Weekly Current Affairs Prelims (21st to 27th October 2018)

national monitoring framework for sustainable development

 

Weekly Current Affairs Prelims (21st to 27th October 2018)

 

Topic: Mission MeRcury

Topic in Syllabus: GS 4: Science and Technology

mission mercury

Context:

The European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) successfully sent two probes on a joint mission to Mercury, the closest planet to the Sun.

More about mission:

  • It is the first European mission to Mercury, and the first to send two spacecraft to make complementary measurements of the planet and its environment at the same time.
  • The orbiters are ESA’s Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and JAXA’s Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO, or ‘Mio’).
  • The ESA-built Mercury Transfer Module (MTM) will carry the orbiters to Mercury using a combination of solar electric propulsion and gravity assist flybys, with one flyby of Earth, two at Venus, and six at Mercury, before entering orbit at Mercury in late 2025.
  • An Ariane 5 rocket, launched from French Guyana, lifted an unmanned spacecraft, BepiColombo, which is carrying the two probes.
  • The spacecraft separated and went into orbit for the 7-year trip to Mercury.

mysteries of mercury

About Mercury:

  • Mercury is the closest planet to the sun. As such, it circles the sun faster than all the other planets, which is why Romans named it after their swift footed messenger god.
  • According to NASA, the atmosphere of Mercury is a “surface-bound exosphere, essentially a vacuum.” It contains 42 percent oxygen, 29 percent sodium, 22 percent hydrogen, 6 percent helium, 0.5 percent potassium, with possible trace amounts of argon, carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen, xenon, krypton and neon.
  • Mercury’s core accounts for a whopping 55 per cent of its mass, compared to 30 per cent for Earth.
  • Mercury is also the only rocky planet orbiting the Sun beside our own to have a magnetic field.
  • Magnetic fields are generated by a liquid core but given its size, Mercury’s should have grown cold and solid by now, as did Mars.
  • A few months before reaching Mercury, the transfer module will be jettisoned, leaving the two science orbiters to be captured by Mercury’s gravity.

inside planet mercury

VENUS EN ROUTE:

  • The two orbiters will be able to operate some of their instruments during the cruise phase, to try and collect data at Venus.
  • Some of the instruments designed to study Mercury in a particular way can be used in a completely different way at Venus, which has a thicker atmosphere.

Challenges:

  • The Sun’s enormous gravity makes it difficult to place a spacecraft into a stable orbit around Mercury.
  • The mission will have to ensure a controlled fall.
  • The extreme temperature environment the spacecraft will endure, which will range from -180ºC to over 450ºC – hotter than a pizza oven.
  • Many of the spacecraft mechanisms and outer coatings had not previously been tested in such conditions.

 

Sample Question

Q) With respect to Mercury mission, consider the following statements

  1. It is the second European mission to Mercury
  2. Mercury is the closest planet to the earth.
  3. Mercury is also the only rocky planet orbiting the Sun beside our own to have a magnetic field.

Choose the correct answer from the codes given below

a) 1 and 3 only

b) 1 and 2 only

c) 3 only

d) All of the above

Answer: c) 3 only

 


 

Topic: Krishi Kumbh-2018

Topic in Syllabus: Indian Economy – Agriculture

krishi kumbh 2018

Why in news:

The government of Uttar Pradesh in association with the Government of India is organizing a mega Agriculture Expo called “Krishi Kumbh-2018” from 26-28 October 2018 at Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research Lucknow.

More about news:

  • The event, which will be organized by the Government of Uttar Pradesh in association with the Government of India, will be inaugurated by Prime Minister.
  • The event is planned to project the state’s agriculture potential on one hand and provide a platform for interaction among stakeholders on the other hand.
  • The exhibition, which holds an extensive platform for visitors to showcase expertise, build new business relationships and put an individual on the global map, is spread across 13 hectare and showcases the best agro practices in the country.
  • It will enable the farmer to have latest improved technology and various technical sessions will be organized with scientists from international or national research institutes and agricultural universities.
  • Krishi Kumbh 2018 would comprise a national-level exhibition, technical sessions around the theme of doubling farmers’ incomes, a business meet and a host of other engaging activities.

Objectives:

  • The primary objective of Krishi Kumbh 2018 is to provide a common platform to farmers, farmers group, technical experts and entrepreneurs for seamless exchange of knowledge regarding agriculture production food processing and marketing, agriculture mechanization, agro-food processing, high value crops, input and technology management in agriculture, PHT, e-NAM, ICT and innovative models in extension, animal husbandries, horticulture, poultry, fishery and many more.
  • The event aims at increasing the agriculture production by adopting advanced technologies and emphasis on sustainable and durable production technology.
  • The event will also develop integrated communication system involving different stakeholders at the village, district, and state, national and international levels.
  • A platform to look for new growth opportunities.
  • To create awareness among farmers about the latest agricultural technological developments in agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, dairying & fisheries, agriculture engineering and post-harvest management.
  • Meeting point for the Policy Makers, Government, Media, Industries & Other stakeholders to share knowledge, discuss problems and presenting solutions for the geometric progression growth of the agriculture in India.
  • To realize the needs and challenges of the agriculture industry and joining hands together to find revolutionary solutions for these problems.

The main attraction of this proposed Krishi Kumbh is Demonstrations for farmers like:

  • Integrated Farming System (IFS)
  • Organic Farming Live demonstrations
  • Bioenergy Live Demonstrations
  • Advanced Horticulture demonstration
  • Land Reclamation Live demonstration
  • Farming of Paddy and Fishing demonstration
  • Crop demonstration
  • Hy-breed Seed treatment demonstration
  • Integrated Fisheries system
  • Animal husbandry and live fodder demonstration.

 

Sample Question:

Which of the following statements are correct with respect to Krishi Kumbh 2018

  1. The event which would be organized by the Government of Assam in association with the Government of India,
  2. It will enable the farmer to have latest improved technology and various technical sessions will be organized with scientists from international or national research institutes and agricultural universities.

Choose the correct answer from the codes given below

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: b) 2 only

 


 

Topic: Govt. notifies rules on granting citizenship

Topic in Syllabus: Indian Polity – Citizenship

grant citizenship to “persecuted minorities” from Pakistan

Why in news?

The Union Home Ministry has empowered the Collectors of certain districts in seven States to accept online applications to grant citizenship to “persecuted minorities” from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh living in India.

Background:

  • A parliamentary committee has been examining the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016, which proposes to grant citizenship to six persecuted minorities: Hindus, Jains, Sikhs, Parsis, Christians and Buddhists who came to India from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh before 2014.
  • As the Bill is pending, the Home Ministry gave powers to the Collectors in Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi to grant citizenship and naturalization certificates to the migrants under Sections 5 and 6 of the Citizenship Act, 1955. No such power has been delegated to Assam officials.
  • Since 2011, 30,000 such Pakistanis have been granted long-term visas, a precursor to citizenship, and 1,500 applications are now pending.
  • There are 400 Pakistani Hindu refugee settlements in Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Jaipur. Hindu migrants from Bangladesh mostly live in West Bengal and northeastern States.

More about new rules:

  • Under the new rules, notified on October 24, the migrants can apply online, and the verification reports or the security clearance reports of the applicants shall be made available to the Centre through an online portal.
  • Citizenship will be granted after the verification reports are received from the States and the Centre.
  • “The Collector or the Secretary shall maintain an online/digital as well as physical register, containing the details of persons so registered or naturalized as a citizen of India and furnish a copy thereof to the Central government within seven days of registration,”
  • The online system, which will come into effect on December 22, was put in place after a Home Ministry official was arrested in July by the Rajasthan Anti-Corruption Bureau for allegedly extorting money from Pakistani Hindu migrants for extension of visas, visa transfer and grant of citizenship.

The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016:

  • The Bill amends the Citizenship Act, 1955 to make illegal migrants who are Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan, eligible for citizenship.
  • Under the Act, one of the requirements for citizenship by naturalization is that the applicant must have resided in India during the last 12 months, and for 11 of the previous 14 years. The Bill relaxes this 11 year requirement to six years for persons belonging to the same six religions and three countries.
  • The Bill provides that the registration of Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) cardholders may be cancelled if they violate any law.

Issues associated with the Bill:

  • The Bill makes illegal migrants eligible for citizenship on the basis of religion. This may violate Article 14 of the Constitution which guarantees right to equality.
  • The Bill allows cancellation of OCI registration for violation of any law. This is a wide ground that may cover a range of violations, including minor offences (eg. parking in a no parking zone).

 

Sample Question:

Q) According to Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016, which of the following minorities are recognized as persecuted minorities

  1. Hindus
  2. Jains
  3. Sikhs
  4. Parsis
  5. Muslims
  6. Christians
  7. Buddhists

Choose the correct answer from the codes given below

a) 1, 3, 4, 5 6 and 7 only

b) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 only

c) 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 0nly

d) All of the above

Answer: c)

 


 

Topic: 27th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2018)

Topic in Syllabus: Science and Technology

27th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2018)

Why in news?

Innovative concepts on using nuclear fusion as a source of energy are likely to be discussed at the 27th Fusion Energy Conference beginning in Gandhinagar.

More about news:

  • The six-day event is organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and hosted by the Department of Atomic Energy and Gandhinagar-based Institute of Plasma Research.
  • “The 27th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2018) aims to provide a forum for the discussion of key physics and technology issues as well as innovative concepts of direct relevance to the use of nuclear fusion as a source of energy.”
  • Experts from across the world will discuss the new challenges being faced by the fusion community in the light of a number of next-step fusion devices being implemented currently.
  • Among the participants are international bodies like the ITER Organization and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). The research institutes involved in developing smaller plasma devices will also participate in the conference.
  • “The conference will serve to identify possibilities and means for continuous and effective international collaboration in this area,”
  • Scientists across the world are collaborating to use nuclear fusion, the reaction that powers the Sun and the stars, as a source energy.
  • Scientists from different countries collaborate to develop next-step fusion devices such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in Cadarache, France, and the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator in Greifswald, Germany.

Objectives:

  • “The conference aims to serve as a platform for sharing the results of research and development efforts in both national and international fusion experiments that have been shaped by these new priorities, and to thereby help in pinpointing worldwide advances in fusion theory, experiments, technology, engineering, safety and socio-economics,”
  • The conference will also set these results against the backdrop of the requirements for a net energy producing fusion device and a fusion power plant in general, and will thus help in defining the way forward.
  • With the participation of international organizations such as the ITER Organization and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), as well as the collaboration of more than forty countries and several research institutes, including those working on smaller plasma devices, it is expected that this conference will, like previous conferences in the series, serve to identify possibilities and means for continuous and effective international collaboration in this area.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA):

  • The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
  • The IAEA was established as an autonomous organization on 29 July 1957.
  • The IAEA has its headquarters in Vienna, Austria.
  • Though established independently of the United Nations through its own international treaty, the IAEA Statute, the IAEA reports to both the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council.
  • The IAEA serves as an intergovernmental forum for scientific and technical co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear technology and nuclear power worldwide.
  • The programs of the IAEA encourage the development of the peaceful applications of nuclear energy, science and technology, provide international safeguards against misuse of nuclear technology and nuclear materials, and promote nuclear safety (including radiation protection) and nuclear security standards and their implementation.

Missions:

The IAEA is generally described as having three main missions:

  • Peaceful uses: Promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear energy by its member states,
  • Safeguards: Implementing safeguards to verify that nuclear energy is not used for military purposes.
  • Nuclear safety: Promoting high standards for nuclear safety.

 

Sample Question:

Q) Recent 27th Fusion Energy Conference is organized by

a) International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

b) The Energy and Resources Institute

c) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

d) Earth System Governance Project (ESGP)

Answer: c)

 


 

Topic: HRD Ministry launches web portals to strengthen research ecosystem

Topic in Syllabus: Education, Economic and Social Development

Scheme for Promotion of Academic and Research Collaboration

Why in news?

The Minister of Human Resource Development recently launched the web portal of the Scheme “Scheme for Promotion of Academic and Research Collaboration (SPARC)” in New Delhi.

Objectives of the scheme:-

  • Promote and fund joint research projects between Indian institutions and the best of the global universities, largely from 25 selected countries.
  • The topics of research shall be India-centric, where the country can gain as a whole.
  • Visits and long-term stay of top international faculty / researchers in Indian institutions and visits by Indian research students for training and experimentation in premier laboratories worldwide would be funded.
  • The joint research projects should result in Joint development of niche courses, world-class books and monographs, translatable patents, demonstrable technologies or action research outcomes and products.
  • Consolidation of Bilateral cooperation through academic and research partnerships through Indo-X Workshops in India.

Salient Features of SPARC are:

  • This scheme will improve research ecosystem of India’s higher educational institutions by facilitating academic and research collaborations between Indian Institutions.
  • A set of 5 Thrust Areas (Fundamental Research, Emergent Areas of Impact, Convergence, Action-Oriented Research and Innovation-Driven) and sub-theme areas in each thrust area has been identified for collaboration under SPARC based on emergent relevance and importance for the nation.
  • Each Thrust Area will have a Section Chair. The role of Section Chair of each Thrust Area is to review shortlist and recommend the potential joint-proposals submitted under SPARC scheme.
  • A set of Nodal Institutions (NI), from India, for each participating foreign country has been identified. The role of a NI is to help, handhold and coordinate with willing Participating Indian (PI) Institutions to forge alliance with the Institutions of concerned participating foreign country, for academic and research collaboration.

Eligibility:

  • All Indian Institutions ranked in the overall top-100 or category-wise top-100 in the India Rankings (NIRF) are eligible to apply.
  • Only such private institutions which are falling in the above category, and also recognized under Section 12(8) of UGC Act are eligible.
  • The partner institution shall be in the top-500 of Q5 World University Rankings or in the top-200 of Q5 World University Rankings by subject.

The Thrust Areas of the scheme:

  • Fundamental Research: Those which attempt to provide new knowledge and understanding or address open unsolved problems of international importance.
  • Emergent Areas of Impact: Those which look at new and emerging areas like Artificial & Machine Learning, Cognitive Science, Human Signal Processing, Digital Humanities, etc.
  • Convergence: Those which bring together multiple disciplines of basic, engineering, economic, social science and humanities to solve critical problems of today in a holistic integrated manner.
  • Action-Oriented Research: These could be in any area of learning that is field-based for demonstration of certain interventions and instruments that show real change in an economically viable and scalable manner, especially to help empower people, enrich nature and enhance a sustainable future.
  • Innovation-Driven: Those which can potentially make game-changing products, processes and services of techno-economic value that secure IPR and spawn next generation business and social enterprises.
  • Any Other Category: Any other proposal of high potential that does not directly fall under any of the above categories.

SPARC proposes to enable productive academic cooperation by supporting the following critical components that can catalyze impact making research:

  • Visits and long-term stay of top international faculty/researchers in Indian institutions to pursue teaching and research.
  • Visits by Indian students for training and experimentation in premier laboratories worldwide.
  • Joint development of niche courses, world-class books and monographs, translatable patents, demonstrable technologies or action oriented research outcomes and products.
  • Publication, Dissemination and Visibility through a high profile annual international conference in India.

 

Sample Question:

Which of the following statements are correct with respect to Scheme for Promotion of Academic and Research Collaboration (SPARC)

  1. This scheme will improve research ecosystem of India’s higher educational institutions by facilitating academic and research collaborations between Indian Institutions.
  2. The scheme is implemented by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education.

Choose the correct answer from the codes given below

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: a) 1 only

 


 

Topic: Only Euro VI compliant vehicles to be sold from April 2020

Topic in Syllabus: Ecology and Environment

euro 6 compliant vehicles

Why in news?

The Supreme Court recently clarified that only vehicles compliant with the Bharat Stage VI emission standards would be allowed to be sold from 1 April, 2020.

More about news:

  • SC said any extension of time in introducing the new emission norms would adversely impact the health of citizens as the pollution has reached an “alarming and critical” level.
  • Bharat stage emission norms are standards instituted by the government to regulate output of air pollutants from motor vehicles.
  • The apex court said there cannot be any compromise on the health of citizens and this has to take precedence over the “greed” of few automobile manufacturers who unfortunately want to stretch the timeline to make a “little more money”.
  • The apex court was deciding whether grace period should be given to automobile manufacturers for the sale of BS-VI non-compliant vehicles after April 1, 2020.
  • Referring to the situation of pollution in the country, the SC said: “The pollution in Gwalior, Raipur and Allahabad is worse than Delhi. The situation is alarming and critical. It brooks no delay.”

Background:

  • Bharat Stage standards are instituted by the government to regulate output of air pollutants from motor vehicles and BS-IV norms had been enforced across the country from April 2017.
  • In around 2005 and 2006, BS III was rolled out in NCR and several other cities in a bid to check on pollution. This was almost similar to European standards (Euro III) which was in place between 2000 and 2005 in most western nations.
  • India had enforced Bharat stage III norms across the country since October 2010. In 13 major cities, Bharat stage IV emission norms were put in place since April 2010.
  • “Europe introduced Euro IV fuel in the year 2009 and Euro VI standards in 2015. India is already many years behind them.
  • The BS IV norms have been enforced across the country since April 2017.
  • In 2016, the Centre had announced that the country would skip the BS-V norms altogether and adopt BS-VI norms by 2020.
  • The Centre had earlier told the court that only BS VI compliant vehicles would be allowed to be registered and sold after 31 March 2020.

Bharat Stage emissions standards:

  • The Bharat Stage emission standards are standards instituted by the government to regulate the output of air pollutants from motor vehicles from internal combustion engine equipment, including motor vehicles.
  • The standards and the timeline for implementation are set by the Central Pollution Control Board under the Ministry of Environment & Forests and climate change.
  • The auto emission norms are emission standards which are adopted by the government of a nation to check the air pollutants released from any internal combustion engine equipment, including motor vehicles.
  • These norms were introduced in India in 2000, when the Bharat Stage norms were adopted by the then government, based on the European emission norms.

BS-IV and BS-VI:

  • The main difference in standards between the existing BS-IV and the new BS-VI auto fuel norms is the presence of sulphur.
  • The BS-VI fuel is estimated to bring around an 80 per cent reduction of sulphur, from 50 parts per million to 10 ppm.
  • BS VI can bring PM in diesel cars down by 80 per cent.
  • The new norms will bring down nitrogen oxides from diesel cars by 70 per cent and in petrol cars by 25 per cent. BS VI also make on-board diagnostics (OBD) mandatory for all vehicles.
  • According to analysts, the emission of NOx (nitrogen oxides) from diesel cars is also expected to come down by nearly 70 per cent and 25 per cent from cars with petrol engines.

Implications:

  • The Supreme Court verdict may hit the automobile industry.
  • Compliance with BS-VI norms will require higher investment in technology to upgrade vehicles in stock and making new vehicles. This will also mean fewer launches till the deadline
  • The manufacturers had argued that they still have unsold stock of BS-IV vehicles and requested time till March 31, 2020, so that they be granted reasonable time to sell their stock.
  • Those who buy Bharat Stage VI-compliant vehicles will have to pay more since such vehicles will cost automakers more and they will pass on the additional cost to the buyers.
  • Using BS-VI fuel in the current BS-IV engines or, conversely, running BS-VI engines on the current-grade fuel, may be ineffective in curbing vehicular pollution, and may damage the engine in the long run.

 

Sample Question:

Q) Consider the following statements

  1. The Bharat Stage emission standards are standards instituted by the government to regulate the output of air pollutants from motor vehicles from internal combustion engine equipment, including motor vehicles.
  2. The standards and the timeline for implementation are set by the Central Pollution Control Board under the Ministry of Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas.
  3. The BS IV norms have been enforced across the country since April 2016.

Choose the correct answer from the codes given below

a) 1 only

b) 1 and 2 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) All of the above

Answer: a) 1 only

 


 

Topic: Cabinet approves National Monitoring Framework on Sustainable Development Goals

Topic in Syllabus: Ecology and Environment

national monitoring framework for sustainable development

Why in news?

The Union Cabinet on recently  approved the constitution of a high-level steering committee for reviewing and refining the National Indicator Framework (NIF) for monitoring of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with associated targets.

More about news:

  • The High Level Steering Committee will be chaired by Chief Statistician of India and Secretary, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI), with the Secretaries of data source Ministries and NITI Aayogas members and Secretaries of other related Ministries as special invitees, with function of reviewing of National Indicator Framework including refinement of the indicators from time to time.
  • There is no direct financial implication on implementation of the National Indicator Framework.
  • The respective Ministries will need to re-align and strengthen their data systems to facilitate monitoring of the SDG indicators.

Major Targets:

  • Measures to mainstream SDGs into on-going national policies, programmes and strategic action plans to address the developmental challenges.
  • Statistical indicators of NIF will be the backbone of monitoring of SDGs at the national and state level and will scientifically measure the outcomes of the policies to achieve the targets under different SDGs.
  • Based on statistical indicator, the MoSPI will bring out national reports on implementation of SDGs. The Report will facilitate assessment of progress, identify challenges and give recommendations for follow up at the national level.
  • High Level Steering Committee will review the National Indicator Framework on regular basis for its improvement.
  • Data source Ministries / Departments will be responsible for providing regular information to MoSPI on these indicators at required intervals and disaggregation for national and sub-national reporting of SDGs.
  • Advanced IT tools will be used for close and effective monitoring.

Major impact:

  • SDGs integrate economic, social and environmental dimensions of development. It intends eradicating poverty and promoting prosperity in a changing world with basic motto of ‘SabkaSaathSabkaVikash’.
  • SDGs with 17 Goals and 169 Targets intend for promotion of sustainable, inclusive and equitable economic growth, creating greater opportunities for all, reducing inequalities, raising basic standards of living, fostering equitable social development and inclusion, promoting integrated and sustainable management of natural resources and ecosystems.
  • NIF will help in outcome-based monitoring & reportingon progress on SDGs at National level.

‘Millennium Development Goals’ (MDGs)

  • At the Millennium Summit held in 2000 at the UN Headquarters in New York, eight development goals known as the ‘Millennium Development Goals’ (MDGs) were adopted, which formed the blueprint for countries to pursue their national development strategies from 2000 to 2015.
  • The MDGs comprised eight Goals and addressed various development issues.
  • The MDGs targets were unevenly achieved across the countries and a need was felt to start fresh discussions to assess the usefulness of the MDGs and to explore possible successor to guide development cooperation in the world beyond 2015.
  • India is a signatory to the Millennium Declaration adopted at the United Nations General Assembly in September 2000, and has consistently reaffirmed its commitment towards the eight development goals.
  • The targets of the MDGs converge with India’s own development goals to reduce poverty and other areas of deprivation.

millenium development goals

 

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs):

  • The UN General Assemblyin its 70thSession considered and adopted the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for the next 15 years.
  • The 17 SDGs came into force with effect from 1stJanuary, 2016.
  • The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are not legally binding.
  • The SDGs have become de facto international obligations and have potential to reorient domestic spending priorities of the countries during the next fifteen years.
  • Countries are expected to take ownership and establish a national framework for achieving these Goals.
  • Implementation and success will rely on countries’ own sustainable development policies, plans and programmes.
  • Countries would be responsible for follow-up and review at the national level, with regard to the progress made in implementing the Goals and targets.
  • Actions at the national level to monitor progress under SDGs will require quality, accessible and timely data.

sustainable goals

Sample Question:

Q) Recently Union Cabinet approved the constitution of a high-level steering committee for reviewing and refining the National Indicator Framework (NIF) for monitoring

a) Geographical indication (GI) tag

b) Disaster Management

c) Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

d) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Answer: d)