting migrants and the locally breeding subspecies occur in these areas in winter.

Indian Pitta

  • It is native to the Indian subcontinent.
  • It is a passerine bird (passerines are distinguished from other orders of birds by the arrangement of their toes, three pointing forward and one back, which facilitates perching).
  • It is considered Least Concern by IUCN as its range is very large.
  • Indian pittas breed mainly in the Himalayan foothills from the Margalla hills northern Pakistan in the west to at least Nepal and possibly up to Sikkim in the east.
  • They also breed in the hills of central India and in the Western Ghats south to Karnataka.
  • They migrate to all parts of peninsular India and Sri Lanka in winter.

 

Sample question:

Q. Which of the following is not correct regarding Rajganj wildlife sanctuary?

a) The sanctuary has one of the highest numbers of Openbill stork population not only in India but in Asia and this makes the sanctuary unique.

b) It is Situated in Maharashtra

c) Birds visit the Raiganj Wildlife Sanctuary in June and stay till November, when the temperature drops.

d) The sanctuary is also known as the Kulik Bird Sanctuary, drawing its name from the river Kulik.


 

Topic –Multidimensional Poverty Index 2018

 Topic in syllabus: Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty

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Why in news: 

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) have released the 2018 Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI).

About Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI):

  • The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index(MPI) was developed in 2010 by the Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the United Nations Development Programme.[1] and uses different factors to determine poverty beyond income-based lists.
  • It replaced the previous Human Poverty Index. The global MPI is released annually by OPHI and the results published on its website.
  • The MPI provides the most comprehensive view of the various ways in which 1.3 billion people worldwide experience poverty in their daily life.
  • The index uses the same three dimensions as the Human Development Index: health, education, and standard of living. These are measured using ten indicators.
DimensionIndicators
Health·        Child Mortality

·        Nutrition

Education·        Years of schooling

·        School attendance

Living Standards·        Cooking fuel

·        Toilet

·        Water

·        Electricity

·        Floor

·        Assets

 

Comparison with HDI

  • HDI, the Human Development Index, was developed by Mahbub ul Haqand Amartya Sen, in 1990, and was also developed by the UNDP. It is calculated as the geometric mean of the normalized indices of the three dimensions of human development it takes into account: health, education and standard of living. The UNDP is trying to improve on the HDI formula by introducing the IHDI (Inequality affected HDI).
  • While both HDI and MPI use the 3 broad dimensions healtheducationand standard of living, HDI uses only single indicators for each dimension of poverty while MPI uses more than one indicator for each one. This, amongst other reasons, has led to the MPI only being calculated for just over 100 countries, where data is available for all these diverse indicators, while HDI is calculated for almost all countries.
  • However, though HDI is thus more universally applicable, its relative sparsity of indicators also makes it more susceptible to bias. Indeed, some studies have found it to be somewhat biased towards GDP per capita, HDI has been criticized for ignoring other development parameters.

How is the global MPI 2018 aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals?

  • Rather than viewing challenges one by one, in silos, the MPI shows how deprivations related to SDGs 1,2,3,4,6,7, and 11 are concretely interlinked in poor people’s lives.
  • Rather than providing only national headlines, the global MPI is disaggregated by subnational region, area, ethnicity, or age cohort.
  • The indicators underlying the global MPI 2018 have been revised to better align with the SDGs.

Performance of India:

  • India has made giant strides in reducing multidimensional poverty, bringing down its poverty rate from 55% to 28% in ten years.
  • Between 2005-06 and 2015-16, more than 271 million people have come out of the clutches of poverty in India. However, India still has the largest number of people living in multidimensional poverty in the world- around 364 million people. 156 million out of 364 million people who are MPI poor in 2015/2016 are children.
  • India’s scale of poverty reduction has parallels with the phenomenal level of poverty reduction achieved in China a decade or so earlier. India’s scale of multidimensional poverty reduction over the decade from 2005/6 to 2015/16 – from 635 million poor persons to 364 million– can be compared to the speedy pace of China’s poverty reduction, which occurred over more than 20 years.
  • Across nearly every state, poor nutrition is the largest contributor to multidimensional poverty. Not having a household member with at least six years of education is the second largest contributor. Insufficient access to clean water and child mortality contribute least.

State- wise data:

  • Among states, Jharkhand had the greatest improvement, with Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, and Nagaland only slightly behind. However, Bihar is still the poorest state in 2015/16, with more than half of its population in poverty.
  • In 2015/16, the four poorest states – Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh – were still home to 196 million MPI poor people – over half of all the MPI poor people in India. Delhi, Kerala and Goa have the lowest incidence of multidimensional poverty.

India’s relative performance:

  • Among the South Asian countries, only Maldives boasts lower MPI of 0.007 than India (0.121). Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Bhutan and Afghanistan all boast higher incidences of multidimensional poverty.
  • After India (364 million people), the countries with the largest number of people living in multi-dimensional poverty are Nigeria (97 million), Ethiopia (86 million), Pakistan (85 million), and Bangladesh (67 million).

Global performance:

  • The global MPI covers 105 countries in total, home to 75% of the world’s population, or 5.7 billion people. Of this proportion, 1.3 billion are identified as multidimensionally poor, and half of them are younger than 18 years old.
  • 83% of the world’s poor live in South Asia and Africa. The latest data further reveals the vast majority of the multidimensional poor – 1.1 billion people – live in rural areas around the world, where poverty rates are four times higher than among those living in urban areas.

 

Sample question:

  1. Consider the following statements regarding Multidimensional Poverty Index(MPI):
  2. The index uses the same three dimensions as the Human Development Index: health, education, and standard of living.
  3. As per the 2018 Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) report, India has made giant strides in reducing multidimensional poverty, bringing down its poverty rate from 55% to 28% in ten years.
  4. Among states, Bihar had the greatest improvement.

Which of the above is/are not correct?

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1,2 and 3


 

Topic – Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojna

Topic in syllabus: Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc

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Why in news: 

The Employee’s State Insurance (ESI) has approved a scheme named ‘Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojna’ for Insured Persons (IP) covered under the Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948.

About Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojna:

  • Aim:It aims to financially support those who lost their jobs or rendered jobless for whatsoever reasons due to changing employment pattern.
  • Its beneficiarieswill be insured persons covered under Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948 for period of two years continuously.

Key features:

Cash assistance: 

  • Under the scheme, relief will be payable in cash directly to bank account of insured persons in case of unemployment. This financial assistance will be given to insured persons even while they search for new engagement. Beneficiary insured workers will be paid money, from their own contribution towards ESI scheme, in cash through bank account transfer.
  • Under this scheme, workers will be able to draw 47% of their total contributions towards ESIC after remaining unemployed for at least three months from date of leaving their previous jobs. They can choose to receive the cash at one go or in instalments. It will be applicable to all factories and establishments employing at least 10 workers.

About ESI:

  • ESI is self-financing social security and health insurance scheme for Indian workers.
  • It is autonomous corporation by statutory creation under Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India.
  • It is managed by Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) according to rules and regulations stipulated there in the ESI Act 1948.

 

Sample question:

  1. Which of the following is correct regarding Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojna?
  2. It aims to financially support those who lost their jobs or rendered jobless for whatsoever reasons due to changing employment pattern.
  3. Its beneficiaries will be insured persons covered under Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948 for period of two years continuously

Which of the following is/are Correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1and 2

d) none


 

Topic -Atomic Energy Commission 

Topic in syllabus: Economic development

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Why in news: 

The government has appointed renowned scientist Kamlesh Nilkanth Vyas as chairman of Atomic Energy Commission and secretary of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). He will succeed Shekhar Basu.

About AEC:

  • The Indian Atomic Energy Commission was first setup in August 1948 in the Department of Scientific Research.
  • Later on, in accordance with a Government Resolution, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was established in the Department of Atomic Energy. The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was setup on August 3, 1954 under the direct charge of the Prime Minister through a Presidential Order.
  • According to the Resolution constituting the AEC, the Secretary to the Government of India in the Department of Atomic Energy is ex-officio Chairman of the Commission.
  • The other Members of the AEC are appointed on the recommendation of the Chairman, AEC and after approval by the Prime Minister.

Important functions of the Atomic Energy Commission are:

  • To organise research in atomic scientists in the country.
  • To train, atomic scientists in the country.
  • To promote nuclear research in commission’s own laboratories as well as in India.
  • To undertake prospecting of atomic minerals in India and to extract such minerals for use on industrial scale.

 

Sample question:

Q. Atomic Energy Commission functions under which of the following?

a) Ministry of Home Affairs

b) Prime Minister

c) Ministry of New and Renewable Energy

d) Ministry of Science and Technology


 

Topic- Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM)

Topic in syllabus: Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc

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Why in news: 

  • The Union Cabinet has approved the extension of timeline for implementation of the Special Package under Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM)for Jammu & Kashmir for another period of one year during 2018-19.
  • The Cabinet also approved allocation of funds to the State under DAY-NRLM on a need basis for implementation of the Special Package without linking it with poverty ratio.

Impact:

  • This will help in covering all the vulnerable rural households in the State (estimated at two thirds of the total number of households) within a definite time frame.
  • It will ensure mobilization of households under the auto inclusion category and households with at least one deprivation category listed in the Socio Economic Caste Census – 2011.
  • It will also ensure coverage of all the blocks in Jammu & Kashmir under DAY-NRLM and ensures social inclusion, social development, promotion of livelihoods leading to poverty alleviation in the State.

About Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM):

  • The Government is implementing DAY-NRLM across the country in all States and Union Territories (except Delhi and Chandigarh).
  • The financial supportunder the programme is mainly in the form of Revolving Fund and Community Investment Funds, given as grants to the Self Help Groups (SHGs) and their federations.
  • DAY-NRLM also focuses on bank linkage of the institutions.
  • The programme has a special focus on women empowermentincluding a dedicated component for promoting farm and non-farm based livelihoods for women farmers in rural areas.
  • In addition, start-up enterprises at village levelsare also supported to promote entrepreneurial activities in those areas.

 

Sample question:

Q. Which of the following is not correct regarding Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM)?

a) The programme has a special focus on women empowermentincluding a dedicated component for promoting farm and non-farm based livelihoods for women farmers in rural areas.

b) DAY-NRLM also focuses on bank linkage of the institutions.

c) In addition, start-up enterprises at village levelsare also supported to promote entrepreneurial activities in those areas.

d) All are correct


 

Topic – Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering

Topic in syllabus: Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc , Public Policy

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Why in news: 

Almost three months after Pakistan was placed on the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) grey list for failing to curb terror funding, Pakistan’s recent action against terror financing, particularly on the “legal” front, was found to be “unsatisfactory”, according to a review by the Asia Pacific Policy Group (APPG).

Reasons for the poor performance:

Not much has been achieved by Pakistan, especially on the legal side (like freezing of assets, attachment of funds, militant groups infrastructures etc).

Way forward:

Another review for Pakistan will be held in December this year following which a final evaluation report will be prepared. For Pakistan, the first deadline is January 2019 failing which they may face more heat. By then, Pakistan will have to publish updated lists of persons and entities proscribed under the Anti-Terrorism Act and the UN-designated entities.

About APG:

It is the FATF-style regional body for the Asia-Pacific region. It is an inter-governmental organisation founded in 1997 in Bangkok, Thailand.

Composition:

  • The APG consists of 41 member jurisdictions and a number of observer jurisdictions and international/regional observer organisations.
  • Under the APG’s Terms of Reference (updated 2012) membership is available for jurisdictions with a presence in the Asia-Pacific region who commit to the policy objectives of the organisationincluding undergoing a mutual evaluation (peer review) to determine the level of compliance of the member with the international standards against money laundering and terrorist financing.
  • Observer statusis available to any jurisdiction in the Asia-Pacific region interested in becoming a member or any other jurisdiction which supports the goals and work of the APG.
  • International organisations which support the work of the APG may also joinas supporting observers.

Role of members:

Jurisdictions that join the APG, either as members or as observers, must commit to implement the international standards against money laundering, the financing of terrorism and proliferation financing (WMD), in particular the Recommendations of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF). These standards were substantially updated in 2012 and are supplemented by a complex assessment methodology in 2013 which forms the benchmark for mutual evaluations.

The APG has five primary functions:

Mutual evaluations:   The APG assesses the levels of compliance by its member jurisdictions with the global AML/CFT standards through a mutual evaluation (peer review) programme;

Technical assistance and training:  The APG Secretariat coordinates bi-lateral and donor-agency technical assistance and training in the Asia/Pacific region for its member jurisdictions in order to improve compliance with the global standards;

Typologies research:  Research and analysis into money laundering and terrorist financing methods and trends is a key function of the APG to assist policy and law makers as well as law enforcement agencies and the general public to identify and respond to new and emerging trends, methods, risks and vulnerabilities;

Global engagement:  The APG contributes to international AML/CFT policy development and actively engages with the global network of FSRBs. The APG also participates in a number of FATF working groups and in its plenary meetings; and

Private sector engagement:  Private sector engagement is critical to the APG’s overall objectives. The APG actively engages with financial and non-financial institutions, NPOs, training centres and universities in the Asia-Pacific to better inform the general public and specialists about global issues relating to money laundering, terrorist financing and proliferation financing.

 

Sample question:

Q. Which of the following countries is not a member of Asia Pacific Group on Money Laundering?

a) India

b) Pakistan

c) United Kingdom

d) Japan


 

Topic – International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer

Topic in syllabus: General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change

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Why in news: 

The International Day for Preservation of Ozone Layer (or World Ozone Day) is observed every year on September 16 for the preservation of the Ozone Layer.

2018 Theme: ‘Keep Cool and Carry On: The Montreal Protocol’.

Significance of the day:

In 1994, the UN General Assembly proclaimed 16 September the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, commemorating the date of the signing, in 1987, of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

About the Ozone layer:

The ozone layer absorbs most of the Sun’s ultraviolet light which is harmful to human life and other life forms. The layer absorbs about 97 to 99% of ultraviolet rays and maintain the ozone-oxygen cycle. Dobson unit is a unit which is used to measure the ozone in the atmosphere at a standard temperature and pressure.

Montreal protocol:

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was designed to reduce the production and consumption of ozone depleting substances in order to reduce their abundance in the atmosphere, and thereby protect the earth’s fragile ozone Layer. The original Montreal Protocol was agreed on 16 September 1987 and entered into force on 1 January 1989.

  • The Montreal Protocol includes a unique adjustment provision that enables the Parties to the Protocol to respond quickly to new scientific information and agree to accelerate the reductions required on chemicals already covered by the Protocol. These adjustments are then automatically applicable to all countries that ratified the Protocol.
  • Montreal Protocol stipulates that the production and consumption of compounds that deplete ozone in the stratosphere-chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform-are to be phased out by 2000 (2005 for methyl chloroform). These compounds significantly deplete the stratospheric ozone layer that shields the planet from damaging UV-B radiation.

Background:

The phaseout of controlled uses of ozone depleting substances and the related reductions have not only helped protect the ozone layer for this and future generations, but have also contributed significantly to global efforts to address climate change; furthermore, it has protected human health and ecosystems by limiting the harmful ultraviolet radiation from reaching the earth.

 

Sample question:

Q. Which of the following is not correct regarding Ozone layer?

a) The Montreal Protocol was designed to reduce the production and consumption of ozone depleting substances in order to reduce their abundance in the atmosphere

b) The ozone layer absorbs most of the Sun’s ultraviolet light which is harmful to human life and other life forms.

c) Dobson unit is a unit which is used to measure the ozone in the atmosphere at a standard temperature and pressure.

d) All are correct